Browsing by Subject "traumatic brain injury"

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  • Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI); the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group; Skrifvars, MB; Bailey, M; Moore, E; Martensson, J; French, C; Presneill, J; Nichol, A; Little, L; Duranteau, J; Huet, O; Haddad, S; Arabi, YM; McArthur, C; Cooper, DJ; Bendel, S; Bellomo, R (2021)
    OBJECTIVES: Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury ( NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING: Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS: A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1- 4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
  • Posti, Jussi P.; Takala, Riikka S. K.; Raj, Rahul; Luoto, Teemu M.; Azurmendi, Leire; Lagerstedt, Linnea; Mohammadian, Mehrbod; Hossain, Iftakher; Gill, Jessica; Frantzen, Janek; van Gils, Mark; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Katila, Ari J.; Koivikko, Pia; Maanpää, Henna-Riikka; Menon, David K.; Newcombe, Virginia F.; Tallus, Jussi; Blennow, Kaj; Tenovuo, Olli; Zetterberg, Henrik; Sanchez, Jean-Charles (2020)
    Background: Blood biomarkers may enhance outcome prediction performance of head computed tomography scores in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective: To investigate whether admission levels of eight different protein biomarkers can improve the outcome prediction performance of the Helsinki computed tomography score (HCTS) without clinical covariates in TBI. Materials and methods: Eighty-two patients with computed tomography positive TBIs were included in this study. Plasma levels of beta-amyloid isoforms 1-40 (A beta 40) and 1-42 (A beta 42), glial fibrillary acidic protein, heart fatty acid-binding protein, interleukin 10 (IL-10), neurofilament light, S100 calcium-binding protein B, and total tau were measured within 24 h from admission. The patients were divided into favorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 5-8, n = 49) and unfavorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended 1-4, n = 33) groups. The outcome was assessed 6-12 months after injury. An optimal predictive panel was investigated with the sensitivity set at 90-100%. Results: The HCTS alone yielded a sensitivity of 97.0% (95% CI: 90.9-100) and specificity of 22.4% (95% CI: 10.2-32.7) and partial area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 2.5% (95% CI: 1.1-4.7), in discriminating patients with favorable and unfavorable outcomes. The threshold to detect a patient with unfavorable outcome was an HCTS > 1. The three best individually performing biomarkers in outcome prediction were A beta 40, A beta 42, and neurofilament light. The optimal panel included IL-10, A beta 40, and the HCTS reaching a partial area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6.2) with a sensitivity of 90.9% (95% CI: 81.8-100) and specificity of 59.2% (95% CI: 40.8-69.4). Conclusion: Admission plasma levels of IL-10 and A beta 40 significantly improve the prognostication ability of the HCTS after TBI.
  • McFadyen, Charles A.; Zeiler, Frederick A.; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese; Steyerberg, Ewout; Gruen, Russel L.; Rosand, Jonathan; Palotie, Aarno; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David K. (2021)
    The mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been largely static despite advances in monitoring and imaging techniques. Substantial variance exists in outcome, not fully accounted for by baseline characteristics or injury severity, and genetic factors likely play a role in this variance. The aims of this systematic review were to examine the evidence for a link between the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) polymorphism and TBI outcomes and where possible, to quantify the effect size via meta-analysis. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and gray literature in December 2017. We included studies of APOE genotype in relation to functional adult TBI outcomes. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies Risk of Bias Assessment Instrument and the prognostic studies adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool. In addition, we contacted investigators and included an additional 160 patients whose data had not been made available for previous analyses, giving a total sample size of 2593 patients. Meta-analysis demonstrated higher odds of a favorable outcome following TBI in those not possessing an ApoE e4 allele compared with e4 carriers and homozygotes (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.84; p = 0.02). The influence of APOE4 on neuropsychological functioning following TBI remained uncertain, with multiple conflicting studies. We conclude that the ApoE e4 allele confers a small risk of poor outcome following TBI, with analysis by TBI severity not possible based on the currently available published data. Further research into the long-term neuropsychological impact and risk of dementia is warranted.
