Browsing by Subject "transport"

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  • Pulkki, Reino (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
    The development is described of a method for solving transport problems and formulating transport policies in a changing and complex environment. Its application is described in a study of the competitiveness and possible areas for rationalization of the water transport system in the Saimaa area of Finland in particular, and long-distance transport in the area in general.
  • Tainio, Marko; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Hu, Liang; de Nazelle, Audrey; An, Ruopeng; Garcia, Leandro M.T.; Goenka, Shifalika; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; Bull, Fiona; de Sá, Thiago Herick (Pergamon, 2021)
    Environment International 147 (2021), 105954
    Background Exposure to air pollution and physical inactivity are both significant risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). These risk factors are also linked so that the change in exposure in one will impact risks and benefits of the other. These links are well captured in the active transport (walking, cycling) health impact models, in which the increases in active transport leading to increased inhaled dose of air pollution. However, these links are more complex and go beyond the active transport research field. Hence, in this study, we aimed to summarize the empirical evidence on the links between air pollution and physical activity, and their combined effect on individual and population health. Objectives and methods We conducted a non-systematic mapping review of empirical and modelling evidence of the possible links between exposure to air pollution and physical activity published until Autumn 2019. We reviewed empirical evidence for the (i) impact of exposure to air pollution on physical activity behaviour, (ii) exposure to air pollution while engaged in physical activity and (iii) the short-term and (iv) long-term health effects of air pollution exposure on people engaged in physical activity. In addition, we reviewed (v) public health modelling studies that have quantified the combined effect of air pollution and physical activity. These broad research areas were identified through expert discussions, including two public events performed in health-related conferences. Results and discussion The current literature suggests that air pollution may decrease physical activity levels during high air pollution episodes or may prevent people from engaging in physical activity overall in highly polluted environments. Several studies have estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in active transport environment in Europe and North-America, but the concentration in other regions, places for physical activity and for other air pollutants are poorly understood. Observational epidemiological studies provide some evidence for a possible interaction between air pollution and physical activity for acute health outcomes, while results for long-term effects are mixed with several studies suggesting small diminishing health gains from physical activity due to exposure to air pollution for long-term outcomes. Public health modelling studies have estimated that in most situations benefits of physical activity outweigh the risks of air pollution, at least in the active transport environment. However, overall evidence on all examined links is weak for low- and middle-income countries, for sensitive subpopulations (children, elderly, pregnant women, people with pre-existing conditions), and for indoor air pollution. Conclusions Physical activity and air pollution are linked through multiple mechanisms, and these relations could have important implications for public health, especially in locations with high air pollution concentrations. Overall, this review calls for international collaboration between air pollution and physical activity research fields to strengthen the evidence base on the links between both and on how policy options could potentially reduce risks and maximise health benefits.
  • Blyth, Pascale-L. (Science Direct, 2020)
    Energy Research Social Science 70 (2020), 101574
    Arguably the most powerful artifact of the 20th century, the private car brought profound spatial, social, and cultural changes, as well as wide-ranging mobility justice implications. Autonomous mobility technologies, with the power to supplant part or all of the action of the driver by collecting and processing large quantities of fine grained data, promise to shift power away from users to engineers and create new important spatial and social implications for mobility justice, of which little are known. This research draws from Foucauldian conceptualizations adapted for the study of geographies of power to investigate how autonomous mobility technology may diagram spatial rationalities and moralities into the built environment. To that effect, it draws from 30 interviews of intermediaries in Finland–a country actively pursuing a transition to automated and shared mobility as part of an ICT-driven innovation policy. Examining autonomous mobility through a Foucauldian lens helps highlight the complex power relations it affords–in terms of changes in social structure and infrastructure, and social justice. By shedding light on how technology may structure the built environment, the Foucauldian perspective shows itself to be a valuable tool for planning and policymaking, providing insight into how autonomous mobility (in)justice may be assembled.
