Browsing by Subject "trait evolution"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Eyres, Alison; Eronen, Jussi T.; Hagen, Oskar; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Fritz, Susanne A. (2021)
    Climatic niches describe the climatic conditions in which species can persist. Shifts in climatic niches have been observed to coincide with major climatic change, suggesting that species adapt to new conditions. We test the relationship between rates of climatic niche evolution and paleoclimatic conditions through time for 65 Old-World flycatcher species (Aves: Muscicapidae). We combine niche quantification for all species with dated phylogenies to infer past changes in the rates of niche evolution for temperature and precipitation niches. Paleoclimatic conditions were inferred independently using two datasets: a paleoelevation reconstruction and the mammal fossil record. We find changes in climatic niches through time, but no or weak support for a relationship between niche evolution rates and rates of paleoclimatic change for both temperature and precipitation niche and for both reconstruction methods. In contrast, the inferred relationship between climatic conditions and niche evolution rates depends on paleoclimatic reconstruction method: rates of temperature niche evolution are significantly negatively related to absolute temperatures inferred using the paleoelevation model but not those reconstructed from the fossil record. We suggest that paleoclimatic change might be a weak driver of climatic niche evolution in birds and highlight the need for greater integration of different paleoclimate reconstructions.
  • Cairns, Johannes; Jousset, Alexandre; Becks, Lutz; Hiltunen, Teppo (2022)
    Mutation supply can influence evolutionary and thereby ecological dynamics in important ways which have received little attention. Mutation supply influences features of population genetics, such as the pool of adaptive mutations, evolutionary pathways and importance of processes, such as clonal interference. The resultant trait evolutionary dynamics, in turn, can alter population size and species interactions. However, controlled experiments testing for the importance of mutation supply on rapid adaptation and thereby population and community dynamics have primarily been restricted to the first of these aspects. To close this knowledge gap, we performed a serial passage experiment with wild-type Pseudomonas fluorescens and a mutant with reduced mutation rate. Bacteria were grown at two resource levels in combination with the presence of a ciliate predator. A higher mutation supply enabled faster adaptation to the low-resource environment and anti-predatory defence. This was associated with higher population size at the ecological level and better access to high-recurrence mutational targets at the genomic level with higher mutation supply. In contrast, mutation rate did not affect growth under high-resource level. Our results demonstrate that intrinsic mutation rate influences population dynamics and trait evolution particularly when population size is constrained by extrinsic conditions.
  • Tarasov, Sergei; Miko, Istvan; Yoder, Matthew; Uyeda, Josef (2019)