Browsing by Subject "tuotos"

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  • Saramäki, Jussi (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1992)
  • Messier, Christian; Puttonen, Pasi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1993)
  • Rauhala, Jussi (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    High quality milk is an important thing for dairy industry and the most important determinator for milk price paid to the producer. The quality of milk is measured with somatic cell and bacteria count. Milks somatic cell count doesn’t change after milking that emphasizes the importance of udder health and successful milking. The total annual cost of the mastitis in an 100 head of cattle was estimated to be 21 000 – 25 000 euros in Finland (calculated with price level in 2010). Liner is the only part of the milking machine that contacts cow’s teat and the only way of bacteria into udder is through teat canal. Many bacterial infections occur in teat injuries and due to the teat-end roughness that makes teat canal closure slower, which makes bacteria access easier into udder. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of CloverTM -liner on milking. Results were compared to the traditional HarmonyTM -liner. Cross section of a CloverTM -liner looks like clover whereas the shape of traditional liner cross section is round. Udder health and milking characteristics were measured attributes for comparison of the two liner models in this thesis. Udder health was evaluated by measuring somatic cell count, teat-end health and short-term changes in teat condition after milking. Milking characteristics were evaluated by measuring milk yield, milking duration and milk flow. The measurements were taken in two farms in summer 2015. The results of this study were estimated with line and bar charts as well as statistical significances were estimated with appropriate models. The differences between groups were small in teat-end health and there was a lot of deviation in the results so there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Total number of teats with short-term changes in teat condition after milking was so small that statistical testing was not appropriate. There were no differences in milk yield, milk flow, milking duration or somatic cell count between groups. The only statistically significant difference was peak flow that was lower for ClowerTM -liner.
  • Aho, Varpu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Mastitis is economically the most important disease and the second most important welfare issue after lameness in dairy production worldwide. Mastitis diagnosis consists of recognizing the causative pathogen and simultaneous changes in milk parameters, such as somatic cell count. Currently, 27 % of Finnish farms use automatic milking system (AMS) and more than 50 % of all milk is harvested by a milking robot. Large amounts of data are available from AMS, and they can be used to recognize and control mastitis on farms. The aim of this work was to study how different AMS data patterns describe mammary gland infection, and how they can be used in mastitis diagnosis. The most conventional parameter for diagnosing mastitis is somatic cell count (SCC) which describes the number of somatic cells per milliliter of milk. During mastitis, SCC increases, but a significant day-to-day variation is characteristic. SCC is measured in official Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs, and SCC is also counted by sensors in AMS. The most common in-line measured parameter at AMS is electrical conductivity (EC). EC is measured quarter-specifically which makes it good for comparison among different quarters but there are some uncertainties associated with EC. In addition, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that indicates infection in different tissues and is also detectable with a sensor in some AMS. It’s less mastitis-specific than SCC, but because it has less daily variation, combined with SCC it’s currently an interesting tool for recognizing mastitis in AMS. Descriptive study was conducted using AMS data from 24 cows over 7 months from a Canadian research herd. The data were fragmented and only a few mastitis cases were included. However, the results describe the characteristics of different AMS parameters. Results showed that LDH is high especially in 1st lactation cows until 35 days after calving. As expected, LDH of mastitic cows was substantially higher compared to cows that were healthy or had non-udder illness. Interestingly, the daily variation of LDH in individual cows appears to be greater than expected.
  • Saastamoinen, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1977)
  • Saarinen, Timo (University of Helsinki, 1995)
  • Velling, Pirkko; Nepveu, Gérard (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Raulo, Jyrki; Sirén, Gustaf (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1978)
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1972)
  • Granvik, Bror-Anton (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1968)
  • Haarlaa, Rihko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Heiskanen, Alina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää vesasyntyisen toisen polven hybridihaavan (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx.) kasvua ja tuotosta erilaisilla kasvatustiheyksillä. Hybridihaapakoe on Luonnonvarakeskuksen tutkimus Haapastensyrjässä. Kokeella on 1997 tehty päätehakkuu, jonka jälkeen seuraava hybridihaapasukupolvi on lähtenyt kasvamaan juurivesoista. Vallitsevan jakson synty-vuosi on 1998. Koealoille on tehty vuonna 2001 viisi harvennuskäsittelyä tiheyksillä 500 kpl/ha, 1200 kpl/ha, 2500 kpl/ha, 5000 kpl/ha ja ei harvennusta. Harventamaton koeala on kooltaan 400 m2 ja muut neljä 900 m2. Koealoja on mitattu kahdeksan kertaa vuosina 2001 – 2017. Kolme vuotta päätehakkuun jälkeen taimia oli aloilla 20 900 – 33 025 kpl/ha. Suurin vuotuinen kokonaiskasvu 26,3 m3/ha/v oli kasvatustiheydellä 2500 kpl/ha ja alhaisin 13,7 m3/ha/v kasvatustiheydellä 500 kpl/ha. Suurin tilavuus 501 m3/ha oli tiheydellä 2500 kpl/ha ja pienin 261 m3/ha tiheydellä 500 kpl/ha. Suurin valtapituus 28,1 metriä oli kasvatustiheydellä 1200 kpl/ha ja pienin valtapituus 24,91 metriä kasvatustiheydellä 500 kpl/ha. Kasvatustiheys 500 kpl/ha jää kokonaistilavuudeltaan selkeästi muita kasvatustiheyksiä pienemmäksi. Vesasyn-tyisen toisen polven hybridihaavan kasvu ja tuotos ylsivät ensimmäisen polven hybridihaavan kasvuun ja tuotok-seen. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella vesasyntyisen toisen polven hybridihaavan kasvu on lupaava.
  • Pukkala, Timo; Pohjonen, Veli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1993)