  • Taipale, Jaakko; Hautamäki, Lotta (2021)
    This article examines clinical practice guidelines (CPG) in the courtroom. The guidelines in question are Finnish national current care guidelines for brain injuries, and the case context is traffic insurance compensation cases contested in the Helsinki district court. We analyse 11 case verdicts qualitatively, drawing from earlier socio-logical and theoretical accounts of clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based medicine. What makes the case-type relevant for studying clinical practice guidelines is the fact that the cases, which feature a medical dispute concerning traumatic brain injury, involve highly specialized expertise and contradictory expert claims, but the cases are decided in a generalist court by non-expert judges. What we show in the article is how the guidelines structure, sequence and initiate temporal reworking in the judges’ representation of medical evidence and testimony, and how the plaintiffs’ delayed diagnoses complicate the application of the CPG in the evaluation. We further discuss the guidelines’ epistemic authority in the verdicts and finish by comparing the 2008 and 2017 editions of Finnish CPGs for brain injuries, suggesting a multifaceted, courtroom-mediated feedback loop be-tween the patient-plaintiffs and the clinical practice guidelines.
  • EPO-TBI Investigators; ANZICS Clinical Trials Grp; Knott, Rachel J.; Harris, Anthony; Higgins, Alisa; Pettilä, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    The EPO-TBI multi-national randomized controlled trial found that erythropoietin (EPO), when compared to placebo, did not affect 6-month neurological outcome, but reduced illness severity-adjusted mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), making the cost-effectiveness of EPO in TBI uncertain. The current study uses patient-level data from the EPO-TBI trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of EPO in patients with moderate or severe TBI from the healthcare payers' perspective. We addressed the issue of transferability in multi-national trials by estimating costs and effects for specific geographical regions of the study (Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and Saudi Arabia). Unadjusted mean quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) at 6 months were 0.027 (0.020-0.034; p <0.001) higher in the EPO group, with an adjusted QALY increment of 0.014 (0.000-0.028; p = 0.04). Mean unadjusted costs (95% CI) were $US5668 (-9191 to -2144; p = 0.002) lower in the treatment group; controlling for baseline IMPACT-TBI score and regional heterogeneity reduced this difference to $2377 (-12,446 to 7693; p = 0.64). For a willingness-to-pay threshold of $US50,000 per QALY, 71.8% of replications were considered cost-effective. Therefore, we did not find evidence that EPO was significantly cost-effective in the treatment of moderate or severe TBI at 6-month follow-up.
  • Särkämö, Teppo; Huttula, Lilli; Leppelmeier, Jenna; Molander, Kiki; Forsbom, Maj-Brit; Säynevirta, Kirsi; Kullberg-Turtiainen, Marjo; Turtiainen, Petri; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Hokkanen, Laura; Rantanen, Pekka; Koskinen, Sanna (2021)
    Objective: Dance is a versatile and multimodal rehabilitation method, which may be useful also in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation. Here, we assessed the feasibility and preliminary effects of a novel dance-based intervention called Dual-Assisted Dance Rehabilitation (DARE). Method: This is a feasibility study with a cross-over design where 11 persons with severe/extremely severe TBI received a 12-week (2 times/week) DARE program. Motor and neuropsychological tests and questionnaires measuring mood, executive functions, and quality of life were performed at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month stage. Self-perceived benefits were assessed with a post-intervention questionnaire. Results: Acceptability of and adherence to DARE were encouraging: 91% were fully consistent with protocol, and adherence to DARE sessions was 83-100%. Pre-post treatment effects sizes were medium-large for self-reported depression (BDI-II: d = 1.19-1.74) and executive deficits (BRIEF-A: d = 0.43-1.09) and for test-assessed trunk movement control (TIS: d = 0.47-0.76) and cognitive functioning (WAIS-IV subtests: d = 0.34-0.89). Other outcome measures did not show similar positive effect sizes. Self-perceived benefits were largest for mobility and cognition. Conclusion: Dance-based rehabilitation is a feasible and promising method in severe TBI and its efficacy should be assessed with a larger clinical trial.
