Browsing by Subject "trust"

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  • von Schoultz, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Trust and empowerment are popular management practices, with many big organizations having adopted initiatives involving the two concepts. Despite the popularity of these initiatives, most of them fail. To be able to design effective behavior change interventions we need to know what made the interventions successful or unsuccessful by evaluating them. Traditionally, effectiveness was evaluated but recently knowing why an intervention worked is perceived as essential. By understanding how participants of trust and empowerment initiatives perceive their acceptability, insights can be gained into why the intervention worked as it did. Intervention acceptability refers to how the intervention providers or receivers think or feel about an intervention. This study aims to examine the retrospective intervention acceptability, of an organizational pilot intervention focusing on trust and empowerment, from the perspective of the intervention recipients. To examine how the intervention participants perceive the acceptability of the intervention, the acceptability domains of the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability (TFA) will be used. As the TFA was developed for assessing the acceptability of healthcare interventions, the fit of the framework for assessing the acceptability of an organizational intervention will be evaluated. The study adopts a qualitative research methodology using theory-driven content analysis with a relativist perspective. The data was collected using online semi-structured focus group interviews. The sample included 12 team- or project leaders from different parts of the world. The results show that the intervention has high retrospective acceptability from the perspective of the intervention recipients. The participants mainly used the existing TFA domains in their construction of acceptability, with the addition of including appropriateness as a central domain. It, therefore, seems that the TFA works well for understanding how the participants of a trust and empowerment intervention conducted in an organizational setting, perceive its acceptability. It seems that the intervention is designed to suit the target group well, which increases the likelihood for a successful full-scale intervention when and if the organization decides to roll out the training on a larger scale. This study also provides insights into the applicability of using the TFA in a new context.
  • Norta, Alex (2011)
    Department of Computer Science, Series of Publications C, C-2011-39
    The management and coordination of business-process collaboration experiences changes because of globalization, specialization, and innovation. Service-oriented computing (SOC) is a means towards businessprocess automation and recently, many industry standards emerged to become part of the service-oriented architecture (SOA) stack. In a globalized world, organizations face new challenges for setting up and carrying out collaborations in semi-automating ecosystems for business services. For being efficient and effective, many companies express their services electronically in what we term business-process as a service (BPaaS). Companies then source BPaaS on the fly from third parties if they are not able to create all service-value inhouse because of reasons such as lack of reasoures, lack of know-how, cost- and time-reduction needs. Thus, a need emerges for BPaaS-HUBs that not only store service offers and requests together with information about their issuing organizations and assigned owners, but that also allow an evaluation of trust and reputation in an anonymized electronic service marketplace. In this paper, we analyze the requirements, design architecture and system behavior of such a BPaaS-HUB to enable a fast setup and enactment of business-process collaboration. Moving into a cloud-computing setting, the results of this paper allow system designers to quickly evaluate which services they need for instantiationg the BPaaS-HUB architecture. Furthermore, the results also show what the protocol of a backbone service bus is that allows a communication between services that implement the BPaaS-HUB. Finally, the paper analyzes where an instantiation must assign additional computing resources vor the avoidance of performance bottlenecks.
  • Hietaniemi, Eila (2003)
    The study has examined the effects of the actions aimed at deterring exclusion especially on the activation, labourmarket placement, and the life control of the aging and inadequately trained unemployed. As the theoretical frame of reference, e.g. Pierre Bordieu's theories about the meanings of capitals and fields to individuals and from the viewpoint of social actors have been used. Under examination has been the social capital manifesting itself as trust or confidence in social relationships. Theoretical background for the study has been found from e.g. the frameworks of exclusion, unemployment research, organizing of social welfare, and from the frameworks of the operational conditions and environments of anticipatory socialpolicies, and activating labourpolicies. The empirical material was collected from the eight development plans targeted towards the people 45 years or older who were unemployed or threatened by unemployment, chosen from the Finnish ESR- program period 1995-1999. The basic population of 377 persons and the standardized control group was collected manually from the registries of the labour administration in February 2002, and the questionnaire as a postal survey also in the spring of 2002. The survey was sent to 196 persons chosen from the basic population. Because of the disparity of the materials and several different methods and theories used, the research methodology was chosen to be triangulation. In the examination of the factor of social capital and life control e.g. the methods of sum variables, means of variable ratios, and variance analysis. The interview material has been utilized as factual information whenever relevant. As one result, the most significator prohibitive factor in trying to employ the aging unemployed people was inadequate vocational training, and not so much aging. The roots of the structural unemployment affecting the current labourmarket are thus located: the post World War II radical change, when the educational requirements of workers were low. Of the factors of anticipation, activation, and the strength of the life control, the trust towards to the institutional actors turned out to be weak. The dominant factor expressing the strength of external and internal life control was the ethos of 'coping on your own'. The study used as source material the works, articles of e.g. the following authors: S. Aho, P. Bourdieu, J. Coleman, I. Culpit, T. Helne, K. Ilmonen, J. Kajanoja, P. Putnam, R. Raitasalo, J. P. Roos, H. Silver, and K. Vähätalo.
