Browsing by Subject "trade"

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  • Lehikoinen, Elina; Parviainen, Tuure Ossian; Helenius, Juha Pekka; Jalava, Mika; Salonen, Arto O.; Kummu, Matti (2019)
    Water scarcity is a severe global threat, and it will only become more critical with a growing and wealthier population. Annually, considerable volumes of water are transferred virtually through the global food system to secure nations’ food supply and to diversify diets. Our objective is to assess, whether specializing water-intensive production for exports in areas with an abundance of natural resources, would contribute to globally resource-efficient food production. We calculated Finland’s virtual water net export potential (four scenarios) by reallocating the present underutilized agricultural land and combining that with a domestic diet change (three scenarios) to maximize the exports of cattle products. Assessed scenarios indicate that the greatest potential to net export Assessed scenarios indicate that the greatest potential to net export virtual water (3.7 billion m3 year−1, 25-time increase to current) was achieved when local production was maximized with domestic and exported feed, and bovine meat consumption in Finland wasreplaced with a vegetarian substitute. This corresponds to annual virtual water consumption for food of about 3.6 million global citizens (assuming 1032 m3 cap−1 year−1). Therefore our results suggest, that optimizing water-intensive production to water-rich areas, has a significant impact on global water savings. In addition, increasing exports from such areas by decreasing the domestic demand for water-intensive products to meet the nutrition recommendation levels, saves water resources.
  • Dahlberg, Kasper (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Master’s thesis is about Finland China trade and what factors have been driving it. The research question of the thesis is to see what the leading factors have been to drive the trade and its growth between China and Finland. This is done both as a literature study of the subject as well as an econometric study based on the economic gravitational model for trade. The investigation is done on factor like macroeconomic factors of like GDP of the countries, as well as politics, history, trade agreements, bilateral relations and structure in the trade between the two countries. The main findings in the thesis is that GDP growth of Finland and China effects strongly positively the trade floe between the countries. Additionally, concerning the access of China into the WTO it had statistically a positive effect on the Chinese exports to Finland, while Finnish exports to China did not have the same positive effect, thanks to Chinese access into WTO. Concerning the progresses of trade between the countries it can be seen from first being part just of bilateral trade relations between the two countries of different goods, to more develop into investment of booth countries in each other’s. Regarding the trade of goods, that of exports form Finnish has been more shift from before being exports of higher technology goods of electronic machines and other manufactured goods and machines to more a mix of raw material exports as well as high technology goods. In case of Chinese exports, they have been evolving from low level of goods like textiles and simple manufactured good in 1990s to current day of exports of higher level of especially electrical machinery and machinery and mechanical appliances being of importance, while textiles and simple manufactured goods lost shares in exports. Finland and China have had kind of good political relations with each other’s, by Finland begging its political relations with recognizing China in 1950 and having opening embassy in Beijing in the year of 1952. Furthermore, Finland has had more a policy of most non-interference by its higher political officials and companies into Chinas internal more sensitive affairs, and more promoting good trade and political relations between the two countries.
  • Parviainen, Tuure; Helenius, Juha (2020)
    In Finland, while total agricultural production has remained relatively constant, nutrient input from industrial mineral fertilizers has declined over the past 20 years, which has been the target of environmental policies due to eutrophication risks. From 1996 to 2014, the use of nitrogen (N) declined by 18%, phosphorus (P) by 49%, and potassium (K) by 49%. However, at the same time, the international agricultural products trade has increased dramatically by mass (58%), and Finland has increased imports of food and feed products, such as, protein feeds, vegetables, and fruits. We analyzed the nutrient contents of foreign trade from 1996 to 2014 by using a substance flow analysis. We discovered that, when comparing nutrients contained in trade to the use of fertilizers, the trade of food and feed accounts for more than one-third (40%) of the fertilizer input to the Finnish food system. In 2014, 53 Gg of N, 8 Gg of P, and 15 Gg of K were imported due to trade, equating to 35%, 70%, and 45%, respectively, compared to the use of fertilizers in the food system. Declines in fertilizer inputs to crop production are partially offset by flows of plant nutrients from feed imports. In formulating agri-environmental policies targeting nutrient loading, more attention should be paid to national imports–export balances and, especially, to the spatial distribution of flows in feed trade.