  • CTR-TBI Participants; Mikolic, Ana; van Klaveren, David; Oude Groeniger, Joost; Polinder, Suzanne; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability, but little is known about sex and gender differences after TBI. We aimed to analyze the association between sex/gender, and the broad range of care pathways, treatment characteristics, and outcomes following mild and moderate/severe TBI. We performed mixed-effects regression analyses in the prospective multi-center Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, stratified for injury severity and age, and adjusted for baseline characteristics. Outcomes were various care pathway and treatment variables, and 6-month measures of functional outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), post-concussion symptoms (PCS), and mental health symptoms. The study included 2862 adults (36% women) with mild (mTBI; Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15), and 1333 adults (26% women) with moderate/severe TBI (GCS score 3-12). Women were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; odds ratios [OR] 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8) following mTBI. Following moderate/severe TBI, women had a shorter median hospital stay (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-1.0). Following mTBI, women had poorer outcomes; lower Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE; OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6), lower generic and disease-specific HRQoL, and more severe PCS, depression, and anxiety. Among them, women under age 45 and above age 65 years showed worse 6-month outcomes compared with men of the same age. Following moderate/severe TBI, there was no difference in GOSE (OR 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.2), but women reported more severe PCS (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Men and women differ in care pathways and outcomes following TBI. Women generally report worse 6-month outcomes, but the size of differences depend on TBI severity and age. Future studies should examine factors that explain these differences.
  • TBI Collaborative; Anstey, James R.; Taccone, Fabio S.; Udy, Andrew A.; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2020)
    The optimal osmotic agent to treat intracranial hypertension in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains uncertain. We aimed to test whether the choice of mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) as early (first 96 h) osmotherapy in these patients might be associated with a difference in mortality. We retrospectively analyzed data from 2015 from 14 tertiary intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia, UK, and Europe treating severe TBI patients with intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and compared mortality in those who received mannitol only versus HTS only. We performed multi-variable analysis adjusting for site and illness severity (Injury Severity Score, extended IMPACT score, and mean ICP over the first 96 h) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We collected data on 262 patients and compared patients who received early osmotherapy with mannitol alone (n = 46) with those who received HTS alone (n = 46). Mannitol patients were older (median age, 49.2 (19.2) vs. 40.5 (16.8) years; p = 0.02), with higher Injury Severity Scores (42 (15.9) vs. 32.1 [11.3]; p = 0.001), and IMPACT-TBI predicted 6-month mortality (34.5% [23-46] vs. 25% [13-38]; p = 0.02), but had similar APACHE-II scores, and mean and maximum ICPs over the first 96 h. The unadjusted hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality in patients receiving only mannitol was 3.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-7.03; p = 0.001). After adjustment for key mortality predictors, the hazard ratio for in-hospital mortality in patients receiving only mannitol was 2.64 (95% CI, 0.96-7.30; p = 0.06). The choice of early osmotherapy in severe TBI patients may affect survival, or simply reflect clinician beliefs about their different roles, and warrants controlled investigation.
  • EPO-TBI Investigators Anzics Clin; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly understood and it is unknown if it can be attenuated using erythropoietin (EPO). Methods Pre-planned analysis of patients included in the EPO-TBI ( NCT00987454) trial who were randomized to weekly EPO (40 000 units) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) subcutaneously up to three doses or until intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Creatinine levels and urinary output (up to 7 days) were categorized according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) classification. Severity of TBI was categorized with the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI. Results Of 3348 screened patients, 606 were randomized and 603 were analyzed. Of these, 82 (14%) patients developed AKI according to KDIGO (60 [10%] with KDIGO 1, 11 [2%] patients with KDIGO 2, and 11 [2%] patients with KDIGO 3). Male gender (hazard ratio [HR] 4.0 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-11.2, P = 0.008) and severity of TBI (HR 1.3 95% CI 1.1-1.4, P <0.001 for each 10% increase in risk of poor 6 month outcome) predicted time to AKI. KDIGO stage 1 (HR 8.8 95% CI 4.5-17, P <0.001), KDIGO stage 2 (HR 13.2 95% CI 3.9-45.2, P <0.001) and KDIGO stage 3 (HR 11.7 95% CI 3.5-39.7, P <0.005) predicted time to mortality. EPO did not influence time to AKI (HR 1.08 95% CI 0.7-1.67, P = 0.73) or creatinine levels during ICU stay (P = 0.09). Conclusions Acute kidney injury is more common in male patients and those with severe compared to moderate TBI and appears associated with worse outcome. EPO does not prevent AKI after TBI.
