Browsing by Subject "transcriptome"

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  • Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Pekkinen, Minna; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Katayama, Shintaro; Kere, Juha; Mäkitie, Outi; Viljakainen, Heli (2019)
    Objective: The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation. Design and methods: We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (+/- s.D.) age 20.4 (+/- 2.5) years and BMIs 36 (+/- 10) and 23 (+/- 4) kg/m(2), respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 mu g (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects. Results: Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 x 10(-14)). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.
  • Sundqvist, Benjamin; Kilpinen, Sami; Böhling, Tom; Koljonen, Virve; Sihto, Harri (2022)
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin with a poor prognosis. Improving the prognosis of MCC by means of targeted therapies requires further understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the genes, processes, and pathways that play the most crucial roles in determining MCC outcomes. Methods: We investigated transcriptomes generated by RNA sequencing of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 102 MCC patients and identified the genes that were upregulated among survivors and in patients who died from MCC. We subsequently cross-referenced these genes with online databases to investigate the functions and pathways they represent. We further investigated differential gene expression based on viral status in patients who died from MCC. Results: We found several novel genes associated with MCC-specific survival. Genes upregulated in patients who died from MCC were most notably associated with angiogenesis and the PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathways; their expression predominantly had no association with viral status in patients who died from MCC. Genes upregulated among survivors were largely associated with antigen presentation and immune response. Conclusion: This outcome-based discrepancy in gene expression suggests that these pathways and processes likely play crucial roles in determining MCC outcomes.
  • Lempainen, Johanna; Korhonen, Laura S.; Kantojärvi, Katri; Heinonen, Santtu; Toivonen, Laura; Räty, Panu; Ramilo, Octavio; Mejias, Asuncion; Vuorinen, Tytti; Waris, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Laine, Antti-Pekka; Paunio, Tiina; Peltola, Ville (2021)
    Background. Genetic heterogeneity in type I interferon (IFN)-related gene IFI44L may account for variable susceptibility to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Methods. In 2 prospective, population-based birth cohorts, the STEPS Study and the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, IFI44L genotypes for rs273259 and rs1333969 were determined in relation to the development of RTIs until 1 or 2 years of age, respectively. At age 3 months, whole-blood transcriptional profiles were analyzed and nasal samples were tested for respiratory viruses in a subset of children. Results. In the STEPS Study (n=1135), IFI44L minor/minor gene variants were associated with lower rates of acute otitis media episodes (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, .61-.96] for rs273259 and 0.74 [.55-.99] for rs1333969) and courses of antibiotics for RTIs (0.76 [.62-.95] and 0.73 [.56-.97], respectively. In the FinnBrain cohort (n=971), IFI44L variants were associated with lower rates of RTIs and courses of antibiotics for RTIs. In respiratory virus-positive 3-month-old children, IFI44L gene variants were associated with decreased expression levels of IFI44L and several other IFN-related genes. Conclusions. Variant forms of IFI44L gene were protective against early-childhood RTIs or acute otitis media, and they attenuated IFN pathway activation by respiratory viruses.
  • A., Galarza Juan; Dhaygude, Kishor; Behnaz, Ghaedi; Kaisa, Suisto; Janne, Valkonen; Johanna, Mappes (2019)
    Insect metamorphosis is one of the most recognized processes delimiting transitions between phenotypes. It has been traditionally postulated as an adaptive process decoupling traits between life stages, allowing evolutionary independence of pre- and post-metamorphic phenotypes. However, the degree of autonomy between these life stages varies depending on the species and has not been studied in detail over multiple traits simultaneously. Here, we reared full-sib larvae of the warningly coloured wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) in different temperatures and examined their responses for phenotypic (melanization change, number of moults), gene expression (RNA-seq and qPCR of candidate genes for melanization and flight performance) and life-histories traits (pupal weight, and larval and pupal ages). In the emerging adults, we examined their phenotypes (melanization and size) and compared them at three condition proxies: heat absorption (ability to engage flight), flight metabolism (ability to sustain flight) and overall flight performance. We found that some larval responses, as evidenced by gene expression and change in melanization, did not have an effect on the adult (i.e. size and wing melanization), whereas other adult traits such as heat absorption, body melanization and flight performance were found to be impacted by rearing temperature. Adults reared at high temperature showed higher resting metabolic rate, lower body melanization, faster heating rate, lower body temperature at take-off and inferior flight performance than cold-reared adults. Thus our results did not unambiguously support the environment-matching hypothesis. Our results illustrate the importance of assessing multiple traits across life stages as these may only be partly decoupled by metamorphosis. This article is part of the theme issue 'The evolution of complete metamorphosis'.