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina; Apurina, Francisco; Facundes, Sidney (2021)
    This article looks at what origin stories teach about the world and what kind of material presence they have in Southwestern Amazonia. We examine the ways the Apurina relate to certain nonhuman entities through their origin story, and our theoretical approach is language materiality, as we are interested in material means of mediating traditional stories. Analogous to the ways that speakers of many other languages who distinguish the entities that they talk to or about, the Apurina make use of linguistic resources to establish the ways they interact with different entities. Besides these resources, the material means of mediating stories is a crucial tool to narrate the worlds of humans and nonhumans. Storytelling requires material mediation, and a specific context of plant substances. It also involves community meeting as a space of trust in order to become a communicative practice and effectively introduce the history of the people. Our sources are ethnography, language documentation, and autoethnography.
  • Sillitoe, Allan William Brookes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Social psychologists have long assumed that imitation produces rapport and interpersonal trust in the perceiver, but more recent research into the imitation-trust relationship has produced mixed results. In studies utilizing human confederates and longer interaction periods, imitation has produced trust and better negotiation outcomes but when using more controlled settings and short encounters with virtual human characters, such an association has not been found. With this in mind, I sought to investigate whether a prolonged period of interaction with an imitating virtual agent would facilitate the link between imitation and trust. As some research on imitation induced self-other overlap (or ‘feature shifting’) would indicate, I also wanted to identify whether being imitated by someone trustworthy would produce trustworthy behaviour and whether imitation by someone untrustworthy would produce less trustworthy behaviour in participants. To investigate the proposed effects, participants were instructed to play an iterative trust game with 8 different virtual agents, encountering each agent in five subsequent trials. In each trial of the game, one player (investor) was asked to make an investment (i.e. an index of trust) in the other player (receiver) and that was then tripled. The receiver then decided how much of the tripled amount to return (i.e. an index of trustworthiness). In half of the investment trials, participants’ head movements were imitated by the agent, whereafter participants proceeded to make the investment. I found evidence in the first investment trial that imitation promotes trust, with higher amounts invested in the imitators than in the non-imitators. However, after repeated investment trials, the effect of imitation diminished and agents' previous pay back behavior (i.e. trustworthiness) guided investments: participants increased their investments with trustworthy agents but reduced their investments with untrustworthy agents. In receiver trials, more money was paid back after interacting with a trustworthy than with an untrustworthy agent. However, no evidence was found that imitation played a role in this and similarly no evidence for the role of feature shifting was found either. In conclusion, it appears that imitation promotes trust in an initial encounter but over time behavioral reliability plays a greater role than imitation in affecting trust.
  • Olaleye, Sunday; Sanusi, I.T.; Fanning, Stephen; Salo, Jari (2020)
  • Rantapuska, Elias; Freese, Riitta Irene; Jääskeläinen, Iiro; Hytönen, Kaisa (2017)
    We build on the social heuristics hypothesis, the literature on the glucose model of self-control, and recent challenges on these hypotheses to investigate whether individuals exhibit a change in degree of trust and reciprocation after consumption of a meal. We induce short-term manipulation of hunger followed by the trust game and a decision on whether to leave personal belongings in an unlocked and unsupervised room. Our results are inconclusive. While, we report hungry individuals trusting and reciprocating more than those who have just consumed a meal in a high trust society, we fail to reject the null with small number of observations (N = 101) and experimental sessions (N = 8). In addition, we find no evidence of short-term hunger having an impact on charitable giving or decisions in public good game.