  • Zeiler, Frederick A.; McFadyen, Charles; Newcombe, Virginia F. J.; Synnot, Anneliese; Donoghue, Emma L.; Ripatti, Samuli; Steyerbere, Ewout W.; Gruen, Russel L.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Rosand, Jonathan; Palotie, Aarno; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David K. (2021)
    There is a growing literature on the impact of genetic variation on outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Whereas a substantial proportion of these publications have focused on the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, several have explored the influence of other polymorphisms. We undertook a systematic review of the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in non-apolipoprotein E (non-APOE) genes associated with patient outcomes in adult TBI). We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and gray literature from inception to the beginning of August 2017 for studies of genetic variance in relation to patient outcomes in adult TBI. Sixty-eight articles were deemed eligible for inclusion into the systematic review. The SNPs described were in the following categories: neurotransmitter (NT) in 23, cytokine in nine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in 12, mitochondrial genes in three, and miscellaneous SNPs in 21. All studies were based on small patient cohorts and suffered from potential bias. A range of SNPs associated with genes coding for monoamine NTs, BDNF, cytokines, and mitochondrial proteins have been reported to be associated with variation in global, neuropsychiatric, and behavioral outcomes. An analysis of the tissue, cellular, and subcellular location of the genes that harbored the SNPs studied showed that they could be clustered into blood-brain barrier associated, neuroprotective/regulatory, and neuropsychiatric/degenerative groups. Several small studies report that various NT, cytokine, and BDNF-related SNPs are associated with variations in global outcome at 6-12 months post-TBI. The association of these SNPs with neuropsychiatric and behavioral outcomes is less clear. A definitive assessment of role and effect size of genetic variation in these genes on outcome remains uncertain, but could be clarified by an adequately powered genome-wide association study with appropriate recording of outcomes.
  • Taipale, Jaakko (2019)
    This article investigates how civil court judges practice meta-expertise in cases that feature contradictory and inconclusive medical expertise. The empirical case study consists of a sample of eleven Helsinki district court verdicts from 2014–2017, drawn from a larger number of similar traffic insurance compensation cases. The case-type features a medical controversy concerning traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnostics. I contend that the difficulties judges face in evaluating the medical expertise result from epistemic asymmetries between legal and medical professionals. This study highlights the importance of explaining and understanding how judges overcome uncertainty and discriminate between expert positions. Drawing from earlier studies on meta-expertise and judges’ practice of evaluating expertise in court, I introduce the concept ‘socio-technical review’ to describe judges’ practice of facilitating highly technical and esoteric scientific expertise to needs of judicial decision making. I argue that socio-technical review is a special form of practicing meta-expertise, which effectively allows meta-experts to manage epistemic asymmetries. In examining how meta-expertise is practiced in the TBI case-type, the paper contributes to general sociological understanding of decision-making under uncertainty and suggests further studies in comparable settings.