  • Aphalo, Pedro J.; Sadras, Victor O. (2022)
    We review mechanisms for pre-emptive acclimation in plants and propose a conceptual model linking developmental and evolutionary ecology with the acquisition of information through sensing of cues and signals. The idea is that plants acquire much of the information in the environment not from individual cues and signals but instead from their joint multivariate properties such as correlations. If molecular signalling has evolved to extract such information, the joint multivariate properties of the environment must be encoded in the genome, epigenome, and phenome. We contend that multivariate complexity explains why extrapolating from experiments done in artificial contexts into natural or agricultural systems almost never works for characters under complex environmental regulation: biased relationships among the state variables in both time and space create a mismatch between the evolutionary history reflected in the genotype and the artificial growing conditions in which the phenotype is expressed. Our model can generate testable hypotheses bridging levels of organization. We describe the model and its theoretical bases, and discuss its implications. We illustrate the hypotheses that can be derived from the model in two cases of pre-emptive acclimation based on correlations in the environment: the shade avoidance response and acclimation to drought.
  • Huang, Yisong; Ollikainen, Miina; Sipilä, Pyry; Mustelin, Linda; Wang, Xin; Su, Shaoyong; Huan, Tianxiao; Levy, Daniel; Wilson, James; Snieder, Harold; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xiaoling (2018)
    Recently, 2 transcriptome-wide studies identified 40 genes that were differentially expressed in relation to blood pressure. However, to what extent these BP-related gene expression signatures and their associations with BP are driven by genetic or environmental factors has not been investigated. In this study of 391 twins (193 twin pairs and 5 singletons; age 55-69 years; 40% male; 57% monozygous) recruited from the Finnish Twin Cohort, transcriptome-wide data on peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Illumina HT12 V4 array. Our transcriptome-wide analysis identified 1 gene (MOK [MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase], P=7.16x10(-8)) with its expression levels associated with systolic BP at the cutoff of false-discovery rate
  • eQTLGen Consortium (2018)
    Understanding the difference in genetic regulation of gene expression between brain and blood is important for discovering genes for brain-related traits and disorders. Here, we estimate the correlation of genetic effects at the top-associated cis-expression or -DNA methylation (DNAm) quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs or cis-mQTLs) between brain and blood (r b ). Using publicly available data, we find that genetic effects at the top cis-eQTLs or mQTLs are highly correlated between independent brain and blood samples (r b = 0.70 for cis-eQTLs and r ^ b = 0.78 for cis-mQTLs). Using meta-analyzed brain cis-eQTL/mQTL data (n = 526 to 1194), we identify 61 genes and 167 DNAm sites associated with four brain-related phenotypes, most of which are a subset of the discoveries (97 genes and 295 DNAm sites) using data from blood with larger sample sizes (n = 1980 to 14,115). Our results demonstrate the gain of power in gene discovery for brain-related phenotypes using blood cis-eQTL/mQTL data with large sample sizes. © 2018 The Author(s).
  • Han, Qingquan; Song, Haifeng; Yang, Congcong; Zhang, Sheng; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2022)
    Plant grafting has a long history and it is extensively employed to improve plant performance. In our previous research, reciprocal grafts of Populus cathayana Rehder (C) and Populus deltoides Bart. Ex Marsh (D) were generated. The results showed that interspecific grafting combinations (scion/rootstock: C/D and D/C) grew better than intraspecific grafting combinations (C/C and D/D). To further understand differences in molecular mechanisms between interspecific and intraspecific grafting, we performed an integrated analysis, including bisulfite sequencing, RNA sequencing and measurements of physiological indicators, to investigate leaves of different grafting combinations. We found that the difference at the genome-wide methylation level was greater in D/C vs D/D than in C/D vs C/C, but no difference was detected at the transcription level in D/C vs D/D. Furthermore, the grafting superiority of D/C vs D/D was not as strong as that of C/D vs C/C. These results may be associated with the different methylation forms, mCHH (71.76%) and mCG (57.16%), that accounted for the highest percentages in C/D vs C/C and D/C vs D/D, respectively. In addition, the interspecific grafting superiority was found mainly related to the process of photosynthesis, phytohormone signal transduction, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell wall and transcriptional regulation based on both physiological and molecular results. Overall, the results indicated that the physiological and molecular phenotypes of grafted plants are affected by the interaction between scion and rootstock. Thus, our study provides a theoretical basis for developing suitable scion-rootstock combinations for grafted plants.
