Browsing by Subject "transnationalism"

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  • Timonen, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this thesis is to research Japan-U.S. Security Treaty protests in 1960 in global context. The Anpo-protests were selected as research topic because not much research was found of the protests. Anpo-protests begun in 1959 and ended in late 1960. The main motive was to oppose revision of U.S.-Japan Security Treaty but eventually protests led to resignation of the prime minister Kishi Nobusuke. The protests were the largest in Japanese history and left their legacy to Japanese political history and civil society. Scholars have researched Anpo-protests to some extent. However, the Anpo-protests have not been analysed in Worldwide context of Cold war which is why transnational history got selected as primary theoretical framework for this thesis. This thesis uses the Japan Times as the primary source. The Japan Times is Japan’s oldest English language newspaper firstly published in 1897. As for main method theory-guided content analysis was used. Analysis was carried out with coding in which Atlas.ti software was used. Theory of historical study of images got selected as second theoretical framework after transnational history because this thesis aims to construct comprehensive image of the Anpo-protests from the lens of the Japan Times. The research question asks how the Anpo-protests are portrayed in the Japan Times. The goal of the research question is to find out whether the Anpo-protests were portrayed as transnational in the Japan Times. This thesis is interested if the Anpo-protests had transnational influences. The results of the analysis indicate that the Japan Times is mainly interested certain issues, such as who are protesting, why they are protesting and how the protests are carried out. The codes that appear most frequently are communism, students and protests techniques. During the analysis over 1200 codes were reduced into 16 categories which were evolved further into themes. The themes are social unity of Japanese people, legitimacy and transnationalism. Social unity represents how people who were breaking the cohesion of society are judged on the newspaper. Legitimacy deals with the issue of what is legal and what is not. Transnationalism pays interests on transnational influences of the Anpo-protests such as peace activism, communism and democratic ideals. All themes express change in Japanese society. Results explain how the conception of peace, democracy, authority, violence and social unity changed due the Anpo-protests. The results indicate that Anpo-protests were portrayed transnationally to some extent on the Japan Times. Thus, Anpo-protests may have had some transnational connections. Broader analysis would offer more reliable results and thus this thesis serves only as a brief outlook to the Anpo-protests. However, this thesis offers valuable information of the Japan Times itself and of the major change in Japanese society that has often left without notice. Anpo-protests itself served as transnational influence on other protests which evolved later in the 1960s.
  • Eraliev, Sherzod; Heusala, Anna-Liisa (Routledge, 2021)
    This chapter employs the concept of transnational social space to examine Central Asian female migrants’ relationship with the law in Russia. Through exploring life stories of four migrant women, we examine the formation of transnational social spaces for labour migrants in Russia from the perspective of gender. The results demonstrate the significance of the tradition and practices of the sending countries in the formation of Central Asian female migrants’ transnational social spaces and subsequent legal choices in Russia. We raise the question regarding agency-focused transnationalism as an overarching perspective in the study of labour migrants in Russia. The revolving door migration between Central Asia and Russia, a lack of social capital and financial resources, their dependent position within migrant communities and strict family traditions limit the real agency of many female migrants, which the concept of transnational social space assumes. We argue that vulnerable migrant groups such as women often do not fit into transnationalism, informality or legal culture narratives without taking into account the specificities of the female experience.
  • Toivanen, Mari; Baser, Bahar (2020)
    Diasporas can play multiple roles in both the host country and the homeland, and their activities can varyingly contribute towards peace-building processes or perpetuate conflict back home. In this article, we wish to reflect upon the current discussions in this field, while considering the heterogeneity between and within diaspora communities as well as the generational dynamics of diaspora activism. We discuss intra-diaspora group relations as potential avenues of conflict and peace-building that transcend nation-states’ borders. Moreover, we consider how the dynamics of peace-building and conflict perpetuation can transform over time with subsequent generations. We also discuss the role the second generation can play in relation to peace and conflict.
