Browsing by Subject "transitions"

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  • Heusala, Anna-Liisa (2014)
    This article discusses the dynamics of transitions and security within the framework of the development of administrative accountability in Russia. It considers both the legal and administrative culture in Russia on the basis of the formation of administrative accountability and challenges found in this process. During the three periods of Russian transitions under study in this article, administrative accountability has developed as a result of attempts to institutionalize new ideals in an old administrative culture. The article shows that, during these transitions, uncertainties and unintended effects of administrative changes have intensified traditional security concerns that have exceeded other considerations in the implementation of reforms. As a result, the institutionalization of new professional practices and ways of thinking has been diffuse and administrative accountability remains legalistic.
  • Laakso, Senja (2019)
    This article presents the results from an experimental project in Jyvaskyla, Finland, in which five 'pioneer households' aimed to reduce their environmental impacts by a variety of trials in different domains of daily consumption. The article analyses this 'home lab' experiment from a practice-theoretical perspective, focusing particularly on everyday mobility and the social interplay that occurs in mobility practices in different contexts. In so doing, the article explores the reasons behind the various outcomes of experimentation and discusses the potential of such experimentation to facilitate transformation in mobility practices. The results suggest that in order to shift daily mobility onto a more sustainable path, the social dynamics related to mobility practices should be better addressed. For example, the negotiations both inside and outside the participating households proved important in challenging the ways of doing mobility. Moreover, the potential for the diffusion of alternative mobility practices was shown to depend on a variety of factors that maintained the normality and acceptability of private driving. Utilising practice-theoretical insights in living laboratories can open new areas for experimentation and facilitate understanding of the shift in everyday practices towards greater sustainability.
  • Hänninen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Questions regarding labour market integration are becoming more prominent in Finland with rising numbers of immigrants. The Nordic welfare model has chosen the labour market as a focal point of integration because of it being a crucial arena for equality, freedom and for the integration process as a whole. Even though measures have been taken to improve immigrants labour market situation, the gap in the unemployment rates between immigrants and persons with Finnish background is still prominent. The situation is especially weak for immigrant women, who on average have a 17% lower employment rate than women with Finnish background. Immigrant women have been identified as a group that require extensive measures to improve their position in the labour market. This study is an attempt to generate more research in the area by highlighting immigrant women’s agency in the integration processes, especially focusing on labour market transitions and challenges connected to these transitions. A qualitative research design was chosen so that focus could be put on the lived experiences of the women and on interpreting their viewpoints and stories. Semi-structured interviews were used as a data collection method to be able to look deeper into the individual and personal narratives of eight first-generation immigrant women. The results demonstrate that the women have experienced many different transitions between positions in the labour market. These positions were often unstable and constantly changing, such positions were for example being on maternity leave, combining part-time work with studies or being unemployed. Furthermore, the results show that the biggest challenges encountered are connected to entering the labour market. Lack of sufficient language skills, being met with discriminatory behaviour and problems connected to transferring skills were some of the recognized problem areas. Some of the encountered challenges had momentarily felt like hindering barriers, but in the end, they turned out to be manageable obstacles that could be overcome and after all lead to successful outcomes. This study contributes to the pool of research concerning immigrant women, confirming and reinforcing previous research in the area. Policymakers should take vulnerable groups, such as immigrant women, better into consideration and further develop policies that enhance their labour market situation.
  • Salonen, Hilma Annikki (2018)
    The Russian renewable energy industry has not yet succeeded in breaking through into the domestic market despite its potential, particularly in remote Arctic settlements. This article examines broad issues that influence national policy-makers and provides an analysis of the type of objectives that are emphasized in Russian energy policies. It can be assumed that the priorities behind these objectives have a more stable status than more concrete plans to boost the use of renewables, since they often fail to materialize. In order to discover these priorities, I analyze several relevant policy-making documents with the help of public justification analysis, a method developed to examine public claims made in favor of a certain cause, and the commonly known values that the claim-makers refer to in order to convince others. This paper reveals that Russian energy policy documents tend to emphasize concrete, technical tasks over more abstract, holistic goals. In addition, industrial needs dominate all policies, even those related to socio-economic or environmental issues. I conclude that the tendencies listed above may prevent fundamental structural change in the Russian energy industry, despite the potential of renewable energy, especially in the Arctic regions.
  • Sainz, Milagros; Upadyaya, Katja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    The present two studies with a 3-year longitudinal design examined the co-development of science, math, and language (e.g., Spanish/Finnish) interest among 1,317 Spanish and 804 Finnish secondary school students across their transition to post-compulsory secondary education, taking into account the role of gender, performance, and socioeconomic status (SES). The research questions were analyzed with parallel process latent growth curve (LGC) modeling. The results showed that Spanish students' interest in each domain slightly decreased over time, whereas Finnish students experienced an overall high and relatively stable level of interest in all domains. Further, boys showed greater interest in math and science in both countries, whereas girls reported having a greater interest in languages. Moreover, Spanish and Finnish students with high academic achievement typically experienced high interest in different domains, however, some declines in their interest occurred later on.
  • Laaksonen, Tea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of my study is to examine therapeutic ethos in public presentations of project-based activities that are directed at young people. Youth is examined in societal level in late-modern time where transitions to adulthood are becoming more risky and complex in the markets of work and education. The young people that are outside of institutions, create societal concern which is answered by creating therapeutic project-based support. These projects are also subject to markets and competition. In this study, I ask the question how the therapeutic ethos is present in the projects public presentations and how therapeutic ethos in projects as discursive practices creates images of youth and possible subjectivities that are offered to them. The perspective of this study is based to post-structural theories. The data in this study consists six different project-based support systems public documents from public web pages. The data includes reports, project depictions, brochures and marketing material. The data has been analyzed with a discursive approach which uses the nomadic research method. The analysis was based on the idea that discourses are seen as societal and cultural practices that create ways of being and speaking in the right way. These discourses can also be opposed. According to this study, therapeutic ethos in projects discursive practices appears as culturally influential discourses and understanding of feelings and inner state of mind where it also turns societal interests and project-based actions to the language and view which emphasizes representations of inner state of mind. This leads to a situation, where the problems that young adults face are translated as young adults’ inner psychological deficits where the societal view point becomes marginalized. At the same time therapeutic ethos, as a part of discursive practices, expands the general awareness of vulnerability and importance of therapeutic knowledge. The possible subjectivities created were self-knowing ideal-subjectivity and its counterpart lost-subjectivities.