Browsing by Subject "translation studies"

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  • Sarre, Silvia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this thesis, I examine the proper names found in J.R.R. Tolkien’s adaptation The Story of Kullervo and their relation to the source text, the Kullervo cycle found in the Finnish epic Kalevala. The main purpose of this study is to provide more insight into Tolkien’s early language creation and to determine the role Finnish and the Kalevala had in it. The Story of Kullervo is an informative source on the subject, since it is Tolkien’s first work of mythic prose and filled with invented proper names. In more detail, the aim is to determine how Tolkien’s version of the Kullervo cycle differs from the original regarding its proper names, where Tolkien drew inspiration for the new or alternative names he created, and whether any of these proper names are connected to Tolkien’s earliest Elvish language, Qenya. With its many changes to the plot, structure and nomenclature, The Story of Kullervo is no ordinary translation. The theoretical framework of this study is founded on the role proper names play in a narrative – the different functions proper names contain within themselves and with respect to the context their used in and the strategies established in the translation field for conveying their semantic content. I consider The Story of Kullervo to be an adaptation and keep this in mind throughout the thesis, touching on topics of adaptation studies and its relation to translation studies. I conduct my research through document analysis, the primary sources being the Finnish Kalevala and The Story of Kullervo from which I collect all proper names and epithets to be used as data. In addition, I try to determine whether the choices Tolkien made when constructing his nomenclature were affected by other works, such as W.F. Kirby’s English translation of the Kalevala and C.N.E. Eliot’s Finnish grammar, which Tolkien used when studying the language. Tolkien transferred some of the original names into The Story of Kullervo unchanged, although most of them he either modified in some way or replaced completely with inventions of his own. He also created several bynames for many of the referents. A little over half of these invented proper names can be connected to either Finnish or the Kalevala, whereas a little less than half are connected to the early version of Qenya. This division is not mutually exclusive, and some of the names contain both Finnish and Qenya elements. It is difficult to determine which came first, however: the proper names in The Story of Kullervo or their Qenya counterparts, or if the construction was somewhat simultaneous. The impact other literary works and mythologies had on his work is less notable, yet there are instances of this as well. Less than ⅕ of all proper names couldn’t be connected to any of the above-mentioned sources. Signs of Tolkien’s early language creation can certainly be seen in the nomenclature of The Story of Kullervo. His motivation for writing the short story was to bring out the beauty and magic of the Kalevala, a task in which he thought W.F. Kirby had failed. This is probably one of the reasons why Tolkien wanted to add some of his own distinctive features to the story and why he didn’t pay much attention to conventional translation practices.
  • Martin, Alice (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    This thesis in the field of translation studies focusses on the role of norms in the work of a literary translator. Norms are seen as guidelines for the translator; they also reflect the way the target audience either accepts or rejects the translation. Thus they are of an intersubjective nature. The theoretical background of the study is based on the views on norms of Andrew Chesterman and Gideon Toury. The writer makes use of her own editing and publishing experience, as well as her experience in translating Lewis Carroll, considering these in respect to theoretical views of norms and vice versa. The aim is also to bring to light some of the tacit knowledge related to translating, editing and publishing in Finland. The study has three angles. First, the writer introduces the norms of Finnish literary translation as gathered from her own working experience. The sources from which these norms arise and which affect them are briefly described. Six central translation norms emerge; they are described and exemplified through cases of Carroll translation. Secondly, a small-scale questionnaire study is presented. This was carried out in order to sound the normative views of other translators and to limit the role of subjectivity. The views of the informants largely support the set of norms presented by the writer, although the norms of quotability and harmony between translation and illustration do not arise. Instead, the answers give rise to a seventh, ethical norm, which is labelled the norm of integrity. Thirdly, there is a brief presentation of Lewis Carroll, his Alice books and their translation history in Finland. The retranslation hypothesis and the motives of retranslation are considered in the light of the work of Outi Paloposki and Kaisa Koskinen. The final part of the thesis plunges into actual translation work. It includes one and a half chapters of Through the Looking-Glass (Alicen seikkailut peilintakamaassa) as translated into Finnish by the writer. The translation commentary first discusses a number of recurring and general translation points; the running commentary then analyses 77 individual translation solutions and their justifications. The writer uses introspection as a way of reflecting on her own translation process, its decisive points and the role of norms therein.
  • Hartama-Heinonen, Ritva; Kukkonen, Pirjo (University of Helsinki, Nordica/Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies, Swedish Translation Studies, 2020)
    Acta Translatologica Helsingiensia ; 4
    The authors of this volume look beyond the mainstream ques­tions in their respective fields and instead write on topics that are marginal. At first glance, these are topics that are non-essential, yet are worth examining due to the dynamic nature of the periphery. Translation and inter­pretation is, in other words, approached from a marginal or peripheral perspective, which proves to be a positive force that sheds light on originally small and strange issues, and thus demon­strates the power of margins, words and translation.
  • Chesterman, Andrew (2019)
    Six cases or case types are briefly presented, illustrating a number of loose ends in translation ethics. These cases are related to reactions by different agents or voices to a clear error, and the ethical implications of these reactions. Case 1 is invented; it raises questions of accountability. Case 2 concerns reactions to errors in the source text, and official guidelines in this respect. Case 3 problematizes a literary translator’s refusal to correct certain errors. Case 4 discusses the descriptivist scholar’s problem of how to deal with clear errors. Case 5 is about a creative reaction to a serious problem in court interpreting. And case 6 analyses the ethical dilemma of trying to change traditional interpretations of passages in a sacred text, for good utilitarian reasons. Loose ends include: the need to revise codes of ethics; the clash between contractual and utilitarian ethics; clashes between voices; and the relation between personal and professional ethics (e.g. in interventionist translation).