  • Albert, Katrina; Renko, Juho-Matti; Mätlik, Kert; Airavaara, Mikko; Voutilainen, Merja H. (2019)
    Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) has shown therapeutic potential in rodent and non-human primate models of Parkinson's disease by protecting the dopamine neurons from degeneration and even restoring their phenotype and function. Previously, neurorestorative efficacy of CDNF in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease as well as diffusion of the protein in the striatum (STR) has been demonstrated and studied. Here, experiments were performed to characterize the diffusion and transport of supra-nigral CDNF in non-lesioned rats. We injected recombinant human CDNF to the substantia nigra (SN) of naive male Wistar rats and analyzed the brains 2, 6, and 24 h after injections. We performed immunohistochemical stainings using an antibody specific to human CDNF and radioactivity measurements after injecting iodinated CDNF. Unlike the previously reported striatonigral retrograde transport seen after striatal injection, active anterograde transport of CDNF to the STR could not be detected after nigral injection. There was, however, clear diffusion of CDNF to the brain areas surrounding the SN, and CDNF colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Overall, our results provide insight on how CDNF injected to the SN may act in this region of the brain.
  • Marttila, H.; Tammela, S.; Mustonen, K.-R.; Louhi, P.; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Klove, B. (IWA Publishing, 2019)
    Hydrology Research 1 June 2019; 50 (3): 878–885
    We conducted a series of tracer test experiments in 12 outdoor semi-natural flumes to assess the effects of variable flow conditions and sand addition on hyporheic zone conditions in gravel beds, mimicking conditions in headwater streams under sediment pressure. Two tracer methods were applied in each experiment: 2–5 tracer-pulse tests were conducted in all flumes and pulses were monitored at three distances downstream of the flume inlet (0 m, 5 m and 10 m, at bed surface), and in pipes installed into the gravel bed at 5 m and 10 m distances. The tracer breakthrough curves (total of 120 tracer injections) were then analysed with a one-dimensional solute transport model (OTIS) and compared with data from the gravel pipes in point-dilution pulse tests. Sand addition had a strong negative effect on horizontal fluxes (qh), whereas the fraction of the median travel time due to transient storage (F200) was determined more by flow conditions. These results suggest that even small additions of sand can modify the hyporheic zone exchange in gravel beds, thus making headwater streams with low sediment transport capacity particularly vulnerable to sediments transported into the stream from catchment land use activities.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kallio, Minna; Koskela, Sofia; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (BMJ, 2020)
    BMJ Open 10 8 (2020)
    Objective: Neighbourhood characteristics may affect the level of physical activity (PA) of the residents. Few studies have examined the combined effects of distinctive neighbourhood characteristics on PA using objective data or differentiated between activity during working or non-working days. We examined the associations of socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness with accelerometer-measured leisure-time PA during working and non-working days. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Finnish Retirement and Aging (FIREA) study. Participants: 708 workers (604 women, mean age 62.4 ranging from 58 to 64 years,) participating in the FIREA study who provided PA measurement data for at least 1 working and non-working day. Primary and secondary outcomes: PA was measured with wrist-worn accelerometer on average of 4 working and 2 non-working days. Outcomes were total PA, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). These measurements were linked to data on neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness within the home neighbourhood (750×750 m). Generalised linear models were adjusted for possible confounders. Results: On non-working days, higher neighbourhood disadvantage associated with lower levels of total PA (p value=0.07) and higher level of neighbourhood greenness associated with higher level of total PA (p value=0.04). Neighbourhood disadvantage and greenness had an interaction (p value=0.02); in areas of low disadvantage higher greenness did not associate with the level of total PA. However, in areas of high disadvantage, 2 SD higher greenness associated with 46 min/day (95% CI 8.4 to 85) higher total PA. Slightly stronger interaction was observed for LPA (p=0.03) than for the MVPA (p=0.09). During working days, there were no associations between neighbourhood characteristics and leisure-time total PA. Conclusions: Of the disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those characterised by high levels of greenness seem to associate with higher levels of leisure-time PA during non-working days. These findings suggest that efforts to add greenness to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods might reduce inequalities in PA.
