Browsing by Subject "tuotteet"

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  • Mattinen, Maija; Nissinen, Ari (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    The Finnish Environment 36/2011
    There is growing interest in public organizations to take into account the climate impacts of the products and services they procure. Furthermore, in Finland a Government Resolution  exists that provides a framework and sets aims for sustainable public procurement. Several municipalities in the Helsinki region together with the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority and several expert organizations initiated an EU Life project, JULIA2030, to develop calculators for different sectors in municipalities. Our subproject deals with the procurement of products, and we developed carbon footprint calculators for six product groups: office and tissue paper, laptop computers, office seating solutions, incontinence products, and outdoor lighting products. The developed calculators are intended for use in tender calls, as attachments that the bidders must deliver together with their bid. The carbon footprint would be used as an award criterion. The results of the sub-project include: this report, calculators, instructions for each calculator, a guidebook on climatically sound public procurement, and an internet-site:
  • Häkkinen, Piia (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 14/2010
    There are a wide variety of different chemicals used in common articles. Many hazardous substances are being spread to the environment besides from the use of articles, also from their production and disposal. Management of chemicals in articles is included in EU legislation concerning product safety, waste management, product design and chemicals. There are also other instruments for the management of chemicals in articles, e.g. environmental labelling, international co-operation, industry initiatives, work of the non-governmental organizations as well as national programmes and registers. According to the recommendations of the National Programme on Dangerous Chemicals, more information is needed about chemicals in articles. The aim of this preliminary report is to review how hazards and risks from chemicals in articles could be controlled, through out the life cycles of the articles. This report describes the current legislative situation and voluntary management measures, as well as their possible need for further development. Articles are regarded as e.g. textiles, toys, electrical and electronic equipment, batteries and accumulators as well as packaging. Cosmetics are also included in this report, because they present possible significant source of chemical releases to the environment. On the basis of this preliminary report, the legislation concerning chemicals in articles is very scattered, targeted to certain product groups and substances. EU’s new chemicals regulation, REACH, is the most comprehensive legislation on chemicals in articles, because it is applied to all chemicals. There is a general lack of information on the content of chemicals in articles as well as the environmental effects and risks of those chemicals. The lack of labelling requirement is affecting to the consumers’, manufacturers’ and importers’ level of knowledge about chemicals in articles. The surveillance by the authorities is based on notifications of dangerous articles and spot checks. These however only reveal a small proportion of articles on the market containing hazardous chemicals. The management of chemicals in articles could be enhanced e.g. by adding more restricted chemicals or product groups to individual legislation, by including more environmental aspects in product safety legislation or by adding more restrictions concerning chemicals in articles to the REACH Regulation. In order to supervise the compliance with chemicals legislation, more resources are needed, especially on imported articles coming outside EU. The new Waste Framework Directive and the reform of national waste legislation will enhance the control of chemicals in articles, but the collection, recycling and re-use should be further developed. Information on chemicals in articles could be increased by e.g. developing information systems covering the whole supply chain. The role of product design should be highlighted in the future when aiming to substitute the current use of hazardous chemicals in articles.
  • Antikainen, Riina (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2010)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 7/2010
  • Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Rahikainen, Moona; Camarena-Gómez, María Teresa; Piiparinen, Jonna; Spilling, Kristian; Yang, Baoru (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Aquaculture International 29 (2021), 487–509
    Macroalgae-based products are increasing in demand also in Europe. In the European Union, each category of macroalgae-based products is regulated separately. We discuss EU legislation, including the law on medicinal products, foods including food supplements and food additives, feed and feed additives, cosmetics, packaging materials, fertilizers and biostimulants, as well as biofuels. Product safety and consumer protection are the priorities with any new products. Macroalgae products can be sold as traditional herbal medicines. The novel food regulation applies to macroalgae foods that have not previously been used as food, and organic macroalgae are a specific regulatory category. The maximum levels of heavy metals may be a barrier for macroalgae foods, feeds, and fertilizers. Getting health claims approved for foods based on macroalgae is demanding. In addition to the rules on products, the macroalgae business is strongly impacted by the elements of the general regulatory environment such as agricultural/aquacultural subsidies, maritime spatial planning and aquaculture licensing, public procurement criteria, tax schemes, and trade agreements.
  • Kautto, Petrus; Kärnä, Anna (Ministry of the Environment, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 35/2006
    New environmental product policy measures (RoHS, WEEE and EuP directives), targeted to the products of electrical and electronics industry, are entering into force during 2005-2007. This report raises key questions that companies have confronted in anticipating and interpreting these new requirements in their operations, focusing especially on changes needed in product development and supply chain management. The report reveals that the work needed in companies to comply with the new requirements may begin years before the requirements enter into force, and it may take different forms. Depending on the resources companies possess, this work can vary from influencing the actual contents of the new regulation being developed to adjusting to new requirements and incorporating them into different company operations (product development, manufacturing, sourcing etc.). Two Finnish company cases are reported. The first describes how Vaisala Oyj is implementing RoHS requirements together with its key suppliers. The second case assesses the Commission’s Integrated Product Policy pilot exercise on mobile phones, which was lead by Nokia Oyj during 2005. The report provides companies with useful information about practical experiences of proactive companies in environmental policy implementation, and policy makers with information for the assessment and future steering of environmental product policy in the European Union. This report is the final report of the YPSE research project, which was carried out during 2004-2005. It was financed by the Finnish Environment Cluster Program by the Ministry of the Environment and Technology Industries of Finland. The aim of the project was to assess how companies in the electrical and electronics industry “interpret” and negotiate with each other (and with environmental authorities) the contents of these new requirements, which are still to some extent unclear. It has been of interest what kinds of changes the new requirements create in products and what kinds of operational practices evolve in the industry, for example in the area of material data management.