  • Tuomala, Jannimaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines the relation between the young Finnish Muslim women and conflicts abroad involving Muslims. The subject of my study arises from topical questions and events which combine conflicts and Muslims strongly. The foreign fighter phenomenon has generated concerns about young Muslims, for instance. The purpose of my study is to offer Muslims a possibility to shed light on their own perspective regarding conflicts. The research questions of this thesis are 1) What is the young Finnish Muslim women’s relation to conflicts abroad concerning Islam or Muslims, 2) what role does Islam play in this relation and what kind of articulations does it receive and 3) how does the media function in forming a relation to conflicts abroad. The theoretical background utilizes a perspective, which clarifies on two levels where a relation can exist between Finnish Muslim women and conflicts abroad. The effects of conflicts on a transnational level and the impacts in Finland are concentrated. Transnational Islam and especially solidarity explain the first level. The media, as well as the whole history of how the West has viewed Islam as the other, constitute important factors on the local level. The data in my study was generated in ten qualitative research interviews, which I implemented in Helsinki during six months from December 2017 until May 2018. I analyze the data by using a content analysis to interpret the ways the informants construct their relation to conflicts abroad. My study shows that Muslim women build a relation to conflicts abroad through two kinds of paths. On the one hand, the Muslims receive conflicts via different factors, and on the other hand, they construct the relation to conflicts by themselves. Receiving consists of several negative phenomena, which especially the media generates. Islam functions as the most crucial intermediary in approaching conflicts and mostly defines the perspective. My study reveals that the Finnish Muslims’ relation to conflicts abroad contains challenges and unbalanced elements. The scope of the effects of conflicts for them appears too extensive compared to the Muslims’ limited attempts to approach conflicts. The position of religion differs remarkably in how conflicts relate to Muslims in Finland and how they in turn relate to those conflicts. Additionally, the biased picture of Muslims as active perpetrators in conflicts differs from the reality, where the Finnish Muslim women only attempt to show solidarity for suffering fellow Muslims. The relation includes the element of inevitability, because conflicts affect Finnish Muslims without their own volition and Islam urges them to look after fellow believers. This thesis contributes to the field of the research on Finnish Muslims. The themes of conflicts and the media have been addressed in previous research, but this study approaches them from a new angle. Prospective studies can draw on the findings of this study when approaching the topic in the future.
  • Folkersma, Liisa Karoliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine migration of educated Dominicans in light of global processes. Current global developments have resulted in increasingly global movements of people, yet people tend to come from certain places in large numbers rather than others. At the same time, international migration is increasingly selective, which shows in the disproportional number of educated migrants. This study discovers individual and societal motivations that explain why young educated Dominicans decide to migrate and return. The theoretical framework of this thesis underlines that migration is a dynamic process rooted in other global developments. Migratory movements should be seen as a result of interacting macro- and microstructures, which are linked by a number of intermediate mechanisms, meso-structures. The way individuals perceive opportunity structures concretises the way global developments mediate to the micro-level. The case of the Dominican Republic shows that there is a diversity of local responses to the world system, as Dominicans have produced their own unique historical responses to global changes. The thesis explains that Dominican migration is importantly conditioned by socioeconomic and educational background. Migration is more accessible for the educated middle class, because of the availability of better resources. Educated migrants also seem less likely to rely on networks to organize their migrations. The role of networks in migration differs by socioeconomic background on the one hand, and by the specific connections each individual has to current and previous migrants on the other hand. The personal and cultural values of the migrant are also pivotal. The central argument of this thesis is that a veritable culture of migration has evolved in the Dominican Republic. The actual economic, political and social circumstances have led many Dominicans to believe that there are better opportunities elsewhere. The globalisation of certain expectations on the one hand, and the development of the specifically Dominican feeling of ‘externalism’ on the other, have for their part given rise to the Dominican culture of migration. The study also suggests that the current Dominican development model encourages migration. Besides global structures, local structures are found to be pivotal in determining how global processes are materialised in a specific place. The research for this thesis was conducted by using qualitative methodology. The focus of this thesis was on thematic interviews that reveal the subject’s point of view and give a fuller understanding of migration and mobility of the educated. The data was mainly collected during a field research phase in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic in December 2009 and January 2010. The principal material consists of ten thematic interviews held with educated Dominican current or former migrants. Four expert interviews, relevant empirical data, theoretical literature and newspaper articles were also comprehensively used.
  • Wahlbeck, Östen (Gidlunds förlag, 2015)
    Antalet svenska medborgare som flyttar till Finland har stadigt ökat. Inflyttad från Sverige förklarar dynamiken i den nya svenska migrationen till Finland. Inflyttares erfarenheter analyseras med hjälp av teorier inom migrations- och etnicitetsforskningen. I boken presenteras en intervjustudie med svenska medborgare bosatta i Helsingfors. I fokus för studien står erfarenheter av sociala integrationsprocesser och etniska gränsdragningar i en lokal kontext. I Helsingfors utgör svenskspråkiga en språkminoritet. Analysen ger en förståelse för hur svenskar positionerar och orienterar sig i denna nya sociala och språkliga kontext. Boken är ett unikt bidrag till både invandringsforskningen i Finland och forskningen om utvandring från Sverige.
