Browsing by Subject "trait"

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  • Graco-Roza, Caio; Aarnio, Sonja; Abrego, Nerea; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Alahuhta, Janne; Altman, Jan; Angiolini, Claudia; Aroviita, Jukka; Attorre, Fabio; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Barrera-Alba, Jose J.; Belmaker, Jonathan; Biurrun, Idoia; Bonari, Gianmaria; Bruelheide, Helge; Burrascano, Sabina; Carboni, Marta; Cardoso, Pedro; Carvalho, Jose C.; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Christensen, Morten; Correa, Gilsineia; Dembicz, Iwona; Dengler, Jurgen; Dolezal, Jiri; Domingos, Patricia; Erös, Tibor; Ferreira, Carlos E. L.; Filibeck, Goffredo; Floeter, Sergio R.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Gammal, Johanna; Gavioli, Anna; Gossner, Martin M.; Granot, Itai; Guarino, Riccardo; Gustafsson, Camilla; Hayden, Brian; He, Siwen; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Heino, Jani; Hunter, John T.; Huszar, Vera L. M.; Janisova, Monika; Jyrkankallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kemppinen, Julia; Kozub, Lukasz; Kruk, Carla; Kulbiki, Michel; Kuzemko, Anna; Christiaan le Roux, Peter; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Teixeira de Lima, Domenica; Lopez-Urrutia, Angel; Lukacs, Balazs A.; Luoto, Miska; Mammola, Stefano; Marinho, Marcelo M.; Menezes, Luciana S.; Milardi, Marco; Miranda, Marcela; Moser, Gleyci A. O.; Mueller, Joerg; Niittynen, Pekka; Norkko, Alf; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Ometto, Jean P.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Overbeck, Gerhard E.; Pacheco, Felipe S.; Pajunen, Virpi; Palpurina, Salza; Picazo, Felix; Prieto, Juan A. C.; Rodil, Ivan F.; Sabatini, Francesco M.; Salingre, Shira; De Sanctis, Michele; Segura, Angel M.; da Silva, Lucia H. S.; Stevanovic, Zora D.; Swacha, Grzegorz; Teittinen, Anette; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Virta, Leena; Wang, Beixin; Wang, Jianjun; Weisser, Wolfgang; Xu, Yuan; Soininen, Janne (2022)
    Aim: Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., beta-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine beta-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance. We provide the first global synthesis of taxonomic and functional distance decay along spatial and environmental distance by analysing 148 datasets comprising different types of organisms and environments. Location: Global. Time period: 1990 to present. Major taxa studied: From diatoms to mammals. Method: We measured the strength of the decay using ranked Mantel tests (Mantel r) and the rate of distance decay as the slope of an exponential fit using generalized linear models. We used null models to test whether functional similarity decays faster or slower than expected given the taxonomic decay along the spatial and environmental distance. We also unveiled the factors driving the rate of decay across the datasets, including latitude, spatial extent, realm and organismal features. Results: Taxonomic distance decay was stronger than functional distance decay along both spatial and environmental distance. Functional distance decay was random given the taxonomic distance decay. The rate of taxonomic and functional spatial distance decay was fastest in the datasets from mid-latitudes. Overall, datasets covering larger spatial extents showed a lower rate of decay along spatial distance but a higher rate of decay along environmental distance. Marine ecosystems had the slowest rate of decay along environmental distances. Main conclusions: In general, taxonomic distance decay is a useful tool for biogeographical research because it reflects dispersal-related factors in addition to species responses to climatic and environmental variables. Moreover, functional distance decay might be a cost-effective option for investigating community changes in heterogeneous environments.