  • Teacher, Amber G. F.; Andre, Carl; Jonsson, Per R.; Merila, Juha (2013)
  • Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Peng, Mao; Di Falco, Marcos; Chin A Woeng, Thomas; Maria Wilhelmina Hegi, Rosa; Granchi, Zoraide; Tsang, Adrian; Hildén, Kristiina S.; Mäkelä, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2020)
    Penicillium subrubescens is able to degrade a broad range of plant biomass and it has an expanded set of Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme)-encoding genes in comparison to other Penicillium species. Here we used exoproteome and transcriptome analysis to demonstrate the versatile plant biomass degradation mechanism by P. subrubescens during growth on wheat bran and sugar beet pulp. On wheat bran P. subrubescens degraded xylan main chain and side residues from the Day 2 of cultivation, whereas it started to degrade side chain of pectin in sugar beet pulp prior to attacking the main chain on Day 3. In addition, on Day 3 the cellulolytic enzymes were highly increased. Our results confirm that P. subrubescens adapts its enzyme production to the available plant biomass and is a promising new fungal cell factory for the production of CAZymes.
  • Samkumar, Amos; Jones, Dan; Karppinen, Katja; Dare, Andrew P.; Sipari, Nina; Espley, Richard V.; Martinussen, Inger; Jaakola, Laura (2021)
    The biosynthesis of anthocyanins has been shown to be influenced by light quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the light-mediated regulation of fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis are not well understood. In this study, we analysed the effects of supplemental red and blue light on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in non-climacteric bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). After 6 days of continuous irradiation during ripening, both red and blue light elevated concentration of anthocyanins, up to 12- and 4-folds, respectively, compared to the control. Transcriptomic analysis of ripening berries showed that both light treatments up-regulated all the major anthocyanin structural genes, the key regulatory MYB transcription factors and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic genes. However, higher induction of specific genes of anthocyanin and delphinidin biosynthesis alongside ABA signal perception and metabolism were found in red light. The difference in red and blue light signalling was found in 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), ABA receptor pyrabactin resistance-like (PYL) and catabolic ABA-8'hydroxylase gene expression. Red light also up-regulated expression of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) domain transporters, which may indicate involvement of these proteins in vesicular trafficking of anthocyanins during fruit ripening. Our results suggest differential signal transduction and transport mechanisms between red and blue light in ABA-regulated anthocyanin and delphinidin biosynthesis during bilberry fruit ripening.
  • Leskinen, Katarzyna; Blasdel, Bob G.; Lavigne, Rob; Skurnik, Mikael (2016)
    Despite the expanding interest in bacterial viruses (bacteriophages), insights into the intracellular development of bacteriophage and its impact on bacterial physiology are still scarce. Here we investigate during lytic infection the whole-genome transcription of the giant phage vB_YecM_phi R1-37 (phi R1-37) and its host, the gastroenteritis causing bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica. RNA sequencing reveals that the gene expression of phi R1-37 does not follow a pattern typical observed in other lytic bacteriophages, as only selected genes could be classified as typically early, middle or late genes. The majority of the genes appear to be expressed constitutively throughout infection. Additionally, our study demonstrates that transcription occurs mainly from the positive strand, while the negative strand encodes only genes with low to medium expression levels. Interestingly, we also detected the presence of antisense RNA species, as well as one non-coding intragenic RNA species. Gene expression in the phage-infected cell is characterized by the broad replacement of host transcripts with phage transcripts. However, the host response in the late phase of infection was also characterized by up-regulation of several specific bacterial gene products known to be involved in stress response and membrane stability, including the Cpx pathway regulators, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, phage- and cold-shock proteins.
  • Pulliainen, Unni; Morandin, Claire; Bos, Nick; Sundström, Liselotte; Schultner, Eva (2022)
    Social insects depend on communication to regulate social behaviour. This also applies to their larvae, which are commonly exposed to social interactions and can react to social stimulation. However, how social insect larvae sense their environment is not known. Using RNAseq, we characterized expression of sensory-related genes in larvae of the ant Formica fusca, upon exposure to two social environments: isolation without contact to other individuals, and stimulation via the presence of other developing individuals. Expression of key sensory-related genes was higher following social stimulation, and larvae expressed many of the same sensory-related genes as adult ants and larvae of other insects, including genes belonging to the major insect chemosensory gene families. Our study provides first insights into the molecular changes associated with social information perception in social insect larvae.