  • Lundström, Lilian (2002)
    Avhandlingen behandlar kurdiska föreningar i Helsingforsregionen. Genom intervjuer med föreningsordförande och sekreterare för sex kurdiska föreningar har jag försökt få fram om föreningarna fungerar på ett transnationellt fält och i så fall på vilket sätt, samt om föreningarna har en roll i integrationen av kurder i Finland. Kurderna nämns ofta som det största folket, närmare 30 miljoner, utan egen stat. Kurdistan, där största delen av kurderna bor, finns i bergstrakterna där Iran, Irak, Turkiet och Syrien möts. Kurderna har sedan långt tillbaka i historien kämpat för en egen stat, autonomi, eller åtminstone kulturella och sociala rättigheter i sitt land, men är inte enade sinsemellan. Det finns ett stort antal kurder i exil i Europa, Australien och Amerika. I min avhandling har jag undersökt kurdernas föreningar i Finland. De kurdiska föreningarna visade sig fungera på en transnationell arena, med kontakter dels till Kurdistan, dels till kurder i exil i Norden, Europa, Australien och Amerika. Dessa kontakter var i många fall politiska, men även sociokulturella kontakter fanns. Politiken verkar vara den förenande faktorn hos kurder i exil, och därför är gruppen en ganska splittrad grupp i diasporan. Kurderna tenderar också att förena sig med kurder från samma land, det vill säga iranska, irakiska och turkiska kurder har skilda föreningar. Även om föreningarna fungerar på ett transnationellt fält, försöker de också främja integrationen av sina medlemmar i det nya landet. Det kunde tänkas finnas en motsättning mellan dessa två verksamhetsområden, men även tidigare undersökningar har visat att den transnationella verksamheten kan stärka gruppen och främja integration. Föreningarna försöker främja integrationen av sina medlemmar, men lyckas inte alltid nå målen de satt upp. Däremot verkar de aktiva inom föreningarna välintegrerade i det finländska samhället. De aktiva individerna inom föreningarna är aktiva aktörer på ett transnationellt fält, men samtidigt är de välintegrerade i det nya samhället.
  • Hannula, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    International student action is characterised by cross border mobility and maintaining contacts around the world. English language is a significant aspect of internationalisation of higher education and an important factor in students’ endeavours of mobility. Transnationalism examines mobility through networks of interaction and dependence that span across state borders. In the context of the individual this means social connections formed and maintained simultaneously to country of origin and new place of residence. The purpose of this study is to describe the motives and experiences of foreign degree students at the University of Helsinki. This study examines especially two topics that affect foreign degree students in Finland, transnationalism and language. Qualitative research methods were used in this master’s thesis. Traditionally ethnographic methods are in the centre of anthropological inquiry. Because of the nature of the subject of this study the majority of data was collected using interviews. For this study ten foreign degree students from different stages of their studies were interviewed using a thematic interview. Additionally observations from international student events were used as data. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings of this study describe foreign degree students’ motives of mobility, forms of life management and relevance of language in their experiences. The findings show that for students coming to Finland, significant motivators are lack of tuition fees, ability to study in English, appeal of country, valuation of higher education, and personal and professional benefits. The important factors in relation to life management are adapting to a new environment, social networks, and a sense of having two homes. Additionally experiences of studies and support services as well as thoughts about the future affect life management. English language was found to facilitate forming social relations in a new environment, networking within the university and multicultural communication. On the other hand, lack of Finnish skills marginalizes foreign students in Finnish society. The importance language skills is emphasised for students who want to stay in Finland after completing their studies. This study shows the significant role language plays in the different aspects of a foreign students life. The university community offers a basis for adapting through social inclusion of students into the international student community at the university. However, further integration into Finnish society requires initiative and effort. In this study, transnationalism appears especially in the social connections maintained with country of origin, for example via social media. Social connections with homeland are significant when faced with difficulties, while social connections formed locally gain significance over time. Social relations and familiarisation with new environment enhance feelings of belonging.