  • DIII-D Team; JET Contributors; Kotschenreuther, M.; Ahlgren, T.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Airila, M.; Björkas, C.; Heinola, K.; Jarvinen, A.; Lahtinen, A.; Makkonen, T.; Nordlund, K.; Safi, E.; Pehkonen, S.-P.; Tala, T.; Varje, J.; Santala, M. I. K.; Moulton, D.; Lonnroth, J.; Lomanowski, B.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Koskela, T.; King, R. F.; Karhunen, J.; Groth, M. (2019)
    Fusion performance in tokamaks hinges critically on the efficacy of the edge transport barrier (ETB) in suppressing energy losses. The new concept of 'fingerprints' is introduced to identify the instabilities that cause transport losses in the ETBs of many of today's experiments, from among widely posited candidates. Analysis of the gyrokinetic-Maxwell equations and gyrokinetic simulations of experiments reveals that each mode type produces characteristic ratios of transport in the various channels: density, heat, and impurities. This, together with experimental observations of transport in some channel or of the relative size of the driving sources of channels, can identify or determine the dominant modes causing energy transport. In multiple H-mode cases with edge-localized modes that are examined, these fingerprints indicate that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-like modes are apparently not the dominant agent of energy transport; rather, this role is played by micro-tearing modes (MTMs) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, and in addition, possibly by ion temperature gradient/ trapped electron modes (ITG/TEM) on JET (Joint European 'Torus). MHD-like modes may dominate the electron particle losses. Fluctuation frequency can also be an important means of identification, and is often closely related to the transport fingerprint. The analytical arguments unify and explain previously disparate experimental observations on multiple devices, including DIII-D, JET, and ASDEX-U. Detailed simulations of two DIII-D ETBs also demonstrate and corroborate this.
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Rogge, Karoline S. (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Research Policy
    While experimentation is at the heart of sustainability transitions, little attention has been paid to policy experimentation and its effects in advancing transitions. Drawing on the literatures on policy experimentation and institutional change in the context of sustainability transitions, we analyse an in-depth case study of the development of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) in Finland – one of the first countries globally to advance MaaS by government support. Our findings show how a potentially disruptive innovation, MaaS, can be traced back to a longer process of administrative reorientation and restructuring, i.e. gradual transformation in institutions, and has benefitted from cycles of policy experimentation, combined with the sequencing of policy strategies and further changes in the policy mix. Administrative restructuring has enabled policy experimentation that has led - via new vision building, networking and learning - to major regulatory change allowing market creation for MaaS. We conclude that the dynamics of policy mixes in transitions are influenced by short-term policy experimentation and long-term institutional change. More generally, institutional change is vital for enabling a favourable context for policy experimentation in sustainability transitions that in turn provides cognitive and normative learning to inform further institutional change.
