Browsing by Subject "turbulence"

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  • Katul, Gabriel; Mammarella, Ivan; Grönholm, Tiia; Vesala, Timo (2018)
    Two ideas regarding the structure of turbulence near a clear air-water interface are used to derive a waterside gas transfer velocity k(L) for sparingly and slightly soluble gases. The first is that k(L) is proportional to the turnover velocity described by the vertical velocity structure function D-ww(r), where r is separation distance between two points. The second is that the scalar exchange between the air-water interface and the waterside turbulence can be suitably described by a length scale proportional to the Batchelor scale l(B) = Sc-1/2, where Sc is the molecular Schmidt number and eta is the Kolmogorov microscale defining the smallest scale of turbulent eddies impacted by fluid viscosity. Using an approximate solution to the von Karman-Howarth equation predicting D-ww(r) in the inertial and viscous regimes, prior formulations for k(L) are recovered including (i) kL = root 2/15Sc(-1/2)v(K), v(K) is the Kolmogorov velocity defined by the Reynolds number v(K)eta/nu = 1 and nu is the kinematic viscosity of water; (ii) surface divergence formulations; (iii) k(L) alpha Sc(-1/2)u(*), where u(*) is the waterside friction velocity; (iv) k(L) alpha Sc-1/2 root g nu/u(*) for Keulegan numbers exceeding a threshold needed for long-wave generation, where the proportionality constant varies with wave age, g is the gravitational acceleration; and (v) k(L) = root 2/15Sc(-1/2) (nu g beta(o)q(o))(1/4) in free convection, where q(o) is the surface heat flux and beta(o) is the thermal expansion of water. The work demonstrates that the aforementioned k(L) formulations can be recovered from a single structure function model derived for locally homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.
  • Savunen, Tarja; Kivi, Rigel; Poikonen, Antti; Kangas, Markku; Säntti, Kristiina; Hyvönen, Reijo; Mammarella, Ivan; Gregow, Erik; Tammelin, Bengt (Ilmatieteen laitos, 2015)
    Raportteja - Rapporter - Reports 2014:9
  • Devasagayam, Francis Clinton Prasanth Albert; Chone, Laurent; Kiviniemi, Timo Petteri; Kaledina, Oksana; Shatalin, Sergei; Gurchenko, Alexey Dmitrievich; Altukhov, Alexey; Gusakov, Evgeniy; Kantor, Mikhail; Kouprienko, Denis; Lashkul, Sergei (2022)
    Two gas-puffs are used near limiters in the FT-2 tokamak for the purpose of hydrogen refuelling during plasma discharges. This creates toroidal and poloidal asymmetry in particle sources near limiters which has to be considered in modelling. Here, the effect of toroidal asymmetry is simulated using the gyrokinetic code ELMFIRE. Two slightly different toroidal particle sources are used in simulations, and their results are compared with each other, and with experimental measurements to understand the impact of toroidal particle sources on Scrape-off Layer (SOL) physics.
  • Pinto, C.; Fabian, A. C.; Ogorzalek, A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Werner, N.; Sanders, J.; Zhang, Y. -Y.; Gu, Liyi; de Plaa, J.; Ahoranta, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Johnstone, R.; Canning, R. E. A. (2016)
    We extend our previous study of the cool gas responsible for the emission of O VII X-ray lines in the cores of clusters and groups of galaxies. This is the coolest X-ray emitting phase and connects the 10 000 K H alpha emitting gas to the million degree phase, providing a useful tool to understand cooling in these objects. We study the location of the O VII gas and its connection to the intermediate Fe XVII and hotter O VIII phases. We use high-resolution X-ray grating spectra of elliptical galaxies with strong Fe XVII line emission and detect O VII in 11 of 24 objects. Comparing the O VII detection level and resonant scattering, which is sensitive to turbulence and temperature, suggests that O VII is preferably found in cooler objects, where the Fe XVII resonant line is suppressed due to resonant scattering, indicating subsonic turbulence. Although a larger sample of sources and further observations is needed to distinguish between effects from temperature and turbulence, our results are consistent with cooling being suppressed at high turbulence as predicted by models of active galactic nuclei feedback, gas sloshing and galactic mergers. In some objects, the O VII resonant-to-forbidden line ratio is decreased by either resonant scattering or charge exchange boosting the forbidden line, as we show for NGC 4636. Charge exchange indicates interaction between neutral and ionized gas phases. The Perseus cluster also shows a high Fe XVII forbidden-to-resonance line ratio, which can be explained with resonant scattering by low-turbulence cool gas in the line of sight.