  • Garcia, Raquel A.; Araujo, Miguel B.; Burgess, Neil D.; Foden, Wendy B.; Gutsche, Alexander; Rahbek, Carsten; Cabeza, Mar (2014)
  • Aarnio, Sonja; Soininen, Janne (2021)
    Local biodiversity has traditionally been estimated with taxonomic diversity metrics such as species richness. Recently, the concept of biodiversity has been extended beyond species identity by ecological traits determining the functional role of a species in a community. This interspecific functional diversity typically responds more strongly to local environmental variation compared with taxonomic diversity, while taxonomic diversity may mirror more strongly dispersal processes compared with functional metrics. Several trait-based indices have been developed to measure functional diversity for various organisms and habitat types, but studies of their applicability on aquatic microbial communities have been underrepresented. We examined the drivers and covariance of taxonomic and functional diversity among diatom rock pool communities on the Baltic Sea coast. We quantified three taxonomic (species richness, Shannon's diversity, and Pielou's evenness) and three functional (functional richness, evenness, and divergence) diversity indices and determined abiotic factors best explaining variation in these indices by generalized linear mixed models. The six diversity indices were highly collinear except functional evenness, which merely correlated significantly with taxonomic evenness. All diversity indices were always explained by water conductivity and temperature-sampling month interaction. Taxonomic diversity was further consistently explained by pool distance to the sea, and functional richness and divergence by pool location. The explained variance in regression models did not markedly differ between taxonomic and functional metrics. Our findings do not clearly support the superiority of neither set of diversity indices in explaining coastal microbial diversity, but rather highlight the general overlap among the indices. However, as individual metrics may be driven by different factors, the greatest advantage in assessing biodiversity is nevertheless probably achieved with a simultaneous application of the taxonomic and functional diversity metrics.
  • Dawson, Samantha K.; Carmona, Carlos Pérez; González-Suárez, Manuela; Jönsson, Mari; Chichorro, Filipe; Mallen-Cooper, Max; Melero, Yolanda; Moor, Helen; Simaika, John P.; Duthie, Alexander Bradley (2021)
    Trait and functional trait approaches have revolutionized ecology improving our understanding of community assembly, species coexistence, and biodiversity loss. Focusing on traits promotes comparability across spatial and organizational scales, but terms must be used consistently. While several papers have offered definitions, it remains unclear how ecologists operationalize "trait" and "functional trait" terms. Here, we evaluate how researchers and the published literatures use these terms and explore differences among subdisciplines and study systems (taxa and biome). By conducting both a survey and a literature review, we test the hypothesis that ecologists' working definition of "trait" is adapted or altered when confronting the realities of collecting, analyzing and presenting data. From 486 survey responses and 712 reviewed papers, we identified inconsistencies in the understanding and use of terminology among researchers, but also limited inclusion of definitions within the published literature. Discrepancies were not explained by subdiscipline, system of study, or respondent characteristics, suggesting there could be an inconsistent understanding even among those working in related topics. Consistencies among survey responses included the use of morphological, phonological, and physiological traits. Previous studies have called for unification of terminology; yet, our study shows that proposed definitions are not consistently used or accepted. Sources of disagreement include trait heritability, defining and interpreting function, and dealing with organisms in which individuals are not clearly recognizable. We discuss and offer guidelines for overcoming these disagreements. The diversity of life on Earth means traits can represent different features that can be measured and reported in different ways, and thus, narrow definitions that work for one system will fail in others. We recommend ecologists embrace the breadth of biodiversity using a simplified definition of "trait" more consistent with its common use. Trait-based approaches will be most powerful if we accept that traits are at least as diverse as trait ecologists.
  • Kumpula, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Animal population can be improved by domestic selection and/or with importation of foreign genotypes. The aim of this study was to find out how big impact import of genetic material from different countries has had on genetic trends of different traits in Finnish Holstein and Ayrshire populations. The data were received from FABA co-op. The analyzes utilized breeding values and pedigree information from over 1 million Holsteins and over 2 million Ayrshires born between 1986 – 2019. Genetic trends were calculated annually and partitioned to country contributions using R-software’s package ‘AlphaPart’. Used method is based on partitioning the breeding values to Mendelian sampling terms and the genetic effect of the base population founder animals. The largest proportion of Holstein genes in Finnish population was from the USA. Animals from the USA had the greatest positive impact on the total merit, yield, longevity and udder conformation. By contrast they also had the biggest negative impact on fertility and general health. Gene proportion from Denmark was the third largest from the foreign countries, but it had the greatest positive impact on fertility, udder health, calving ease (maternal) and general health. It also had the second biggest positive impact on all the other traits among foreign countries. Foreign animals have had a smaller impact on the Finnish Ayrshire population compared to Holstein. In many traits the contribution of Finnish breeding animals stayed the greatest. For foreign countries importations from Sweden had the greatest contribution to genes and most of the traits. Gene proportion from Denmark has increased rapidly after year 2010. Both Swedish and Danish importations have had a similar impact, improving the total merit, yield, longevity, calving ease (maternal) and udder conformation. Both Swedish and Danish animals have had a negative contribution to general health. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that importations of genetic material from foreign countries have had a major impact on the Finnish populations during the last decades. Especially for Holstein, the importations from USA and Denmark have had a significant impact on the local genetic trends.