  • Allas, Anna-Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Migration is not necessarily about settling with the whole family to a new country, but instead it is becoming more common that family members are dispersed between countries. Also almost all Estonian parents who have been working abroad have decided to leave their child or children in Estonia where they are typically in the care of the other parent. For Estonian migrants Finland is the most popular destination country and therefore, this study investigates family life in the context of Estonian labour migration to Finland. The labour migration of one family member does not only shape the life of that person, but also the lives of those who remain behind. Because partners who stay behind with the children in the home country are rarely included in research on migration or transnational families, this study is based on their perspectives and analyses the dynamic experiences of family life that crosses national borders. Drawing on the literature of some of the leading scholars in the field of transnationalism, family practices and co-presence, I examine how family relationships are maintained, how family responsibilities are managed, and what meanings are given to family life across countries borders. The study includes in-depth semi-structured interviews with stay-behind partners who are currently living in a transnational family, but also those who have recently had the experience and who thus were able to better reflect on it with hindsight. The results of the research add insights to presence and absence in family life. The analysis shows that frequent and highly regular communication over distance helps to sustain a sense of family unity. However, mediated co-presence which is produced by this long-distance communication does not replace physical co-presence which allows the stay-behind partners to best make sense of the family relationships. At the same time, physical co-presence requires adjustments in the stay-behind partners everyday life who during the absence of their partner have established their own routines. For some stay-behind partners, these adjustments can feel very demanding as they decrease their control over their daily routines and bring with it more tasks.
  • Kemppainen, Teemu; Kemppainen, Laura; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Rask, Shadia; Saukkonen, Pasi (2020)
    Recent sociological discussions have examined the classic theme of social integration from the point of view of belonging and multiple solidarities. As a research topic, migration importantly elucidates these general sociological questions. Literature on migration, integration and transnationalism lacks an encompassing theoretical model, which limits our understanding of complex integration processes. We propose a multifocal model of migrant integration including three key foci of integration: the host society; transnational sphere; and co-ethnic community in the host society. Moreover, the model considers integration in terms of different dimensions. With this model, we define multifocal marginalisation and study Russian, Kurdish and Somali migrants in Finland. We find that the different foci do not compete with each other, but are in a moderate positive relationship. There are clear group differences in integration patterns. Determinants of multifocal marginalisation include Kurdish background, weak Internet skills and older age. Discussion themes include belonging and social change.
  • Veney, David (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This research explores the way in which the Russian-speaking community of Narva, Estonia perceives their identity and sense of belongingness in relation to Estonia and Russia through self-reflection. Sixteen interviews with residents of Narva reveal perceptions of discrimination and integration and the surrounding discourses on inclusion and exclusion which define and influence how Russian-speaking Estonians balance their relationship with Russian and Estonian societies. The theoretical framework is composed of psychological and sociological theories which examine the individual and social aspects involved in the relationships the interviewees describe. The research underlines the value in having a deeper understanding of minority populations along critical borders to develop appropriate and effective national-level policies which affect the community, country of residence and country of origin of the minority community. This research aims to add to the existing literature focused on the study of minority communities along critical borders in general and Russian-speaking communities spread across the Post-Soviet Space in particular as well as describe the factors that influence their mobilization and transnationalism.
  • Toivanen, Mari (2019)
    Transnational ties, networks and mobilities can constitute a social resource for diaspora communities. Resources available as a result of the migration process or transnational ties can potentially become capitalised by diaspora members. Yet, diaspora members cannot automatically capitalise on all transnational networks and ties, but only resources that are mobilisable within particular transnational networks constitute “migrant capital” (Anthias, 2007; Ryan, 2011). Migrants’ children have grown up in transnational social space, in a social setting that is embedded with multiple sets of interconnected networks of social relationships, memberships, identities and mobilities of cross-border character (Levitt, 2009). Little is known on whether such transnational networks function as a mobilisable social resource, i.e. “migrant capital” for the second generation. This study focuses on the transnational ties, practices and mobilities of second-generation Kurds in France and examines whether those constitute a mobilisable resource for them. It specifically asks if second-generation members intent to or have capitalised on such resources in the transnational social space. The study sheds light on the workings of transnational resources in the lives of the second generation and asks about the extent to which they can they be considered to be “migrant capital”. The analysis draws from a qualitative dataset such as interviews and observations collected with second-generation Kurds in France.
  • Lahti, Janne (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    The American West and the World provides a synthetic introduction to the transnational history of the American West. Drawing from the insights of recent scholarship, Janne Lahti recenters the history of the U.S. West in the global contexts of empires and settler colonialism, discussing exploration, expansion, migration, violence, intimacies, and ideas. Lahti examines established subfields of Western scholarship, such as borderlands studies and transnational histories of empire, as well as relatively unexplored connections between the West and geographically nonadjacent spaces. Lucid and incisive, The American West and the World firmly situates the historical West in its proper global context.