  • Wen, Zilan; Terhonen, Eeva; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2022)
    Forest trees frequently interact with a diverse range of microorganisms including dark septate endophytes (DSEs) and fungal pathogens. Plant defense responses to either individual pathogens or endophytes have been widely studied, but very little is known on the effect of coinfection on host defenses. To study the impact of coinfection or tripartite interaction on plant growth and host defenses, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) seedlings were inoculated with a DSE Phialocephala sphaeroides or with a root pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum Niemela & Korhonen or coinfected with both fungi. The results showed that the DSE promoted the root growth of spruce seedlings. Control seedlings without any inoculum were subjected to sequencing and used as a baseline for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RNA-seq analysis of seedlings inoculated with P. sphaeroides, infected with H. parviporum or coinfected with both fungi resulted in a total of 5269 DEGs. The majority of DEGs were found in P. sphaeroides-inoculated seedlings. Lignin biosynthesis pathways were generally activated during fungal infections. The pattern was distinct with endophyte inoculation. The majority of the genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were generally suppressed during fungal infections. A specific transcriptional response to P. sphaeroides inoculation was the increased transcripts of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis, mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway, plant hormone signal transduction and calcium-mediated signaling. This may have potentially contributed to promoting the root growth of seedlings. Although the coinfection suppressed the induction of numerous genes, no negative effect on the growth of the spruce seedlings occurred. We conclude that the subsequent H. parviporum infection triggered reprogramming of host metabolism. Conversely, the endophyte (P. sphaeroides), on the other hand, counteracted the negative effects of H. parviporum on the growth of the spruce seedlings.
  • Wang, Kai; Wen, Zilan; Asiegbu, Fred (2022)
    Plant-associated microbes including dark septate endophytes (DSEs) of forest trees play diverse functional roles in host fitness including growth promotion and increased defence. However, little is known about the impact on the fungal transcriptome and metabolites during tripartite interaction involving plant host, endophyte and pathogen. To understand the transcriptional regulation of endophyte and pathogen during co-infection, Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were infected with DSE Phialocephala sphaeroides, or conifer root-rot pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum, or both. Phialocephala sphaeroides showed low but stable transcripts abundance (a decrease of 40%) during interaction with Norway spruce and conifer pathogen. By contrast, H. parviporum transcripts were significantly reduced (92%) during co-infection. With RNA sequencing analysis, P. sphaeroides experienced a shift from cell growth to anti-stress and antagonistic responses, while it repressed the ability of H. parviporum to access carbohydrate nutrients by suppressing its carbohydrate/polysaccharide-degrading enzyme machinery. The pathogen on the other hand secreted cysteine peptidase to restrict free growth of P. sphaeroides. The expression of both DSE P. sphaeroides and pathogen H. parviporum genes encoding plant growth promotion products were equally detected in both dual and tripartite interaction systems. This was further supported by the presence of tryptophan-dependent indolic compound in liquid culture of P. sphaeroides. Norway spruce and Arabidopsis seedlings treated with P. sphaeroides culture filtrate exhibited auxin-like phenotypes, such as enhanced root hairs, and primary root elongation at low concentration but shortened primary root at high concentration. The results suggested that the presence of the endophyte had strong repressive or suppressive effect on H. parviporum transcripts encoding genes involved in nutrient acquisition.