  • Koskimies, Merita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielman aihealue on suomalainen piirustustaide ja piirtämisen praktiikka. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kuopiolaisen kuvataiteilija Arto Väisäsen (s. 1958) piirustusmetodia ja visuaalista retoriikkaa seuraavien käsitteiden kautta: muisti, inventio, teko, kompositio ja tyyli. Aihetta tarkastellaan morfologisesta ja retorisesta näkökulmasta, muodon ja muodostumisen kautta eli millä tavalla teosten aiheita visuaalisesti ilmaistaan ja miten piirustuksellinen tyyli syntyy. Aineisto käsittää Väisäsen 12 piirustusta/piirustuskollaasia vuosilta 2011–2019 ja taiteilijan keskusteluhaastattelut 2019–2020. Aineistolähtöiseen ja havainnoivaan tarkasteluun yhdistetään käsitteellistä ja vertailevaa metodia. Nykypiirtämistä käsitellään suhteessa länsimaiseen piirustusperinteeseen, jossa piirtäminen nähdään kehon- ja mielenliikkeen vuorovaikutteisena tapahtumana ja intentionaalisena taiteellisena tekona. Tutkielman kaksinapaiseksi jännitteeksi muodostuu inventio ja idean hylkääminen taiteellisessa teossa. Kysymys koskettaa länsimaisen taiteen perusongelmia: imitaation ja invention suhdetta, intentionaalisuuden ja ei-intentionaalisuuden ongelmaa sekä narraatiosta retoriikkaan siirtymistä. Retoriikka on taiteilijan ilmaisutapa, joka on välittömässä yhteydessä tekniikkaan ja tyylittelyyn. Tyylittely on keskeinen tekijä varhaisen modernin taiteen kaudella. 1900-luvun modernismissa on sen sijaan myös tyylittelyä ja retorisia pyrkimyksiä välttäviä suuntauksia. Paul Klee puhuu avoimesta piirustusprosessista ja artikulaatiosta, joka hylkää retoriikan. Klee näkee piirtämisessä orgaanisen muodostumisen muotoa tärkeämpänä tekijänä. Nykytaiteessa retorinen ilmaisu on jälleen saanut erityisen aseman sekä narraation luomisessa että sen hävittämisessä. Väisäsen visuaalinen retoriikka on runollista, dramatisoitua ja morfoottista. Taiteilija lumoutuu keskiajan taiteesta: sen haurauden ja kärsimyksen kuvauksesta. Piirustuksissa on myös modernin henkeä: draamaa ja lavastettuja kohtauksia – elämän, kuoleman, seksuaalisuuden ja ruumiillisuuden teemoja. Muotokieli on tyyliteltyä ja retorista. Se sisältää antiklassisia piirteitä ja hylkää naturalismin. Piirtäessä karataan fyysisestä todellisuudesta kohti surrealismia ja abstraktia ilmaisua, ei kuitenkaan puhdaspiirteisesti vaan toteuttamalla sisäkkäisiä ja lomittaisia kuvia, vaihtelevaa merkkikieltä ja erilaisia tyylittelyn tapoja. Tutkielmassa Väisäsen piirustustyyliä kutsutaan morfoosipiirustukseksi. Morfoosipiirustus on prosessinomainen ja verkostomainen piirtämisen laji, jossa yhdistetään orgaanisia muotoja, symbolisia merkkejä ja epäkonventionaalista piirustusjälkeä. Morfoosipiirustuksen tarkastelussa ongelmaksi muodostuu taiteellisen teon intentionaalisuus ja ei-intentionaalisuus. Väisäsen piirtämisen tavoitteena on visuaalisesti ja taiteellisesti merkittävä teos. Tässä tapauksessa kohtaamme intentionaalisen ongelman suhteessa Kleen prossessipiirtämiseen. Kleen mukaan piirtäminen ei ole kompositionaalista vaan evolutiivista. Väisäsen prosessissa kuitenkin operoidaan sekä aiheen että materiaalin, sommittelun ja teknisten inventioiden parissa. Kollaasipiirustuksissa toteutuu taiteilijan tietoisesti luoma visuaalinen ja sensitiivinen tila. Väisäsen taiteellisessa teossa onkin Kleen evolutiivisen piirtämisen lisäksi, kysymys myös Michael Baxandallin tarkoittamasta intentionaalisesta visuaalisesta intressistä eli taiteilijan kuvaan kohdistamasta aktiivisesta toiminnasta.