  • Repo, Petteri; Koskinen, Ilpo; Grönman, Heidi (Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, 2006)
    Kuluttajatutkimuskeskuksen vuosikirjoja 2
  • Peura-Kapanen, Liisa (Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, 2013)
    Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus. Työselosteita ja esitelmiä 148
  • Nissinen, Ari; Seppälä, Jyri; Heinonen, Tero (Elsevier Ltd., 2022)
    Cleaner logistics and supply chain
    The carbon footprint (CF) should finally have a role in the decision-making of manufacturing companies, retailers, public procurers and consumers. We consider that more systematic approaches are urgently needed for collecting, storing and presenting carbon footprint information. The key issue from the standpoint of reliability and comparability is to recognise how each CF was determined and how it has been verified. Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) and the connected barcode symbol can be used to identify products. We propose that the presented framework can help to build databases which are easy to use for the manufacturers, retailers and various service providers and which can increase the production and usability of CF information.
  • Koskinen, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa MIPSin ja ekologisen selkärepun käyttöön tuotteiden potentiaalisten ympäristövaikutusten vertailun menetelminä liittyviä ongelmia. Näkökulmana oli menetelmäkritiikki ja menetelmänä laadullinen sisällönanalyysi aiemmin esitetystä suoraan ja epäsuorasti MIPSiin ja ekologiseen selkäreppuun kohdistuvasta kritiikistä. Aineisto kerättiin pääasiassa tieteellisistä julkaisuista. Kritiikki lajiteltiin aihepiireittäin, sen pätevyyttä ja epäsuoran kritiikin sovellettavuutta arvioitiin ja sitä täydennettiin paikoin omalla kritiikillä. Analyysissä nousi esiin monentyyppisiä ongelmia, joista osa kyseenalaistaa voimakkaasti MIPSin ja ekologisen selkärepun käyttökelpoisuuden. Indikaattorien jakaminen viiteen luokkaan ei ole tuonut ongelmiin helpotusta. Entropia ei tarjoa MIPSille ja ekologiselle selkärepulle pitävää teoriataustaa, eikä ole perusteita olettaa aineen määrän olevan ratkaisevassa asemassa ympäristövaikutusten suuruuden kannalta, kun muutkin tekijät muuttuvat. Näin aggregoidun massan käytölle potentiaalisten ympäristövaikutusten suuruuden mittarina ei ole teoreettisia perusteita. MIPS ja ekologinen selkäreppu eivät eksplisiittisesti arvioi materiaalivirtojen ympäristövaikutuksia. Ne eivät kykene kuvaamaan tuotteen aiheuttamien ympäristövaikutusten määrää, koska ne käytännössä antavat saman painoarvon kaikille päästöille luontoon ja poistoille sieltä huolimatta niiden yksilöllisistä ja suuruudeltaan toisistaan paljon poikkeavista ympäristövaikutuksista. Koska MIPS ja ekologinen selkäreppu eivät kykene arvioimaan ympäristövaikutuksia suoraan, eikä aggregoidun massan käytölle välillisessä arvioinnissa ole pitävää teoriaperustaa, ne eivät ole tuotteiden ympäristövaikutusten indikaattoreita. Sen sijaan ne indikoivat tuotteiden haitallisuutta dematerialisaatiotavoitteen kannalta. Dematerialisaation nostamiselle tuotelähtöisen ympäristön-suojelun ensisijaiseksi tavoitteeksi ei ole perusteita. MIPS ja ekologinen selkäreppu käyttävät sisäänrakennettua arvottamista, jolloin arvovalinnat on tehty käyttäjän puolesta. Arvovalintoja ei kuitenkaan tulisi piilottaa tai jättää indikaattorien kehittäjille. MIPS ja ekologinen selkäreppu ovat äärimmäisessä yksinkertaisuudessaan menetelmiä, jotka eivät vaadi arvioinnin tekijöiltä tai päätöksentekijöiltä käsillä olevien ongelmien ymmärtämistä tai niiden merkityksen arviointia. Neeivät myöskään mahdollista eturyhmien osallistumista arviointiprosessiin. Dematerialisaation ainoaksi tavoitteeksi asettamisen taustalla oleva käsitys ympäristöongelmista voi jäädä käyttäjälle hämäräksi. Tämä on ongelmallista, sillä MIPS ja ekologinen selkäreppu arvottavat kaikki päästö- ja poistokilogrammat samanarvoisiksi, mikä on järjetöntä ellei käyttäjä ole nimenomaisesti halunnut asettaa dematerialisaatiota ainoaksitavoitteeksi. Näiden merkittävimpien ongelmien lisäksi relevanteiksi ongelmiksi osoittautuivat epävarmuuksien arvioinnin puute, datan keräämisen ja valmiiden tietokantojen käytön ongelmat, rajausten erot ja keinotekoinen rajanveto ihmisen ja luonnon systeemien välillä sekä menetelmien vaatima työmäärä.