  • Lappalainen, Raija (2011)
    My thesis focuses on how young people in the sheltered home programmes of child welfare assess changes in their lives and how they describe their experiences on trust. The aim is to look at this from the point of view of young people: how young people living in risky situations affect their own lives and do not become marginalised. The focus is primarily on the adolescents’ internal stories as mediums of experiences and secondly on external stories as expert discourse. Trust is the central theoretical concept of the study. Trust is considered a key social mechanism that strengthens the feeling of basic security. In addition, the concepts of social capital, well-being and participation are used in the study. The study is qualitative and narrative and attempts to understand the subjective experiences of young people. The research material consists of altogether twelve narrative-biographical research interviews of seven young people in sheltered home programmes. The adolescents explained the changes for the worse in their lives mainly by external factors. They believed that positive changes were mainly due to their own strengths, attitude, their own agency and responsibility. The young people were classified according to the role they chose in change situations as “children who bear the responsibility” (child assumes parental responsibility) or “rebellious youth” (young person renounces all responsibility). All of the young people shared a sense of mistrust towards their parents. However, feelings of trust vary by situation and case. All of the adolescents studied had experienced feelings of trust towards the network of people close to them. The nature of the confidential relationship with the workers required by the young people varies by the individual. With the “children who bear the responsibility” trust was based on support, whereas with the “rebellious youth” the importance of control was stressed. All of the young people had experienced a sense of agency with relation to the service system. The length of the placement did not seem to have relevance to the building of confidential relationships. The building of confidence served as an explanation, as it were, to how well the young people have coped. The adolescents in sheltered home programmes of child welfare were able to establish confidential relationships despite their difficult experiences with mistrust. The trust of these young people was built on all dimensions of well-being – Having (living conditions), Loving (social relationships) and Being (orientation with the world). According to the empirical knowledge of the young people and expert information, secure growing-up conditions (predictability), confidential relationships with people close to them (trust as communication), and participation (agency) with relation to the service system are significant in building up trust. Narrative and biographical methods were well suited as tools for hearing a young person. With them the workers are able to pinpoint their own role in the meaning-making of a young person. They are thus able to give room to the people close to the young person and important to him or her. Using the knowledge acquired from the young people for development purposes requires that the work community has a reflective approach to their work. The work needs to be developed so that young people can become more trustful towards the service systems and the workers.
  • Markkula, Marita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The topic of this study is to explore how the senior business leaders construct their attitudes and describe the role of trust in the context of business transformations related to the company's business and organization, for example during mergers or acquisitions (M&A) and hyper-growth. The focus of the study is on attitudes constructed by these leaders and observed through their argumentation when talking about trust. These attitudes and argumentation are examined from the theoretic-methodological approach of qualitative attitude approach, offering a unique angle to trust research, widely dominated by quantitative research. The qualitative attitude approach relies on rhetorical social psychology and constructivist viewpoint, which draws attention to the socially constructed nature of argumentation when examining attitudes. In the qualitative attitude approach, attitude is seen as relationist, where attitude is viewed to be built in argumentation. Examining the argumentation of speech provides new insights into the role of trust in an organization. The research data consisted of five individual interviews of experienced corporate executives in top management positions (members of the company’s executive leadership team or the board of directors). The interviews were conducted in the spring and summer of 2019. These semi-structured interviews consisted of seven attitude prompts to which comments were requested. Five prompts addressed trust within the organization and two addressed leadership. In their speech, the interviewees formed statements and justifications to the questions and topics at hand, substantiating and negotiating their views. The study identified 20 different attitude constructs related to trust and two attitude constructs related to leadership overall. These attitudes were constructed from the classification of statements and justifications that emerged from the interview material. According to the qualitative attitude approach, analysis was conducted on two levels: through classifying and interpretative analysis. Attitudes were interpreted based on six evaluative argumentation patterns when talking about trust, forming six rhetoric versions of trust: Trust as a relational and interactional phenomenon across different organizational levels, Trust as an organizational catalyst, Trust as an outcome of multidimensional elements, Trust as an intentional act, Trust as a collective construct, and Trust-building as a leadership skill. The senior leaders formed these versions of trust from four subject positions - Trustor, Trustee, Observer and Evaluator of Trust, and Active Trust Builder. Positive, conditional, and negative justifications, subject positions, self-reflection, framing, and social influence were used as rhetoric and social resources to form attitudes related to trust. In the trust speech of senior business leaders, trust is described as an atmosphere of common trust, building material, and a bedrock of the company, that must be consciously and collectively built within organizations. Modern leadership was described as a school of fish with collective intelligence, a team jointly creating success. Trust-building needs to be contributed by the whole organization but it’s also seen as a leadership skill just like budgeting. The benefits of trust for organizations are empirically indisputable. Trust helps an organization to bear and share risks, creates psychological safety at all levels of the organization as well as supports risk-taking and decision-making in transformational situations.