  • Mikkonen, Era D.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Laitio, Ruut; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Karppinen, Atte; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Objective Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a well-described complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The majority of the available data regarding PTE stem from the adult population. Our aim was to identify the clinical and radiological risk factors associated with PTE in a pediatric TBI population treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We used the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database to identify pediatric ( Results Of the 290 patients included in the study, 59 (20%) developed PTE. Median age was 15 years (interquartile range [IQR] 13-17), and 80% had an admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score Significance We showed that PTE is a common long-term complication after ICU-treated pediatric TBI. Higher age, moderate injury severity, obliterated suprasellar cisterns, seizures during ICU stay, and surgical treatment are associated with an increased risk of PTE. Further studies are needed to identify strategies to decrease the risk of PTE.
  • Taipale, Jaakko (2019)
    This study examines two different approaches in empirical analysis of judges' evaluation of expertise in court: first, an analyst-based approach that employs predefined normative criteria to measure judges' performance, and second, an actor-based approach that emphasizes interpretative flexibility in judges' evaluation practice. I demonstrate how these different approaches to investigating judges' adjudication lead to differing understandings about judges' abilities to evaluate scientific evidence and testimonial. Although the choice of analytical approach might depend on context and purpose in general, I contend that in assessing judges' competence, an actor-based approach that adequately describes the way in which judges relate to and handle expertise is required to properly understand and explain how judges evaluate expertise. The choice of approach is especially important if the resulting understanding of judges' competence is subsequently used as a basis for making normative and prescriptive claims with potential consequences for trial outcomes.
  • CTR-TBI Participants Investigators; Jacob, Louis; Cogne, Melanie; Tenovuo, Olli; Azouvi, Philippe; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Background Although rehabilitation is beneficial for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), a significant proportion of them do not receive adequate rehabilitation after acute care. Objective Therefore, the goal of this prospective and multicenter study was to investigate predictors of access to rehabilitation in the year following injury in patients with TBI. Methods Data from a large European study (CENTER-TBI), including TBIs of all severities between December 2014 and December 2017 were used (N = 4498 patients). Participants were dichotomized into those who had and those who did not have access to rehabilitation in the year following TBI. Potential predictors included sociodemographic factors, psychoactive substance use, preinjury medical history, injury-related factors, and factors related to medical care, complications, and discharge. Results In the year following traumatic injury, 31.4% of patients received rehabilitation services. Access to rehabilitation was positively and significantly predicted by female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50), increased number of years of education completed (OR = 1.05), living in Northern (OR = 1.62; reference: Western Europe) or Southern Europe (OR = 1.74), lower prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR = 1.03), higher Injury Severity Score (OR = 1.01), intracranial (OR = 1.33) and extracranial (OR = 1.99) surgery, and extracranial complication (OR = 1.75). On contrast, significant negative predictors were lack of preinjury employment (OR = 0.80), living in Central and Eastern Europe (OR = 0.42), and admission to hospital ward (OR = 0.47; reference: admission to intensive care unit) or direct discharge from emergency room (OR = 0.24). Conclusions Based on these findings, there is an urgent need to implement national and international guidelines and strategies for access to rehabilitation after TBI.
  • Raj, Rahul; Bendel, Stepani; Reinikainen, Matti; Hoppu, Sanna; Luoto, Teemu; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Tetri, Sami; Laitio, Ruut; Koivisto, Timo; Rinne, Jaakko; Kivisaari, Riku; Siironen, Jari; Higgins, Alisa; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Objective: To assess temporal trends in 1-year healthcare costs and outcome of intensive care for traumatic brain injury in Finland. Design: Retrospective observational cohort study. Setting: Multicenter study including four tertiary ICUs. Patients: Three thousand fifty-one adult patients (>= 18 yr) with significant traumatic brain injury treated in a tertiary ICU during 2003-2013. Intervention: None. Measurements and Main Results: Total 1-year healthcare costs included the index hospitalization costs, rehabilitation unit costs, and social security reimbursements. All costs are reported as 2013 U.S. dollars ($). Outcomes were 1-year mortality and permanent disability. Multivariate regression models, adjusting for case-mix, were used to assess temporal trends in costs and outcome in predefined Glasgow Coma Scale (3-8, 9-12, and 13-15) and age (18-40, 41-64, and >= 65 yr) subgroups. Overall 1-year survival was 76% (n = 2,304), and of 1-year survivors, 37% (n = 850) were permanently disabled. Mean unadjusted 1-year healthcare cost was $39,809 (95% CI, $38,144-$41,473) per patient. Adjusted healthcare costs decreased only in the Glasgow Coma Scale 13-15 and 65 years and older subgroups, due to lower rehabilitation costs. Adjusted 1-year mortality did not change in any subgroup (p <0.05 for all subgroups). Adjusted risk of permanent disability decreased significantly in all subgroups (p <0.05). Conclusion: During the last decade, healthcare costs of ICU-admitted traumatic brain injury patients have remained largely the same in Finland. No change in mortality was noted, but the risk for permanent disability decreased significantly. Thus, our results suggest that cost-effectiveness of traumatic brain injury care has improved during the past decade in Finland.
