Browsing by Subject "transposable elements"

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  • Voronova, Angelika; Rendón-Anaya, Martha; Ingvarsson, Pär; Kalendar, Ruslan; Ruņģis, Dainis (2020)
    Sequencing the giga-genomes of several pine species has enabled comparative genomic analyses of these outcrossing tree species. Previous studies have revealed the wide distribution and extraordinary diversity of transposable elements (TEs) that occupy the large intergenic spaces in conifer genomes. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of TEs in gene regions of the assembled genomes of Pinus taeda and Pinus lambertiana using high-performance computing resources. The quality of draft genomes and the genome annotation have significant consequences for the investigation of TEs and these aspects are discussed. Several TE families frequently inserted into genes or their flanks were identified in both species' genomes. Potentially important sequence motifs were identified in TEs that could bind additional regulatory factors, promoting gene network formation with faster or enhanced transcription initiation. Node genes that contain many TEs were observed in multiple potential transposable element-associated networks. This study demonstrated the increased accumulation of TEs in the introns of stress-responsive genes of pines and suggests the possibility of rewiring them into responsive networks and sub-networks interconnected with node genes containing multiple TEs. Many such regulatory influences could lead to the adaptive environmental response clines that are characteristic of naturally spread pine populations.
  • Routtu, Jarkko (University of Helsinki, 1999)
  • Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy; Satish, Lakkakula; Kalendar, Ruslan; Mathiyazhagan, Narayanan; Sabariswaran, Kandasamy; Sharma, Anket; Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Mingbing (2021)
    Plant development processes are regulated by epigenetic alterations that shape nuclear structure, gene expression, and phenotypic plasticity; these alterations can provide the plant with protection from environmental stresses. During plant growth and development, these processes play a significant role in regulating gene expression to remodel chromatin structure. These epigenetic alterations are mainly regulated by transposable elements (TEs) whose abundance in plant genomes results in their interaction with genomes. Thus, TEs are the main source of epigenetic changes and form a substantial part of the plant genome. Furthermore, TEs can be activated under stress conditions, and activated elements cause mutagenic effects and substantial genetic variability. This introduces novel gene functions and structural variation in the insertion sites and primarily contributes to epigenetic modifications. Altogether, these modifications indirectly or directly provide the ability to withstand environmental stresses. In recent years, many studies have shown that TE methylation plays a major role in the evolution of the plant genome through epigenetic process that regulate gene imprinting, thereby upholding genome stability. The induced genetic rearrangements and insertions of mobile genetic elements in regions of active euchromatin contribute to genome alteration, leading to genomic stress. These TE-mediated epigenetic modifications lead to phenotypic diversity, genetic variation, and environmental stress tolerance. Thus, TE methylation is essential for plant evolution and stress adaptation, and TEs hold a relevant military position in the plant genome. High-throughput techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of TE-mediated gene expression and its associations with genome methylation and suggest that controlled mobilization of TEs could be used for crop breeding. However, development application in this area has been limited, and an integrated view of TE function and subsequent processes is lacking. In this review, we explore the enormous diversity and likely functions of the TE repertoire in adaptive evolution and discuss some recent examples of how TEs impact gene expression in plant development and stress adaptation.