  • Tiittula, Liisa; Hirvonen, Maija (Peter Lang, 2019)
    Sprache in Kommunikation und Medien
  • Lautenbacher, OP (UCOPress, Universidad de Córdoba, 2019)
    Translation and Interpreting Series
    Cet article traite de l’incidence du type de sous-titrage (en L1, L2 et Ø) sur la rétention d’éléments du dialogue original d’un film dans la langue seconde des spectateurs. Certains des facteurs en jeu dans le processus de mémorisation ont été amplement traités dans la littérature, d’autres moins. L’approche microanalytique adoptée ici permet d’entrevoir dans quelle mesure l’absence de sous-titres engendre une immersion linguistique, mais qui limite la compréhension globale de l’intrigue. L’ajout d’un sous-titrage intralinguistique en L2 ne semble surtout permettre au récepteur allophone qu’un accès amélioré aux éléments du dialogue qui lui sont inconnus. Si ces deux premières configurations de visionnage sont fortement centrées sur le dialogue en L2, le sous-titrage interlinguistique en L1 provoque quant à lui un effet contraire, où la langue du film s’efface fortement au profit de la langue du sous-titrage, instaurant une réception essentiellement scriptovisuelle. Nous postulons ainsi qu’il existe différents types d’immersion, en fonction des configurations de sous-titrage et des stratégies d’évitement de surcharge cognitive qu’ils induisent respectivement.
  • Lautenbacher, Olli Philippe (2018)
    The aim of this article is to refine the role of redundancy in deferred multimodal communication, from the standpoint of both communicators and their audiences and, by extension, translators. What is advocated here is the idea of a recursive reading process consisting of three phases (perception, construction and integration) and that this process is based on the detection of a salient series of trigger stimuli that the communicator offers as incentives. The shared ground of significance of these trigger compounds actually reveals core meanings in the document, especially when there is exophoric reference. In the translation process, any change within this redundancy system, such as a modification in the balance between endophora and exophora, might alter the overall reception experience.
  • Walker, Larry (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Japanese literature in English translation has a history of 165 years, but before the end of World War II no publisher outside Japan had put out a sustained series of novel-length translations. The New York house of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. published 34 English translations of Japanese literature between 1955 and 1977. This program was carried out under the leadership of Harold Strauss, who endeavored to bring modern writers of Japan to the stage of world literature. Strauss and most of the translators were trained in American military language schools. The aim of this dissertation is to study the publisher's policies and publishing criteria in the selection of texts, the actors involved in the mediation process and the preparation of the texts for market, the reception of the texts and their impact on the profile of Japanese literature. The theoretical backdrop is built around the distinction of product, process and function, viewed through the sociology of translation. This includes Pierre Bourdieu s constructs of habitus and capital and the Actor-Network Theory, as well as Karen Thornber s concept of literary contact nebulae in settings of less steeply inclined hierarchical relations. An examination of Japanese to English translations investigates the trends and practices which developed after the forced opening of Japan, drawing upon materials from the Knopf archives, including correspondence between the authors, the editor and the translators. Personal interviews and correspondence with the translators, autobiographies, and memoirs add to the archival records. Peritextual and epitextual data help trace events and actions within this period of Japanese literature in English translation and assist with the investigation into the reception and legacy of the texts. Findings clarify the policies and criteria employed at a major publishing firm. The role of the editor is explored in perhaps more detail than in earlier reports. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and capital complement the notion of following the actors in Actor-Network Theory. Materials obtained from a translator and interviews with others add a qualitative perspective supported by the idea of literary contact nebulae. The Knopf translations have a wider circulation in Japan than in the English-language markets. Further, a number of the publications have proven more profitable in European languages. The long tail sales have kept the translations in print and in classrooms to this day. These findings point to new areas of investigation. Knopf was the most active publisher in a period where English translations were published for the general reader. The translations were later inscribed as text and research materials in the growing university curricula of the then-nascent fields of Japanese studies and comparative literature. Keywords: Japanese literature in English translation, habitus, capital, Actor-Network Theory, transculturation, translation history
  • Цыпанов, Йöлгинь (2021)
    In modern linguistics, a branch of linguistics - translation studies - was formed, which aims at comprehensive study of the processes of translation from one language to other languages from different aspects. Based on the material of the Russian Finno-Ugric languages, this branch of science takes its first steps. The purpose of this paper is to consider lexical and semantic language errors in the text of the translation of P.A. Sorokin's autobiography into the Komi language, identified by systematic comparisons of text fragments in English, Russian and Komi. The material of the study was the texts of P. A. Sorokin's autobiography published in separate books in different years of publication. The language errors found in the text of the translation of the autobiography of the world-famous sociologist, a native of the Komi region, Pitirim A. Sorokin into the Komi language, published as a separate book in Syktyvkar in 2013, are considered for the first time. The errors considered are analyzed on the basis of subsequent comparisons with the English-language original and the translation of the same book into Russian, published in Syktyvkar in 1991. Analysis of the Komi language of the book (the first 40 pages of his autobiography) allowed to conclude that the translation into the Komi language was made not from the language of the original, as recorded in the bibliographic description, but from the Russian translation of the autobiography, as most translation errors from the Russian-language text moved to the Komi-language one.