  • Seppälä, Tuija; Lipponen, Jukka; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija (2012)
    In this article, the association between perceived supervisor fairness and trust in coworkers as a collective entity is studied. Based on identity-related theories on fairness, trust and leader effectiveness it was hypothesized that perceived supervisor distributive, procedural and interactional fairness are positively and more strongly related to employee trust in their coworkers if the supervisor is highly group prototypical rather than less group prototypical. An empirical study, conducted with 176 employees within 30 work groups, supported this hypothesis. Fairness of a less group prototypical supervisor was not associated with trust in coworkers, whereas especially unfairness of the group prototypical supervisor was detrimental for trust in coworkers. The study concludes that leader’s prototypicality might not work as a substitute for fairness, as some recent studies have suggested, when the outcome is not directly related to the assessment of the leader. Thus, leaders should not count on the trust they earn by being group prototypical but they should also aim at fairness. Implications for collective distrust theory (Kramer, 1994; 1998) are also discussed.
  • Koveshnikov, Alexei (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014)
    Economics and Society – 278
    Multinational corporations (MNC) are often presented as powerful but ‘faceless’ institutional actors that shape the world we live in. However, we have lately seen increasing interest in actual ‘faces,’ that is the key actors, behind the MNC’s functioning in relation to the cases of fraud and bankruptcy that, together with other factors, led to the severe financial crisis at the end of 2000s. The cases of Enron and Lehman Brothers easily come to mind. It raised concerns that power abuses and tricky political games developing and proliferating within MNCs can have tremendous corporate as well as societal impacts and consequences. Yet, as of now, the micro-level power and political relations between actors in MNCs and their implications, i.e. what I call in this thesis ‘micro-politics,’ are seldom examined. Moreover, neither is the role that the institutional, cultural and sociopolitical contexts play in these micro-political relations among actors within MNCs sufficiently understood. Against this background, in this thesis I attempt to give ‘a face’ to the MNC. That is, I apply a number of ideas from comparative institutional theory, social cognition and translation studies to examine micro-political aspects of the interactions between organizational actors in MNCs that determine how these corporations function both on day to day basis and in a longer run. By so doing, I strive to offer a more nuanced, contextualized, and actor-focused sociological understanding of power and political interactions among organizational actors within the MNC. It is important to study and comprehend these processes in order to better explain them and to some extent control them.
  • Jalava, Janne (2004)
    The overall theme of this work is the explication of Niklas Luhmann's concept of trust and its connections to norms, strangers and care. The luhmannian perspective of trust is discussed from three different viewpoints. First, I study Luhmann's concepts of familiarity, confidence and trust in the context of his systems theory. I present an overview of the functions and meanings of social systems and examine what type of role the theory of trust has in Luhmann's larger system's theoretical thinking. Second, I examine the connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and the traditional theories of trust. I compare his theory of trust to two of his most important influences, Talcott Parsons and Georg Simmel. Third, I extend the discussion of trust to the areas - which Luhmann himself does not handle - of strangers, terrorists and the system of care. By doing this, I expand the limits of luhmannian trust and concretise its usefulness of today's sociological problems. The content of this work can be introduced as follows: First, I will introduce the basic concepts of Luhmann's systems theory: autopoiesis, meaning, communication, evolution and differentiation. Second, I show why trust in particular is of central concern in contemporary social theory and in today's society, and examine the connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and his autopoietic systems theory. The connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and that of Parsons will also be addressed. Third, I specify the concepts of terrorism, stranger and trust in the global age. I study especially the connections between Simmel's and Luhmann's theories of trust as well as show how the growing number of meetings with strangers are affecting today's trust relationships. Last, I examine the concept of care, especially caring for the elderly, from the perspective of Luhmann's systems theory. I consider care as a functional subsystem of society which has gradually been developed over the years in the modern welfare state and outline also Luhmann's organisation theory and specify elements of contemporary care organisations as well as address the connections between Luhmann's theory of trust and the systems-theoretical model of care.
