Browsing by Subject "trend"

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  • Vaajoki, Vicky (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Change is often viewed as the essence of fashion, but many who operate in the field have observed that certain features and events recur either in a linear, cyclical, swinging or fragmented matter. The purpose of my thesis is to forecast the next 1950s revival by developing and testing a new tool for forecasting. To achieve my goal I examined, if the revivals show common always recurring features and what the similarities and differences are like. I studied the two most recent recurrences in the years 1996 and 2012 by focusing on two retrotrends, apparel and Zeitgeist. The perspective of my thesis was a qualitative and hermeneutic future study. I examined the apparel features with photographs of Chanel's and Dior's collections. For the interpretation of the Zeitgeist factors I used Mitä, missä, milloin -books and collected the research material from the section on culture, news and international politics. For the analysis I employed the hermeneutic circle and two types of qualitative content analysis. On the first round I expanded my pre-understanding and defined the factors with which I grouped, measured and interpreted the material in the content analyses. On rounds two, three and four I analyzed the photographs by applying content analysis of visual images, and examined the text with inductive content analysis. On the fifth and final round I formed the base for my forecast by comparing my expanded understanding and the results of the previous rounds with one another. According to the results the most common characteristic features of the dresses and jackets, in Chanel's and Dior's collections from the years 1996 and 2012, resembled the features of the 1950s. The greatest differences where in the lengths of the sleeves and skirts. All of the Zeitgeist factors recurred in each revival, except for the "racial riots", youth culture and the buy now pay later -mentality. Based on my findings I predict that the common characteristic features of the 1950s apparel and Zeitgeist will recur in the next revival.
  • Raateoja, Mika; Kauppila, Pirkko (Springer Nature, 2019)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
    A long-term trophic development of three geographical transects—including a river mouth, an estuary, and an archipelago—were studied in the southern Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Each transect was studied to clarify how far off the coast the land-based nutrient sources (catchment factor, CF) had a decisive role in shaping the wintertime regimes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved inorganic phosphorus and where the marine processes (marine factor, MF) start to play a major role. Generally, CF controlled the nutrient regime from the coast to the outer brink of the inner coastal area, after which MF started to dominate. The estuaries exhibited steep vertical nutrient gradients, above which the riverine input dominated the nutrient regime. The extent of the area where CF dominated the nutrient regime was therefore decisively dependent on estuarine stratification, i.e., whether the conclusions were drawn based on the surface layer data, including the riverine impact, or on the data beneath that layer, including the marine impact. This result deviates from the current consensus that the trophic regime of the sea is most directly assessed by the surface layer nutrient content. The estuarine nutrient regime is unrepresentative to that of a typical coastal water body due to the strong land-based impact on the estuary. Therefore, any generalization of the trophic condition of an estuary to represent areas farther off the coast should be done cautiously. The estuaries should also be defined as belonging to transitional waters according to the typology related to European Marine Legislation.
  • Abera, Temesgen; Pellikka, Petri; Heiskanen, Janne; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Land surface temperature (LST) is affected by surface-atmosphere interaction. Yet, the degree to which surface and atmospheric factors impact the magnitude of LST trend is not well established. Here, we used surface energy balance, boosted regression tree model, and satellite observation and reanalysis data to unravel the effects of surface factors (albedo, sensible heat, latent heat, and ground heat) as well as incoming radiation (shortwave and longwave) on LST trends in East Africa (EA). Our result showed that 11% of EA was affected by significant (p <0.05) daytime annual LST trends, which exhibited both cooling of -0.19 K year(-1) (mainly in South Sudan and Sudan) and warming of 0.22 K year(-1) (mainly in Somalia and Kenya). The nighttime LST trends affected a large part of EA (31%) and were dominated by significant warming trend (0.06 K year(-1)). Influenced by contrasting daytime and nighttime LST trends, the diurnal LST range reduced in 15% of EA. The modeling result showed that latent heat flux (32%), incoming longwave radiation (30%), and shortwave radiation (23%) were stronger in explaining daytime LST trend. The effects of surface factors were stronger in both cooling and warming trends, whereas atmospheric factors had stronger control only on surface cooling trends. These results indicate the differential control of surface and atmospheric factors on warming and cooling trends, highlighting the importance of considering both factors for accurate evaluation of the LST trends in the future.