  • Laine, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Previous studies have examined quality of life among people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) using quantitative measures and/or structured questionnaires. Recently some studies have focused on the patient's own perception of TBI and used the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health (ICF) framework to examine quality of life from a wider perspective of functioning. The aim of this study was to examine: What kind of occasions do the participants report as the happiest or unhappiest after TBI, and how are these related to the life areas within the ICF framework. An additional aim was to examine how are these life areas, as well as demographics variables, injury severity, and emotional state associated with the individuals' quality of life. A total of 233 Finnish persons with TBI participated in the Wave 1 of the international QOLIBRI (Quality of Life after Brain Injury) validation study in 2004—2006. The individuals' own descriptions about the happiest/unhappiest occasions were linked to the most precise ICF categories. Correlation and regression analysis were used to examine the association with demographic variables, injury related variable, emotional state, most frequently reported life areas and perceived quality of life. The most frequently reported life areas for both happy and unhappy occasions were Interpersonal interactions and relationships, followed by Community, social and civic life in happy occasions, and Mental functions and Services, systems and policies in both happy and unhappy occasions. Regression analysis showed that younger age, longer post-traumatic amnesia, fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression, happy occasion related Mental functions and Community, civic and social life, and not reporting an unhappy occasion related to Mental functions, yet reporting unhappy occasions related to Interpersonal interactions and relationships, were associated with higher perceived quality of life. The results of this study are in line with previous studies that have shown emotional state, age, and injury severity as factors relevant to quality of life after TBI. Additionally, this study informs clinicians about the life areas that individuals with TBI themselves experience as most relevant to their quality of life. From the individuals' perspective, rehabilitation should focus on supporting social relationships, participation in community activities, using services and helping the persons to cope with the demands of the environment. Furthermore, individuals need emotional support to adapt to their new life situation.
  • CENTER-TBI Collaborators; Gravesteijn, Benjamin Yael; Sewalt, Charlie Aletta; Nieboer, Daan; Lingsma, Hester Floor; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Background: We aimed to study the associations between pre- and in-hospital tracheal intubation and outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and whether the association varied according to injury severity. Methods: Data from the international prospective pan-European cohort study, Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research for TBI (CENTER-TBI), were used (n=4509). For prehospital intubation, we excluded selfpresenters. For in-hospital intubation, patients whose tracheas were intubated on-scene were excluded. The association between intubation and outcome was analysed with ordinal regression with adjustment for the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI variables and extracranial injury. We assessed whether the effect of intubation varied by injury severity by testing the added value of an interaction term with likelihood ratio tests. Results: In the prehospital analysis, 890/3736 (24%) patients had their tracheas intubated at scene. In the in-hospital analysis, 460/2930 (16%) patients had their tracheas intubated in the emergency department. There was no adjusted overall effect on functional outcome of prehospital intubation (odds ratio=1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.28; P=0.96), and the adjusted overall effect of in-hospital intubation was not significant (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.13; P=0.28). However, prehospital intubation was associated with better functional outcome in patients with higher thorax and abdominal Abbreviated Injury Scale scores (P=0.009 and P=0.02, respectively), whereas inhospital intubation was associated with better outcome in patients with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores (P=0.01): inhospital intubation was associated with better functional outcome in patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 10 or lower. Conclusion: The benefits and harms of tracheal intubation should be carefully evaluated in patients with TBI to optimise benefit. This study suggests that extracranial injury should influence the decision in the prehospital setting, and level of consciousness in the in-hospital setting.