  • Tolmatsova, Anastasia (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The role of wood-based bioenergy has improved over the past few years after the European Union’s climate and energy directive came into effect. The main aim of the policy is to substitute fossil fuel with biofuels aim-ing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase energy security and support the development of rural com-munities. To achieve this aim it is necessary to pursue more efficient energy use in living, construction and transport. Most of the EU countries have undertaken to participate in these actions by increasing the use of renewable energy such as wood-based bioenergy. Currently, wood-based bioenergy is highly supported with subsidies and other political decisions that act as the main market driver. Furthermore, the increasing prices of fossil fuels create favorable conditions for future bioenergy market developments. Nevertheless, the role of bioenergy is growing even though the market has its own challenges due to fluctuating forest industry cycles. To better understand the wood-based bioenergy market and its current situation, this Master’s thesis has ga-thered up-to-date information on three different market areas which will assist in finding potential delivery destinations within the Baltic Sea area for wood-based bioenergy produced in the Leningrad region. In addi-tion, this thesis introduces, on a broad scale, the central concepts of wood-based bioenergy and discusses the political drivers affecting bioenergy markets. The theoretical framework is mainly based on the Information Environment Model by Juslin and Hansen (2002), an instrument for investigating the bioenergy market from both macro and micro environment aspects, and on the Relationship Commitment and Trust theory by Morgan and Hunt (1994), which examines how relationships between buyers and sellers are established and discusses the role of two variables - trust and commitment. Both models were applied when collecting both the primary data from bioenergy customers through interviews and the secondary data from research articles, publications and Internet sources. The study also includes a discussion part as well as development proposals related to future customer relationship man-agement. Wood-based bioenergy is an important energy source fighting against climate change. However, to fulfill the targets set by the European Union and country-specific politics there is still a need for more opera-tors working in bioenergy field. Based on the results, it is necessary to support good communication, coopera-tion and trust between raw-material buyers and sellers in order to achieve functional raw-material exchange circumstances. The study is conducted as a qualitative research project.
  • Nissinen, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Western democracies are facing a complex and a harmful phenomenon because of influence operations on social media. This master’s thesis assesses the connection between Finnish citizens’ political trust and their experienced feeling of threat towards influence operations. It has been discussed in the public that the goal of a successful influence operation is to undermine citizens’ trust towards its democratic institutions and actors. Because there is an insufficient amount of academic research on this topic, the aim of this thesis is to rectify it by revealing the true nature of the link between political trust and citizens’ experience. The theoretical framework consists of Harvard University’s Pippa Norris’ theory of E-democracy. It introduces the virtual political environment in the 21th Century. Harvard University’s Robert D. Putnam’s theory of social capital describes the trends of interpersonal trust in the modern history. Collège de France’s Pierre Rosanvallon’s theory of counter-democracy provides a theoretical bridge between Norris’ virtual political system and influence operations as seen, for example, in the United States’ presidential election in 2016. A survey sample of 1000 participants analyzed in this master’s thesis was originally collected by the think tank Magma in 2017. “Finnish Views on Democracy and Political Issues 2017” sample was collected to describe Finnish citizens’ views on multiculturalism and attitudes towards bilingual policies. However, the sample has more elements in it, for example, citizens’ views on democracy and security policies. Hence an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and it revealed four latent attitudes from the sample: political trust, resilience and stances towards multiculturalism and minorities. The research was continued by transforming the identified factors to factor scores, meaning new variables. After that a logistic ordinal regression was conducted to provide insight into the relationship between the political trust and Finnish citizens’ views on the threat of influence operations. The connection was not identified between them in this master’s thesis. Other factor scores, resilience and stances towards multiculturalism and minorities had a statistically significant connection with Finnish citizens’ views on the threat of influence operations. This research - contrary to expectations - failed to show a clear relationship between political trust and Finnish citizens’ experienced feeling of threat towards influence operations. It might tell that socio-economic background might be a stronger factor defining the individual’s tendencies to the phenomenon compared to the political trust. Then again, influence operations could impact in a different dimension than where citizens’ affiliations with democratic institutions and actors exist. This topic requires more interdisciplinary research to find the answer to the societal challenges Western democracies are facing with influence operations using social media.
  • Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Anne Marjo Kaarina; Mynttinen, Sinikka; Logrén, Johanna; Rautiainen, Teija (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education and Research, 2015)
    Russians are the largest national group among tourists visiting Finland, even after the recent downturn caused by the economic situation/devaluation of the Ruble. Russian tourists in Finland spend money mainly on food, household goods, sweets and children's clothing. Thus, food is a fundamental element of the holiday experience. Finnish food products are highly valued by Russians, and, therefore, Russian tourists are an interesting target group in order to understand the perceptions of authenticity better in relation to local food as a tourism experience. Moreover, the research focused on this topic has been quite scarce so far. Foods and drinks engage all the senses and have strong connections with place, because we have personal, sensory memories of consuming them in a certain setting. It can be argued that food has an ability to recall emotions and that is why tourists often search for authentic experiences via food products. Furthermore, they buy food e.g. as souvenirs in order to relive the holiday events with family and friends at home. Among Russian tourists also cross-border food tourism is common based on perceptions of high-quality foodstuffs and authenticity of the products in their original environment. The process of forming the perception of an authentic food experience is very sensitive. An essential element in this process is trust, which is founded upon past experiences and knowledge and, at the same time, upon expectations for the future. Further, it is proposed that together with pre-contractual trust, trust in individuals and collective entities plays a role in the process of creating predictability. Thus, tourists’ perceptions of authenticity of local food are argued to relate to their trust in the food chain as a whole as well as in its actors: farmers, processors of food, restaurants, retail and the control system. This study applies qualitative methods to reach a more in-depth understanding of Russian tourists’ relations to local food during their visit to Finland, especially, their trust in its authenticity. The results show that there is an interaction between the three forms of trust and perceived authenticity of local food among Russian tourists. The perceived authenticity and trust, accordingly, seem to be based on a positive image of Finnish food throughout the post-soviet period, the institutional performance of the Finnish food system as well as one’s own and other’s experiences.
  • Moen, Pirjo; Ruohomaa, Sini Susanna; Viljanen, Lea Anneli; Kutvonen, Lea (University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, 2010)
    Department of Computer Science Series of Publications C
    Inter-enterprise collaboration has become essential for the success of enterprises. As competition increasingly takes place between supply chains and networks of enterprises, there is a strategic business need to participate in multiple collaborations simultaneously. Collaborations based on an open market of autonomous actors set special requirements for computing facilities supporting the setup and management of these business networks of enterprises. Currently, the safeguards against privacy threats in collaborations crossing organizational borders are both insufficient and incompatible to the open market. A broader understanding is needed of the architecture of defense structures, and privacy threats must be detected not only on the level of a private person or enterprise, but on the community and ecosystem levels as well. Control measures must be automated wherever possible in order to keep the cost and effort of collaboration management reasonable. This article contributes to the understanding of the modern inter-enterprise collaboration environment and privacy threats in it, and presents the automated control measures required to ensure that actors in inter-enterprise collaborations behave correctly to preserve privacy.