  • Suur-Uski, Johanna; Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mänty, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries, invariably worsening ability to work. High occupational class is associated with higher breast cancer incidence but better survival, however, little is known about occupational class differences in breast cancer related sickness absence over time. Therefore, we aimed to examine occupational class differences in the incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence due to breast cancer over time. Methods: A nationally representative 70-per-cent random sample of Finnish women aged 35–64 in 2004–2012 (annual n=499,778–519,318) was linked to register data on over 10-days long medically certified sickness absence due to breast cancer (ICD-10 code C50) in 2005–2013. This study focused on employed women, including upper non-manual employees (n=111,127–128,905), lower non-manual employees (n=270,426–287,016) and manual workers (n=98,067–118,731). The class differences were analysed by calculating age-adjusted cumulative incidence and duration of absence due to breast cancer annually over the period 2005–2013. Results: Throughout the study period, the annual cumulative incidence was highest among upper non-manuals (314–384 per 100,000 persons) and lowest among manual workers (208–268 per 100,000 persons). In contrast, the annual duration of absence was inversely associated with occupational class, with manual workers having the longest (150–173 days) and upper non-manuals the shortest (114–140 days) duration of absence throughout. Occupational class differences in sickness absence due to breast cancer remained broadly stable over time. Conclusions: Employees in lower occupational classes had lower cumulative incidence but longer duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer compared to those in higher occupational classes. Attention should be paid to promotion of work capacity among employees with breast cancer in lower occupational classes.
  • Pussinen, Kirsi (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    The aim of this work was to study, whether international fashion trends show in knit designs in Finnish craft magazines and how trends are modified. Women's knitted clothes and accessories in autumn winter season 2005 2006 were analyzed. Future research, trends, fashion, designing and knitting provides theoretical basis for this study. The trend material of this study came from Carlin Women's knitwear winter 2005 2006, which is fashion forecast for Women's knitwear. In addition to the trend book, I selected two international fashion magazines to reinforce this study. Fashion magazines were L'Officiel, 1000 models, Milan - New York - winter 05/06, No 52, April 2005 and Collezioni Donna, Prêt-à-porter autumn-winter 2005 2006, No 107. Finnish craft magazines in this study were MODA's issues 4/2005, 5/2005, 6/2005 and Novita's issues autumn 2005, winter 2005 and Suuri Käsityölehti's issues 8/2005, 9/2005, 10/2005. For the base of the analyze I took themes from the trend book. From fashion magazines I searched knitwear designs and these designs were sorted out by themes of trend book. To this trend and fashion material I compared knit designs from craft magazines. I analyzed how fashion trends show in knit designs and how they are modified. I also studied what features of trends were shown and which did not appear in knit designs of the craft magazines. For analyzing trend pictures and knit designs in craft magazines I applied qualitative content analysis and image analysis. According to the results of this research, effects of trend can be recognized in knit designs of craft magazines, although the fashion trends have been applied very discreetly. Knit designs were very similar regardless of magazine. The craft magazine data included approximately as many designs from Novita and MODA. In Suuri Käsityölehti provided only fifth of the designs data. There were also designs in MODA and Suuri Käsityölehti, which were made of Novita's yarns. This research material includes yarns of 15 different yarn manufacturers. Although half of all knit designs were knitted from Novita's yarn. There were 10 different yarns from Novita. Nevertheless Novita's yarn called Aino was the most popular. Finnish craft magazines have not respond to popularity of knitting. Magazines do not provide any novelty designs for knitters. Knit designs in Finnish craft magazines are usually practical basic designs without any innovativeness.
  • Suur-Uski, Johanna; Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mänty, Minna (2019)
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries with clear socioeconomic differences. Higher occupational class is associated with higher breast cancer incidence but with better survival from the disease, whereas lower occupational class is associated with higher risk of sickness absence. We are not aware of previous studies examining changes over time in occupational class differences in sickness absence due to breast cancer. This paper focuses on occupational class differences in the incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer over the period of 2005-2013. Age-adjusted occupational class differences in the cumulative incidence and duration of sickness absence due to breast cancer were calculated utilising a nationally representative 70% random sample of employed Finnish women aged 35-64 years (yearly N varying between 499,778 and 519,318). The results show that higher occupational class was associated with higher annual cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to breast cancer. Lower occupational class was associated with longer duration of absence. Occupational class differences in both cumulative incidence and duration of absence remained broadly stable. As a conclusion, these results suggest that measures should be targeted particularly to promotion of work capacity among employees with breast cancer in lower occupational classes.
