Browsing by Subject "trajectory"

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  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Kankaanpaeae, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2019)
    A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p <0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem.
  • Pulakka, Anna; Halonen, Jaana I.; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Aims: We examined the effect of retirement transition on changes in smoking, identified trajectories of smoking around the retirement transition, and investigated factors predicting the membership in the trajectories. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included 1,432 current or former smokers who entered into statutory retirement in 2000-2011 and who filled out two to four questionnaires sent at four-year intervals. Effect of retirement on smoking was analysed as a non-randomized pseudo-trial in which we compared the likelihood of quitting and relapsing smoking between two subsequent survey waves among those who retired and did not retire. We used latent class analysis to identify trajectories of smoking status and smoking intensity (low: 10 cigarettes/day), and multinomial logistic regression models to assess pre-retirement factors associated with smoking trajectories. Results: Retirement transition was associated with 1.7-fold odds of quitting smoking (95% confidence intervals 1.3-2.2) compared with no retirement transition. We identified three smoking status trajectories: 'sustained non-smoking' (61% of the participants), 'sustained smoking' (23%) and 'decreasing smoking' (16%). For 489 baseline smokers, we identified three smoking intensity trajectories: 'sustained high intensity smoking' (32% of the participants), 'sustained low intensity smoking' (32%) and 'decreasing high intensity smoking' (35%). Living outside an inner urban area predicted membership in the 'decreasing smoking' versus 'sustained smoking' trajectory. Conclusions: Smokers are more likely to quit smoking during transition to retirement than before or after it. Characteristics of the smoking environment may affect smoking behaviour around retirement.
  • Häkkänen, Paula; But, Anna; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina (2020)
    Aim We aimed to identify groups of primary school children with similar overweight development, reveal age-related patterns of overweight development in the resulting groups and analyse overweight-related school healthcare interventions. Methods This retrospective longitudinal register study utilised electronic health records from six primary school years. From a random sample of 2000 sixth graders, we derived a study cohort of 508 children meeting criteria for overweight at least once during primary school. We investigated how many different groups (latent classes) of children with similar weight development would emerge by applying flexible latent class mixed models on body mass index standard deviation score. We also explored the resulting groups with respect to offered overweight-related interventions. Results Per child, the data consisted in median 7 growth measurements over 5.4 years. We identified five overweight development groups for girls and four for boys. The groups converged temporarily around age 10 after which only some continued into obesity. School nurses and physicians offered overweight-related interventions to children with obesity, less to children gaining weight or with overweight. Conclusion Obesity prevention might benefit from awareness of typical overweight development patterns when designing intervention studies or planning and timing multidisciplinary school health check programmes.
  • Räisänen, Jouni (2019)
    The effect of atmospheric circulation on temperature variability and trends in Finland in 1979–2018 is studied using a trajectory-based method. On the average 81% of the detrended interannual variance of monthly mean temperatures is explained by the start points of the three-dimensional trajectories, with the best performance in autumn and winter. Atmospheric circulation change is only found to have had a small impact on the observed annual mean temperature trends, but it has considerably modified the trends in individual months. In particular, changes in circulation explain the lack of observed warming in June, the very modest warming in October in southern Finland, and about a half of the very large warming in December. The residual trends obtained by subtracting the circulation-related change from observations are robustly positive in all months of the year, exhibit a smoother seasonal cycle, and agree better with the multi-model mean temperature trends from models in the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Nevertheless, some differences between the residual trends and the average CMIP5 trends are also found.
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    Background: Both hostile parenting and parental psychopathology have been shown to predict depression in the offspring. However, whether and how they interact in predicting the longitudinal course of depression from adolescence to adulthood remains unclear. Methods: Participants were from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. We used multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine the associations of hostile parenting (i.e., parental intolerance and emotional distance) and parental history of psychopathology with trajectories of depressive symptoms across five study phases from 1992 to 2012. Results: On average, depressive symptoms decreased in a curvilinear pattern with age. A relatively steep decreasing trend was also observed among offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology but low intolerance. By contrast, among the offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology and high intolerance there was a rising trend in depressive symptoms starting from young adulthood. There was no similar interaction between parental history of psychopathology, emotional distance, and age. Limitations: Non-standardized, parental self-report scales were used to measure hostile parenting. The observed effects were small, and the depressive symptoms scale applied in the study may not be used for measuring clinical depression. Conclusions: Parental psychopathology might render individuals sensitive to the unfavorable characteristics of the caregiving environment. Intolerance towards the child can exacerbate the effects of parental psychopathology and have a long-term significance on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms over the life course.