  • JET Contributors; Eriksson, F.; Fransson, E.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T.; Ahlgren, T. (2019)
    Transport modelling of Joint European Torus (JET) dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments in various operational scenarios is presented. Interpretative simulations at a fixed radial position are combined with predictive JETTO simulations of temperatures and densities, using the TGLF transport model. The model includes electromagnetic effects and collisions as well as (E)over-right-arrow x (b)over-right-arrow shear in Miller geometry. Focus is on particle transport and the role of the neutral beam injection (NBI) particle source for the density peaking. The experimental 3-point collisionality scans include L-mode, and H-mode (D and H and higher beta D plasma) plasmas in a total of 12 discharges. Experimental results presented in (Tala et al 2017 44th EPS Conf.) indicate that for the H-mode scans, the NBI particle source plays an important role for the density peaking, whereas for the L-mode scan, the influence of the particle source is small. In general, both the interpretative and predictive transport simulations support the experimental conclusions on the role of the NBI particle source for the 12 JET discharges.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck full-sky maps. In this paper we make use of such full-sky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present full-sky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle psi, and dispersion function of polarization angles ?. The joint distribution (one-point statistics) of p and N-H confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing N-H. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, (max) = 22.0(-1.4)(+3.5) p max = 22 . 0 - 1.4 + 3.5 % at 353 GHz and 80 ' resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and ? found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the ?proportional to p(-1) relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, psi, and ? for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map ?xp, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 3-4 between N-H=10(20) cm(-2) and N-H=2x10(22) cm(-2), out of the Galactic plane, this product ?xp only decreases by about 25%. Because ? is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with N-H is determined mostly by the magnetic-field structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of ?xp with the dust temperature T-d, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion ? tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high ?. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emission-to-extinction ratios, R-P/p and R-S/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, p(V)/E(B-V), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p approximate to 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.
  • Iorio, Riccardo Nicolo; Chone, Laurent; Gusakov, Evgeniy; Kiviniemi, Timo P.; Lashkul, Serguey; Leerink, Susan (2022)
    In the present paper, we revisit observations performed in FT-2 tokamak from previous works. Improvements of core confinement are observed and believed to be caused by wide orbits going from collisionless to collisional regimes. Similar phenomena can occur whenever gradient lengths are comparable to the orbit widths at the top of the pedestal and the loss cone is continuously and increasingly filled by heated particles, collisions and turbulent effects. The lower hybrid heating operator is introduced into the ELMFIRE code to increase the ion temperature during the simulations while keeping the edge temperature low with logical boundary condition at the limiter. Particular focus is given on how the radial electric field deviates from the neoclassical value while introducing turbulent effects.
  • Kilpua, Emilia; Good, Simon; Ala-Lahti, Matti; Osmane, Adnane; Fontaine, D.; Hadid, L.; Janvier, M.; Yordanova, E. (2021)
    We report a statistical analysis of magnetic field fluctuations in 79 coronal mass ejection(CME-) driven sheath regions that were observed in the near-Earth solar wind. Wind highresolution magnetic field data were used to investigate 2 h regions adjacent to the shock and ejecta leading edge (Near-Shock and Near-LE regions, respectively), and the results were compared with a 2 h region upstreamof the shock. The inertial-range spectral indices in the sheaths are found to be mostly steeper than the Kolmogorov -5/3 index and steeper than in the solar wind ahead. We did not find indications of an f(-1) spectrum, implying that magnetic fluctuation properties in CME sheaths differ significantly from planetary magnetosheaths and that CME-driven shocks do not reset the solar wind turbulence, as appears to happen downstream of planetary bow shocks. However, our study suggests that new compressible fluctuations are generated in the sheath for a wide variety of shock/upstream conditions. Fluctuation properties particularly differed between the Near-Shock region and the solar wind ahead. A strong positive correlation in the mean magnetic compressibility was found between the upstream and downstream regions, but the compressibility values in the sheaths were similar to those in the slow solar wind (
  • Auvinen, Mikko; Boi, Simone; Hellsten, Antti; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Jarvi, Leena (2020)
    This study examines the statistical predictability of local wind conditions in a real urban environment under realistic atmospheric boundary layer conditions by means of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The computational domain features a highly detailed description of a densely built coastal downtown area, which includes vegetation. A multi-scale nested LES modelling approach is utilized to achieve a setup where a fully developed boundary layer flow, which is also allowed to form and evolve very large-scale turbulent motions, becomes incident with the urban surface. Under these nonideal conditions, the local scale predictability and result sensitivity to central modelling choices are scrutinized via comparative techniques. Joint time-frequency analysis with wavelets is exploited to aid targeted filtering of the problematic large-scale motions, while concepts of information entropy and divergence are exploited to perform a deep probing comparison of local urban canopy turbulence signals. The study demonstrates the utility of wavelet analysis and information theory in urban turbulence research while emphasizing the importance of grid resolution when local scale predictability, particularly close to the pedestrian level, is sought. In densely built urban environments, the level of detail of vegetation drag modelling description is deemed most significant in the immediate vicinity of the trees.