  • Vinogradova, Ksenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    ABSTRACT When does a person have to think about writing a last will and structuring his assets and affairs so that his family members will lately inherit them or other people involved in his life? Surprisingly, not a lot of people start thinking of it early enough to protect wealth and assets to be smoothly and fully transferred to their family members or other heirs. The issue is complicated by the international aspect and the amount of wealth that a modern businessperson owns. The aim of the thesis is to study in depth and name the problems, indicate complexity and find solutions for inheritance succession planning of wealth with the tax perspective. The central figure of the paper is a rich wealth owner that is of HNWI or UHNWI level. Modern families have a lot of possibilities to live in several countries, expand and conduct business internationally, which brings certain complications when one of the family members passes away and the heirs suddenly find themselves in a situation, that half of the estate is given out to pay taxes in several countries, partly assets are stolen in the transition period by the advisors they have never heard about and part is simply lost; business enters crisis and does not provide enough income anymore as the heirs are not interested in the full engagement or are not educated in the sphere. Creditors are waiting around the corner and once having millions and comfortable life the heirs find themselves in a dubious situation. When the succession planning done beforehand, having enough time to structure wealth and assets, get to know tax exemptions and possible tools most of the assets can be retained. What are these tax laws or inheritance procedures that support the advantageous planning for wealth transfer? To provide not a general but a more detailed perspective on differences in procedures, tax regulations and possible solutions, comparative analysis of three jurisdictions is completed. The thesis looks closely into tax optimization rules and instruments such as gifts, trusts and foundations and life insurances. Advantages of the instruments are indicated in general prospective and applying them in concrete legislations and situations. In conclusion, the thesis presents an overview, a practical imaginary situation, and a plan for the wealth owner to adhere. Of importance, for understanding is to mention that concrete situation of each wealth owner is complicated and needs to be analyzed in detail in the context of the entire structure and its relationship with other components.
  • Sääksvuori, Lauri (2007)
    Markets are the necessary prerequisite for human development. The freehold of a property and the freedom of exchange are the bedrocks of individual and societal well-being. However, economic research has proved that the markets do not efficiently allocate goods under asymmetric information. The affluence through free markets is dependent on others whose behavior we do not know or even fully understand. Conventionally, attempts to solve the problems of imperfect information have relied on jurisdiction and establishment of hierarchical organizations. The rise of the Internet has lately revolutionized the customs of social and economic exchange. Electronic marketplaces span the boundaries of cultural and juristically inconsistent territories, as a result, the prevailing contract monitoring turns out to be inadequate. Should the virtual exchange obey existing laws, the transaction costs may top the benefits of trade, and thus prevent otherwise mutually valuable transactions. In this study, we examine conditions for the endogenously emerging markets based on trust and reputation. The analysis is focused on the effects of different forms of feedback information in markets that suffer from moral hazard due to sequential trading. The study presents data-oriented evidence on why and when people trust each other in economic transactions. Electronic markets, particularly electronic auctions, are presented as the primary application context for the feedback system based on trust and reputations. The experimental data for the research were collected in a laboratory experiment taking advantage of newly designed and implemented computer application. The participants in experimental sessions were all students at the University of Helsinki. The contribution of the thesis is threefold. Firstly, we develop further the idea of tailored trustworthiness aggregates. Secondly, we introduce a novel extensive form game to model trust decisions with endogenous payoff formation. This game design unites the ordinary Trust Game with auctions. Thirdly, based on the unique data from the experiment, we tackle the motivation behind the individual’s trust decision. The experimental results in this study demonstrate that, in an economic exchange, the economic agent behaves simultaneously both fairly and selfishly. Furthermore, the expression of mixed motives appears to be sensitive to the variations in the flow of information. The data collected for this study clearly indicate that the augmentation of information improves the economic efficiency of endogenously organized marketplaces. Market efficiency does not require a large number of participants, complete information or full economic understanding, but incentives to trust each other.