  • Paton, M.D.; Harri, A.-M.; Savijärvi, H. (2018)
    Abstract Martian boundary layer wind speed and direction measurements, from a variety of locations, seasons and times, are provided. For each lander sent to Mars over the last four decades a unique record of the winds blowing during their descent is preserved at each landing site. By comparing images acquired from orbiting spacecraft of the impact points of jettisoned hardware, such as heat shields and parachutes, to a trajectory model the winds can be measured. We start our investigations with the Viking lander 1 mission and end with Schiaparelli. In-between we extract wind measurements based on observations of the Beagle 2, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix and Curiosity landing sites. With one exception the wind at each site during the lander’s descent were found to be  < 8 m s − 1 . High speed winds were required to explain the displacement of jettisoned hardware at the Phoenix landing site. We found a tail wind ( > 20 m s − 1 ), blowing from the north-west was required at a high altitude ( > 2 km) together with a gust close to the surface ( < 500 m altitude) originating from the north. All in all our investigations yielded a total of ten unique wind measurements in the PBL. One each from the Viking landers and one each from Beagle 2, Spirit, Opportunity and Schiaparelli. Two wind measurements, one above about 1 km altitude and one below, were possible from observations of the Curiosity and Phoenix landing site. Our findings are consistent with a turbulent PBL in the afternoon and calm PBL in the morning. When comparing our results to a GCM we found a good match in wind direction but not for wind speed. The information provided here makes available wind measurements previously unavailable to Mars atmosphere modellers and investigators.
  • Myllyrinne, Eevastiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The multivoiced and shared activity of teaching staff participation in school project design was researched. Currently The Finnish national board of education instructs that there is a representative of the users of the school present in the design of a school building. In the current study the users, including the teaching staff, was represented in the user meetings by the property manager of the Premises center of the city. As there were not members of the teaching staff present in the user meetings, it was of interest how their voices are heard by the design team in the process. The research questions are: 1) How did the teaching staff contribute to the design of the school? 2) What was the content of the teaching staff's contribution to the design of the school construction? 3) How were the comments from the teaching staff to the designers processed and how were the decision based on these comments made? The research data comprised of an audio recording of an interview with representative of the user and nine video recordings of user meetings, where the design team assembled. All of the data was transcribed and speech episodes regarding the teaching staff's comments were analyzed. To answer first research question the interview with the representative of the user was utilized. To answer the second research question the speech episodes were categorized for their topic and percentages calculated for each topic. To answer the third research question four topics were chosen and the decision making process of the design team followed by building a trajectory for each topic. The teaching staff commented on the designs by writing and drawing directly on the 2D-paper plans. The representative of the user forwarded these comments to the design team. In rare occasions the school principle would approach the design team directly via e-mail. A major share of the teaching staff's comments considered furniture and equipment. These are familiar, important and tangible topics for the teaching staff. The decision making process of the design team was often lengthy. The teaching staff's comments very rarely had an effect on the made decisions. The reasons for this were structural, financial and on occasion ideological. The participation of the teaching staff could be enhanced by utilizing 3D-modeling.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Aalto, Ville; Pentti, Jaana; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Background and AimsLife transitions such as retirement may influence alcohol consumption, but only a few studies have described this using longitudinal data. We identified patterns and predictors of risky drinking around the time of retirement. DesignA cohort study assessing trajectories and predictors of risky drinking among employees entering statutory retirement between 2000 and 2011. Setting and ParticipantsA total of 5805 men and women from the Finnish Public Sector study who responded to questions on alcohol consumption one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. MeasurementsWe assessed trajectories of risky drinking (> 24 units per week among men, > 16 units among women, or an extreme drinking occasion during past year) from pre- to post-retirement, as well as predictors of each alcohol consumption trajectory. FindingsThree trajectories were identified: sustained healthy drinking (81% of participants), temporary increase in risky drinking around retirement (12%) and slowly declining risky drinking after retirement (7%). The strongest pre-retirement predictors for belonging to the group of temporary increase in risky drinking were current smoking [odds ratio (OR)=3.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.70-5.64], male sex (OR=2.77, 95% CI=2.16-3.55), depression (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.05-1.99) and work-place in the metropolitan area (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.00-1.66). Compared with the slowly declining risky drinking group, the temporary increase in risky drinking group was characterized by lower occupational status and education, and work-place outside the metropolitan area. ConclusionsIn Finland, approximately 12% of people who reach retirement age experience a temporary increase in alcohol consumption to risky levels, while approximately 7% experience a slow decline in risky levels of alcohol consumption. Male gender, smoking, being depressed and working in a metropolitan area are associated with increased likelihood of increased alcohol consumption.