  • Choustikova, Julia; Turunen, Hannele; Tuominen-Salo, Hanna; Coco, Kirsi (2020)
    Aims and objectives The study aimed to examine traumatic brain injury (TBI) patient family members' (FMs) experiences of the support they received from healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals. Background The length of hospitalisation following TBI is constantly decreasing, and patients may return home with several problems. FMs care for the patients at home although they may not be prepared for the patient's medical needs or financial burden of the illness. The burden which some FMs experience can impair patient care and rehabilitation outcomes. Therefore, FMs require support during acute phases of TBI treatment. Design A structured questionnaire was sent to 216 TBI patients FMs. The response rate was 47% (n = 102). Methods A structured questionnaire-based on a systematic literature review and a previous questionnaire on TBI patient FMs' perceptions of support-was developed and used in the data collection. The questionnaire included 46 statements and 11 background questions. Data were collected via an electronic questionnaire. The STROBE checklist was followed in reporting the study. Results A factor analysis identified five factors that describe the guidance of TBI patient FMs: guidance of TBI patients' symptoms and survival; benefits of guidance; needs-based guidance; guidance for use of services; and guidance methods. Most of the FMs (51%-88%) felt that they had not received enough guidance from healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals across all five aspects of support. Conclusions The content of guidance should be developed, and healthcare staff should be trained to consider a FM's starting point when providing guidance. A calm environment, proper timing, sufficient information in different forms and professional healthcare staff were found to be key factors to comprehensive guidance. Involving FMs in the discharge process and rehabilitation of their loved ones both supports the abilities of caregivers and promotes the outcome of the patient's rehabilitation. Relevance to clinical practice This study provides varied information on the need for social support of TBI patients FMs in the early stages of treatment from the FMs' perspective. This research adopted the FM's perspective to identify various areas of social support that need to be developed so that the FMs of TBI patients receive enough support during the early stages of TBI treatment.
  • Huttula, Lilli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue leading to long-term cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments. New, effective, multimodal and multidisciplinary rehabilitation practices are needed. Dance is a multimodal activity that engages several brain regions simultaneously and, therefore, might be ideal for enhancing complex functions. Dance also combines physical exercise and the use of music, both of which positively affect healthy and neuropathological populations. The aim of the research project was to develop a multidisciplinary dance rehabilitation method and to evaluate its feasibility and effectiveness in chronic severe TBI. The current study investigates the intervention’s effects on cognition, depressive mood, and health-related quality of life. The feasibility of the intervention is also discussed. Methods: The current study had 11 participants with severe TBI; four women and seven men, 19 – 45 years old, with an average time of 7.6 years from the acquisition of the injury. A two-group crossover design with random allocation was used. The intervention (three months, two weekly sessions) was carried out together by a dance instructor and a physiotherapist. Neuropsychological assessments were conducted at the beginning of the study (t0), and twice after that every three months (t3 and t6). Performance before and after the intervention in general cognition, frontal lobe functions, abstract reasoning, visuo-spatial reasoning, working memory, mood, health-related quality of life, and executive functions were compared with paired sample t-tests. Time and group interactions were studied by repeated measures analyses of variance. Results: Abstract reasoning, health-related quality of life, and most saliently, mood improved significantly during the intervention. Qualitative findings also indicated enhanced mood. One of the participants described being reconnected to emotions for the first time a after the acquisition of the TBI and several other participants expressed positive feelings and experiences during the intervention. Conclusions: The current study suggests that dance rehabilitation may improve mood, abstract reasoning, and quality of life in the chronic state of severe TBI. These results are tentative and more research with larger samples is needed to verify the findings.