Browsing by Subject "transportation"

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  • Kaakinen, Johanna; Simola, Jaana (2020)
    Thirty-nine participants listened to 28 neutral and horror excerpts of Stephen King short stories while constantly tracking their emotional arousal. Pupil size was measured with an Eyelink 1000+, and participants rated valence and transportation after each story. In addition to computing mean pupil size across 1-sec intervals, we extracted blink count and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to obtain the scaling exponents of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in pupil size time-series. Pupil size was expected to be sensitive also to emotional arousal, whereas blink count and LRTC’s were expected to reflect cognitive engagement. The results showed that self-reported arousal increased, pupil size was overall greater, and the decreasing slope of pupil size was flatter for horror than for neutral stories. Horror stories induced higher transportation than neutral stories. High transportation was associated with a steeper increase in self-reported arousal across time, stronger LRTCs in pupil size fluctuations, and lower blink count. These results indicate that pupil size reflects emotional arousal induced by the text content, while LRTCs and blink count are sensitive to cognitive engagement associated with transportation, irrespective of the text type. The study demonstrates the utility of pupillometric measures and blink count to study literature reception.
  • Anttonen, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli vertailla maatalouden maantiekuljetuksissa traktorin ja varsinaisen perävaunun yhdistelmän energiankulutusta kuorma-autokuljetuksen energiankulutukseen. Energiankulutus kuljetuksissa syntyy vierintävastuksen ja ilmanvastuksen voittamisesta. Toisena tavoitteena oli vertailla menetelmien kus-tannuksia. Tutkielman aineisto kerättiin kirjallisuudesta ja tilastoista, minkä lisäksi mitattiin polttoaineen kulutusta lihakarjatuotantoon keskittyneen maatilan traktorilla ja kuljetusyrityksen täysperävaunuyhdistelmällä. Täysperävaunuyhdistelmällä ja traktorin ja -varsinaisen perävaunun yhdistelmällä kuljetettiin pyöröpaaleja pellolta tilakeskukseen samanlaisissa oloissa. Paalit olivat rehupaaleja ja olkipaaleja. Lisäksi kuljetettiin myös irtorehua. Traktori kulutti tiekuljetuksissa enemmän polttoainetta kuin kuorma-auton täysperävaunuyhdistelmä. Eron katsottiin johtuneen traktorin renkaista, joilla oli suurempi vierintävastus kuin kuorma-auton renkailla. Traktori oli myös hitaampi massan siirtäjä kuin kuorma-auto alemman ajonopeuden ja pienemmän hyötykuorman takia. Tulokset osoittivat, että kuorma-auton täysperävaunuyhdistelmä on energia-tehokkaampi ja nopeampi kuljetusväline kuin traktori, kun matkat ovat pitkiä ja kuljetettavat massat suuria. Kuorma-auton täysperävaunuyhdistelmän rengastus ja hyötykuorman koko on lähtökohtaisesti suunniteltu maantiekuljetuksiin. Tämän tutkimuksen mittaustulokset eivät ole laajasti yleistettävissä, koska mittauksiin sisältyi useita muuttuvia tekijöitä. Taloudellisten laskelmien perusteella kuorma-auto oli traktoria edullisempi kuljetusmenetelmä kuljetusmatkan ja kuljetettavan massan kasvaessa. Tuloksia verrattiin myös kuljetusliikkeen kuorma-auton ostopalveluun, joka laskelmien perusteella osoittautui omaa traktoria tai kuorma-autoa edullisemmaksi.
  • Friman, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    The Baltic Sea area, formerly an importer of crude oil, has become an important node for oil export. In 2015, between 160 and 240 million tons of oil (and some 150 million tons of other cargo) will be transported through the Gulf of Finland only, in 2006, 140 million tons of oil was shipped through the Gulf. There are a number of development projects going on in Russia and Estonia concerning both old and new terminals. Also new pipelines from the Russian production sites to the coastal oil terminals are under planning or construction. According to an estimate by the EU Commission, in 2010 about 400 million tons of oil and petrochemicals will be processed in the seaports of the Baltic Sea. The risk of accidents is increasing with busier traffic and larger ships. Oil can contaminate the sea through various routes: spills during loading, unloading and other port operations, accidental oil spills from tankers, oil terminals, refineries, pipelines, exploration sites and regular non-tanker shipping, runoff from land, and as municipal and industrial wastes. Any step toward improved safety in shipping decreases the risks and impacts on the marine environment. Therefore the Baltic Sea countries have to continue to work toward pollution-free marine transportation by providing employees environmental protection education and training, by combating substandard shipping, and by increasing international recognition for the ecological significance of the status of the Baltic as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA). The International Maritime Organization (IMO) designated the Baltic Sea a PSSA in 2004.. Several modern tools have been installed for the Gulf of Finland navigation to reduce the risk of ship collisions. One of them is the Gulf of Finland mandatory Ship Reporting System (GOFREP), which went into operation on 1 July 2004. The system covers the international waters of the Gulf of Finland in a joint effort between Finland, Estonia and Russia. By Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS) ships are referred to use a different route when travelling from east/north to west/south and vice versa. Important steps forward to further decrease the risks of shipping and oil accidents were taken in July 2006, when new traffic routing measures entered into force in the central Baltic Sea, in Bornholmsgat, and north of Rügen. In the Gulf of Finland, which is a hot spot area for increasing oil transports, the Vessel Traffic Management and Information System (VTMIS) was taken into use in 2004, including TSS. The HELCOM Automatic Identification System (AIS) provides, since 2005, a very helpful source of information documenting, which enables the identification of the name, position, course, speed, draught and cargo of every ship of more than 300 gross tons sailing in the Baltic Sea. The valuation of oil spill damages is challenging because it attempts to estimate the harm from possible future oil spills, and because the harm depends largely on the conditions at the time of the spill. In addition, it might be difficult for people to perceive the probabilities and uncertainties related to oil spills and their impacts. Against this background it is of utmost importance to improve both the technical and the human aspects of ship operation.
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.