  • Isokangas, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Sijoitusrahastoja koskevaa sääntelyä uudistettiin vuonna 2019. Uutta tuloverolain 20 a §:ä sovelletaan ensimmäisen kerran verovuonna 2020. Uudistuksen tavoitteena oli yksinkertaistaa yksityisoikeudellista sääntelyä sekä selkiyttää erityisesti ulkomaisten sijoitusrahastojen verokohtelua. Sijoitusrahastot ovat kollektiivisen sijoittamisen välineitä; sijoittajat sijoittavat varojaan yhteisesti ja varoja hallinnoi erillinen rahastoyhtiö. Sijoitusrahastoja pidetään tuloverolain 3 §:n nojalla yhteisöinä, jotka ovat kuitenkin TVL 20 a §:n nojalla vapaita tuloverosta. Ennen lainsäädäntöuudistusta sijoitusrahastojen verokohtelusta säädettiin silloisessa tuloverolain 20 §:ssä, jonka mukaan sijoitusrahastot olivat tuloverosta vapaita. Sijoitusrahaston käsitettä ei ollut määritelty verolainsäädännössä, vaan käsite pohjautui sijoitusrahastolain säännöksiin. Koska verovapauden edellytyksistä ei ollut tarkemmin säädetty, ulkomaisten sijoitusrahastojen verokohtelu määräytyi oikeuskäytännön ja vertailukelpoisuusarvioinnin perusteella. Lakimuutoksen myötä verovapauden edellytykset kirjattiin tuloverolakiin. Lähtökohtaisesti ulkomainen sijoitusrahasto on tuloverosta vapaa, jos se on sopimusperusteinen, avoin ja sillä on vähintään 30 osuudenomistajaa. Erikoissijoitusrahasto voi olla verovapaa, vaikka se ei ole avoin tai sillä on vähemmän kuin 30 osuudenomistajaa, mikäli erikoissijoitusrahasto täyttää TVL 20 a §:n 3 momentissa säädetyt lisäedellytykset. Samoja verovapausedellytyksiä sovelletaan sekä kotimaisiin että ulkomaisiin sijoitusrahastoihin. Verovapausedellytysten tulkinnassa on kuitenkin huomioitava Euroopan unionin oikeudesta johtuvat velvoitteet. SEUT 63 artiklan nojalla kaikki rajoitukset, jotka koskevat pääoman tai maksujen liikkeitä jäsenvaltioiden välillä taikka jäsenvaltioiden ja kolmansien maiden välillä, ovat kiellettyjä. Jäsenvaltiot eivät voi esimerkiksi verotuksen avulla rajoittaa pääomien vapaata liikkuvuutta ilman hyväksyttävää rajoitusperustetta. Trust-rakenteiset sijoitusrahastot ovat yleisiä anglo-amerikkalaisissa oikeusjärjestelmissä. Tutkielmassa perehdytään trust-rakenteisten sijoitusrahastojen oikeudellisiin piirteisiin ja selvitetään, miten trust-rakenteisia ulkomaisia sijoitusrahastoja tulee kohdella TVL 20 a §:n asettamien verovapausedellytysten sekä pääomien vapaan liikkuvuuden valossa. Lopuksi esitetään kannanottoja siitä, miten TVL 20 a §:ä tulisi tulkita, kun otetaan huomioon EU-oikeudellinen oikeuskäytäntö sekä arvioidaan, onko lainsäädäntöuudistus onnistunut tavoitteessaan selkiyttää ulkomaisten sijoitusrahastojen verokohtelua. Tutkielmassa hyödynnetään pääosin oikeusdogmaattista tutkimusmetodia.
  • Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Celikkol, Göksu; Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna; Eskelinen, Viivi Emilia; Vetik, Raivo; Sam, David (2018)
    In this study, we investigated how perceived ethnic discrimination is related to attitudes towards the national majority group and willingness to confront injustice to promote the social standing of a minority group. We examined this relationship via two mediating factors; national (dis)identification from and out-group (dis)trust of the national majority group. The Rejection-Disidentification Model (RDIM) was refined, first, to account for willingness to confront injustice as a consequence of perceived rejection, and second, intergroup (dis)trust was examined as an additional mediating mechanism that can explain attitudinal and behavioural reactions to perceived rejection simultaneously with national disidentification. The model was tested in a comparative survey data of Russian-speaking minority in Estonia (N = 482), Finland (N = 254), and Norway (N = 219). In all three countries, the more Russian-speakers identified as Russians and the more they perceived ethnic discrimination, the more negative were their attitudes toward the national majority groups and the more willing they were to engage in action to confront group-based injustice. Whereas disidentification from and distrust of national majority group accounted for the discrimination-attitude link to a large extent, both factors had demobilizing effects on willingness to confront injustice, making Russian-speaking immigrants more passive but hostile. The findings are discussed in relation to the risks involved in politicization of immigrants struggling with perceived inequalities.