  • Söderström, Panu; Schulman, Harry; Ristimäki, Mika (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2014)
    SYKEn julkaisuja 2
    Julkaisussa on hahmoteltu kokonaiskuvaa eurooppalaisten suurkaupunkien viimeaikaisesta kehityksestä sekä vertailtu erityisesti Helsingin ja Tukholman kaupunkiseutuja. Tutkimuksessa syvennytään tarkasteltavien kaupunkiseutujen eroihin ja yhtäläisyyksiin maankäytön, yhdyskuntarakenteen ja liikennejärjestelmän kehityksen näkökulmasta. Kaupunkiseutujen vertailua taustoitetaan pitkän aikavälin kehityskuvilla, minkä jälkeen seutujen viimeaikaista kehitystä analysoidaan paikkatietoaineistoihin ja asiantuntijahaastatteluihin tukeutuen. Pyrkimyksenä on ymmärtää, miten erilaiset suunnitteluratkaisut ovat vaikuttaneet seutujen kehitykseen, miltä toteutunut kehitys näyttää tilastojen valossa sekä toisaalta arvioida tulevan kehityksen suuntaa. Tutkimuksen näkökulmaan liittyy kiinteästi ajatus kolmesta kaupunkijärjestelmästä, jalankulku-, joukkoliikenne ja autokaupungista, jotka eroavat toisistaan niin fyysiseltä rakenteeltaan kuin myös alueiden tarjoamien liikkumisen vaihtoehtojen suhteen. Alueiden tarkastelussa sovelletaan kaksitasoista aluejakoa. Tarkasteltavat kaupunkiseudut on jaettu yleisellä tasolla erityyppisiin ydin-, kehys- ja maaseutualueisiin. Tarkemmalla tasolla tarkastelua jäsentää alueiden jaottelu yhdyskuntarakenteen vyöhykemenetelmää soveltaen jalankulku-, joukkoliikenne- ja autovyöhykkeiksi. Suomalaisia kaupunkiseutuja on tutkittu yhdyskuntarakenteen vyöhykenäkökulmasta laajasti. Suomen kaupunkiseutujen joukosta ei kuitenkaan ole löydettävissä sopivan kokoluokan vertailukohtaa Helsingin seudulle, joka on maan ainut kansainväliset mitat täyttävä metropolialue. Raportissa tarkastellaan myös seutujen suunnittelujärjestelmien eroja sekä kaupunkiseuduilla tehtävää maankäytön, asumisen ja liikenteen yhteistyötä. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella Tukholman seudulla ollaan lähempänä toimivaa metropolihallintoa kuin Helsingin seudulla, missä käsitys yhteisistä tavoitteista ei ole yhtä vahvasti selvillä. Kaupunkiseudun kasvu on myös saatu kanavoitua Helsinkiä voimakkaammin sisäänpäin, tiivistäen seudun ydinosien rakennetta. Myös joukkoliikennejärjestelmä ja siihen liittyvät poikittaisyhteydet, pyöräliikenteen kehittäminen sekä keskustaliikenteen hallinta ruuhkamaksuilla kallistuvat vertailussa Tukholman eduksi. Toisaalta Helsingissä on vältytty joiltain Tukholman kaupunkiseudun kohtaamilta ongelmilta, kuten alueiden väliseltä voimakkaalta segregaatiolta.
  • Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Beimforde, Christina; Dal Corso, Jacobo; Perrichot, Vincent; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2018)
    Amber is fossilised plant resin. It can be used to provide insights into the terrestrial conditions at the time the original resin was exuded. Amber research thus can inform many aspects of palaeontology, from the recovery and description of enclosed fossil organisms (biological inclusions) to attempts at reconstruction of past climates and environments. Here we focus on the resin itself, the conditions under which it may have been exuded, and its potential path to fossilisation, rather than on enclosed fossils. It is noteworthy that not all plants produce resin, and that not all resins can (nor do) become amber. Given the recent upsurge in the number of amber deposits described, it is time to re‐examine ambers from a botanical perspective. Here we summarise the state of knowledge about resin production in modern ecosystems, and review the biological and ecological aspects of resin production in plants. We also present new observations on conifer‐derived resin exudation, with a particular focus on araucarian conifer trees. We suggest that besides disease, insect attacks and traumatic wounding from fires and storms, other factors such as tree architecture and local soil conditions are significant in creating and preserving resin outpourings. We also examine the transformation of resin into amber (maturation), focusing on geological aspects of amber deposit formation and preservation. We present new evidence that expands previous understanding of amber deposit formation. Specific geological conditions such as anoxic burial are essential in the creation of amber from resin deposits. We show that in the past, the production of large amounts of resin could have been linked to global climate changes and environmental disruption. We then highlight where the gaps in our knowledge still remain and potential future research directions.
  • Haarlaa, Rihko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Eriksson, T.; Nilsson, G.; Skråmo, G. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)