  • Björklund, Heidi; Meller, Kalle; Valkama, Jari (2019)
  • Luomaranta, Anna M; Aalto, Juha; Jylhä, Kirsti (2019)
    Snow conditions in high-latitude regions are changing in response to climate warming, and these changes are likely to accelerate as the warming proceeds. Here, we analyse daily gridded snow depth, temperature and precipitation data from Finland over the period 1961-2014 to discover the ongoing changes in monthly average snow depths (SN) and several snow-related indices. Our results indicate that regional differences of changes in snow conditions can be relatively large, even within such a small district as Finland. Moreover, the interannual variation of the various snow indices was found to be larger in southern Finland than in northern Finland. The largest decrease in snow depth occurred in the southern, western and central parts of Finland in late winter and early spring. This decrease was driven by increasing mixed and liquid precipitation and, especially in spring, increasing temperature. In northern Finland, the decreasing trend of snow depth was most evident in spring, but no change occurred during winter months, although the amount of solid precipitation was found to increase in December-February. In the same months, temperature and the amount of mixed and liquid precipitation increased, likely counteracting the effects of the increasing solid precipitation on snow depth. The annual maximum snow depth that typically occurs in March was found to decrease in over 85% of Finland's area, most strongly in western coastal areas. In almost half of Finland's area, this decrease occurred despite increasing solid precipitation. Our findings highlight the complexity of the responses of snow conditions to climatic variability in northern Europe.
  • Laurila, Terhi K. (Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2022)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 181
    Strong winds can cause large impacts and damage to society. Many sectors, such as wind energy, forestry and insurance, are highly affected by winds. Thus, preparedness and adaptation to winds and windstorms is essential in both weather (days) and climate (decades) time scales. The aim of this thesis is to better understand the near surface mean and extreme wind climate in northern Europe and Finland and the role of extratropical cyclones in contributing to the extreme winds. This thesis investigated the main characteristics of wind and windstorm climate in northern Europe and Finland over a 40-year period. The wind and windstorm climate was found to have large inter-annual and decadal variability and no significant linear trends. The well-known seasonal cycle was detected: winds in northern Europe are up to 30 % stronger in winter than in summer and while there are on average 5–6 windstorms per month in winter in northern Europe there are none in summer months. A more surprising result was that the number of all extratropical cyclones does not vary between seasons. Windstorms were found to be the most frequent over the Barents Sea whereas weaker extratropical cyclones occur over the land areas in northern Europe. The development and structure of strong winds in windstorms in northern Europe and Finland were examined. The results show that the strongest wind gusts associated with windstorms shift and extend from the warm sector to behind the cold front during the evolution. The cold-season (Oct–Mar) windstorms are overall stronger and spatially larger than warm-season (Apr–Sep) windstorms. For example, the central pressure is on average 9 hPa deeper and the maximum wind gust 2 ms-1 stronger in cold-season windstorms than in warm-season windstorms. Analysing a case study of storm Mauri, a damaging windstorm in Finland in September 1982, shows that an individual windstorm development can vary largely from the climate’s general concept. The case study also found that during storm Mauri the wind speeds over land areas in Finland are underestimated in the weather model by 2–13 ms-1 compared to observations, but the location of strong winds is correctly predicted. Lastly, this thesis investigated what meteorological factors affect the intensity of windstorms in northern Europe. This was studied by using an ensemble sensitivity method. The sensitivities of windstorm intensity to all studied meteorological factors were 20–75 % higher in the cold season than in the warm season. This implies that cold season windstorms are potentially better predictable than warm-season windstorms. The strongest impact to the intensity of northern Europe windstorms is from the low-level temperature gradient which is therefore an important variable to follow when forecasting windstorms. The results from this thesis highlight the importance of examining long-term inter-annual variations, instead of just linear trends, to get a broader understanding of the climate. Moreover, the results emphasize the need of both general conceptual models and individual case studies to better understand the large variety of windstorm development paths.