  • Kowalczyk, Joanna; Peng, Mao; Pawlowski, Megan; Lipzen, Anna; Ng, Vivian; Singan, Vasanth; Wang, Mei; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mäkelä, Miia (2019)
    Lignocellulosic plant biomass is an important feedstock for bio-based economy. In particular, it is an abundant renewable source of aromatic compounds, which are present as part of lignin, as side-groups of xylan and pectin, and in other forms, such as tannins. As filamentous fungi are the main organisms that modify and degrade lignocellulose, they have developed a versatile metabolism to convert the aromatic compounds that are toxic at relatively low concentrations to less toxic ones. During this process, fungi form metabolites some of which represent high-value platform chemicals or important chemical building blocks, such as benzoic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acid. Especially basidiomycete white-rot fungi with unique ability to degrade the recalcitrant lignin polymer are expected to perform highly efficient enzymatic conversions of aromatic compounds, thus having huge potential for biotechnological exploitation. However, the aromatic metabolism of basidiomycete fungi is poorly studied and knowledge on them is based on the combined results of studies in variety of species, leaving the overall picture in each organism unclear. Dichomitus squalens is an efficiently wood-degrading white-rot basidiomycete that produces a diverse set of extracellular enzymes targeted for lignocellulose degradation, including oxidative enzymes that act on lignin. Our recent study showed that several intra- and extracellular aromatic compounds were produced when D. squalens was cultivated on spruce wood, indicating also versatile aromatic metabolic abilities for this species. In order to provide the first molecular level systematic insight into the conversion of plant biomass derived aromatic compounds by basidiomycete fungi, we analyzed the transcriptomes of D. squalens when grown with 10 different lignocellulose-related aromatic monomers. Significant differences for example with respect to the expression of lignocellulose degradation related genes, but also putative genes encoding transporters and catabolic pathway genes were observed between the cultivations supplemented with the different aromatic compounds. The results demonstrate that the transcriptional response of D. squalens is highly dependent on the specific aromatic compounds present suggesting that instead of a common regulatory system, fine-tuned regulation is needed for aromatic metabolism.
  • Persson, Helena; Kwon, Andrew T.; Ramilowski, Jordan A.; Silberberg, Gilad; Soderhall, Cilla; Orsmark-Pietras, Christina; Nordlund, Bjorn; Konradsen, Jon R.; de Hoon, Michiel J. L.; Melen, Erik; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kere, Juha; Daub, Carsten O. (2015)
    Background: Children with problematic severe asthma have poor disease control despite high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and additional therapy, leading to personal suffering, early deterioration of lung function, and significant consumption of health care resources. If no exacerbating factors, such as smoking or allergies, are found after extensive investigation, these children are given a diagnosis of therapy-resistant (or therapy-refractory) asthma (SA). Objective: We sought to deepen our understanding of childhood SA by analyzing gene expression and modeling the underlying regulatory transcription factor networks in peripheral blood leukocytes. Methods: Gene expression was analyzed by using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression in children with SA (n = 13), children with controlled persistent asthma (n = 15), and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 9). Cap Analysis of Gene Expression sequencing detects the transcription start sites of known and novel mRNAs and noncoding RNAs. Results: Sample groups could be separated by hierarchical clustering on 1305 differentially expressed transcription start sites, including 816 known genes and several novel transcripts. Ten of 13 tested novel transcripts were validated by means of RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Expression of RAR-related orphan receptor A (RORA), which has been linked to asthma in genome-wide association studies, was significantly upregulated in patients with SA. Gene network modeling revealed decreased glucocorticoid receptor signaling and increased activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and Jun kinase cascades in patients with SA. Conclusion: Circulating leukocytes from children with controlled asthma and those with SA have distinct gene expression profiles, demonstrating the possible development of specific molecular biomarkers and supporting the need for novel therapeutic approaches.
  • Leskinen, Katarzyna; Pajunen, Maria I.; Vilanova, Miguel Vincente Gomez-Raya; Kiljunen, Saija; Nelson, Andrew; Smith, Darren; Skurnik, Mikael (2020)
    YerA41 is a Myoviridae bacteriophage that was originally isolated due its ability to infect Yersinia ruckeri bacteria, the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease of salmonid fish. Several attempts to determine its genomic DNA sequence using traditional and next generation sequencing technologies failed, indicating that the phage genome is modified in such a way that it is an unsuitable template for PCR amplification and for conventional sequencing. To determine the YerA41 genome sequence, we performed RNA-sequencing from phage-infected Y. ruckeri cells at different time points post-infection. The host-genome specific reads were subtracted and de novo assembly was performed on the remaining unaligned reads. This resulted in nine phage-specific scaffolds with a total length of 143 kb that shared only low level and scattered identity to known sequences deposited in DNA databases. Annotation of the sequences revealed 201 predicted genes, most of which found no homologs in the databases. Proteome studies identified altogether 63 phage particle-associated proteins. The RNA-sequencing data were used to characterize the transcriptional control of YerA41 and to investigate its impact on the bacterial gene expression. Overall, our results indicate that RNA-sequencing can be successfully used to obtain the genomic sequence of non-sequencable phages, providing simultaneous information about the phage–host interactions during the process of infection.