  • Wahlbeck, Östen Ragnar (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2019)
    Routledge Handbooks
    The chapter analyzes the processes of community formation among the Kurdish diaspora. The focus is on Europe, where the largest numbers of Kurds outside of the Middle East reside, but the presentation does not forget the increasing numbers in the rest of the world. The analysis is informed by theories of diaspora studies and sociological theories of immigrant community integration and assimilation processes. According to diaspora theories, time has to pass in order to assess whether a minority community forms a diaspora, or whether the community follows another integration or assimilation trajectory. In the case of the Kurds in Europe, the community already has a long migration history, which is briefly described by the author for the post-war period up until the European refugee crisis of 2015. The existing research on the Kurdish diaspora in Europe indicates that the communities have been significantly influenced by the continuous arrival of new groups of Kurdish migrants and refugees, as well as the subsequent transnational social, political and cultural relations between the diaspora and Kurdistan. The continuous transnationalism of a global Kurdish community has enabled the formation of a politically, socially and culturally informed community which fulfills the traditional characteristics of a diaspora group. Thus, subsequent generations of Kurds tend to continue to identify as Kurds and display a diasporic relationship to Kurdistan. Research indicates that there will be sizeable and permanent Kurdish minority communities in Europe in the future. An estimate of the size of the Kurdish diaspora is included.
  • Alinia, Minoo; Wahlbeck, Östen; Eliassi, Barzoo; Khayati, Khalid (2014)
  • Chane Abegaz, Feven (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    In recent times, most western societies appear to be confronted with an ever growing number of immigrants as a consequence of globalization and the need to preserve national culture and identity. This is an intricate situation where migrants themselves are constantly faced with difficulties to socially integrate into their new societies. They also have to deal with maintaining distinctiveness of their identity and cultural heritage. Studies suggest that the media plays a crucial role in constructing immigrant identity and affiliation with their new host society. This empirical study explores the media use of Ethiopians in Finland and its implication to their identity and social integration. I have argued based on the existing theory and scholarship regarding multiculturalism, social integration, media use and identity. Specifically, the study gives a special emphasis to immigrant’s diaspora and transnational identity—that has been gaining recent academic significance in migration and media studies. This study employs a qualitative research method using a semi-structured interview with 10 Ethiopians living in Finland and thematic network analytical tool. The finding shows that there is a reciprocal relationship between media use and social integration. Finnish media portrayal of immigrants shows the depiction of 'the other', and that this has been affecting immigrant social integration in to the society. It also finds out that the main media menu for Ethiopians in Finland are Ethiopian diaspora media—that employ hybrid journalism where there exists political activism and journalism.
  • Smeds-Salonsaari, Lisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Syftet med min pro gradu är att granska unga flyktingars sociala nätverk efter att de fått uppehållstillstånd. Mitt intresse ligger i hur de upplever att nätverken utvecklats och vilken betydelse de fått. Forskningsfrågorna är: 1) Hur ser de ensamkommande unga flyktingarnas sociala nätverk ut? 2) Hurdan betydelse tillskriver de ensamkommande unga flyktingarna sina sociala nätverk för hur vardagen i det nya landet formas? och 3) Hurdan betydelse tillskriver de ensamkommande unga flyktingarna de lokala och transnationella sociala relationerna för utvecklandet av identiteter? Materialet utgörs av 6 narrativa intervjuer med 4 unga i åldern 19–21. De kommer från Somalia, Syrien, Angola och Irak och har bott i Finland 2–6 år. Informanternas nätverk består av familj, vänner, varav de flesta är av invandrarbakgrund, och formella relationer, så som socialarbetare, företrädare och handledare. Familjen är viktigast, men alla har inte kontakt med dessa. Vännerna står för en stor del av det emotionella stödet, medan det formella nätverket har en viktig roll i att erbjuda praktisk hjälp. Informanterna har svårt att komma i kontakt med finländska jämnåriga. Kontexten är här central och de unga upplever det vara lättast att lära känna finländare i skolan. Ett annat centralt tema i informanternas berättelser är det finska språket, vilket är en utmaning främst i skolan och i arbetslivet. Även för detta har omgivningen och de sociala relationerna en betydelse. De sociala nätverken är också av betydelse för hur de ungas identiteter utvecklas. Avståndet till föräldrarna har lett till att de måste ta mer ansvar och dessutom har de utmaningar som kommer av att vara ensam i ett nytt land, fått dem att bli vuxna. En viktig slutsats är att oron för familjen gör att det svårt att leva i nuet. De unga har ett starkt aktörskap som blir synligt när de reflekterar kring sina erfarenheter. Därtill visar informanternas upplevelser att de ännu efter flera år i Finland kan uppleva svårigheter och ha behov av stöd både av de lokala och de transnationella relationerna.