  • Padoan, Paolo; Juvela, Mika; Pan, Liubin; Haugbolle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke (2016)
    We present a comparison of molecular clouds (MCs) from a simulation of supernova (SN) driven interstellar medium (ISM) turbulence with real MCs from the Outer Galaxy Survey. The radiative transfer calculations to compute synthetic CO spectra are carried out assuming that the CO relative abundance depends only on gas density, according to four different models. Synthetic MCs are selected above a threshold brightness temperature value, T-B,T-min = 1.4 K, of the J = 1 - 0 (CO)-C-12 line, generating 16 synthetic catalogs (four different spatial resolutions and four CO abundance models), each containing up to several thousands MCs. The comparison with the observations focuses on the mass and size distributions and on the velocity-size and mass-size Larson relations. The mass and size distributions are found to be consistent with the observations, with no significant variations with spatial resolution or chemical model, except in the case of the unrealistic model with constant CO abundance. The velocity-size relation is slightly too steep for some of the models, while the mass-size relation is a bit too shallow for all models only at a spatial resolution dx approximate to 1 pc. The normalizations of the Larson relations show a clear dependence on spatial resolution, for both the synthetic and the real MCs. The comparison of the velocity-size normalization suggests that the SN rate in the Perseus arm is approximately 70% or less of the rate adopted in the simulation. Overall, the realistic properties of the synthetic clouds confirm that SN-driven turbulence can explain the origin and dynamics of MCs.
  • Karttunen, Sasu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Air pollution is the most severe environmental problem in the world in terms of human health. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 91% of the world's population is exposed to high air pollutant levels. The risks are particularly high in urban areas, where often high population densities are combined with high air pollutant levels. Urban street canyons are especially prone to high pollutant levels due to the proximity of traffic and reduced exchange of air with the street canyon and air above, referred to as ventilation. As a result, one of the most important topics in city planning is how to avoid designs that impact the air quality negatively. Street trees are often planted in street canyons for aesthetic purposes while they can also improve thermal comfort. The air quality within street canyons is affected by street trees in two ways. They provide leaf surface for air pollutants to deposit on, thus cleaning the air. On the other hand, they block the airflow within the street canyon, thus decreasing the ventilation of air pollutants. In previous studies the latter effect has generally been found stronger. However, due to the various benefits of street trees, leaving them completely out from street canyon designs is rarely an option. The City of Helsinki is planning to develop its current inbound motorways into city boulevards which has raised concerns towards the local air quality levels due to high projected traffic rates. The aim of this study was to find which of five street-tree scenarios, realistic for the city boulevards, is the best in terms of air quality. Pedestrian-level aerosol mass concentrations were used as the measure of air quality. Furthermore the impacts of vegetation and dependency of aerosol mass concentrations on various flow statistics were studied in order to explain the differences between the scenarios. Large-eddy simulation (LES) model PALM was utilised to study the flow field above and within a city boulevard and to model the dispersion of traffic-related aerosols. Aerosol particles of different sizes were represented using a sectional aerosol model SALSA. The suitability of the used LES setup for such intercomparison studies was also investigated. The results showed that the street trees have generally a considerable negative impact (-2% to 54%) on pedestrian-level aerosol mass concentrations. Trees were find to reduce the mean wind speeds within the street canyon, which correlated strongly with the pedestrian-level concentrations. This was particular with a parallel wind direction to the street canyon due to decreased ventilation. Turbulence produced by the street trees was partially able to compensate for the reduced ventilation in some scenarios. The increased turbulence could be observed up to heights exceeding the maximum building height. Based on the results, it is recommended to prefer variable-height street-tree canopies over uniform ones within street canyons similar to the studied one. Uneven canopy increases turbulence and related pollutant transport which partially compensates decreased ventilation due to decreased wind speeds. It is also recommendable to consider minimising the ratio of the total crown volume to the street canyon volume, as ventilation decreases sharply as the ratio increases.
  • Käpylä, M. J.; Gent, F. A.; Väisälä, M. S.; Sarson, G. R. (2018)
    Context. The forcing of interstellar turbulence, driven mainly by supernova (SN) explosions, is irrotational in nature, but the development of significant amounts of vorticity and helicity, accompanied by large-scale dynamo action, has been reported. Aims. Several earlier investigations examined vorticity production in simpler systems; here all the relevant processes can be considered simultaneously. We also investigate the mechanisms for the generation of net helicity and large-scale flow in the system. Methods. We use a three-dimensional, stratified, rotating and shearing local simulation domain of the size 1 x 1 x 2 kpc(3), forced with SN explosions occurring at a rate typical of the solar neighbourhood in the MilkyWay. In addition to the nominal simulation run with realistic Milky Way parameters, we vary the rotation and shear rates, but keep the absolute value of their ratio fixed. Reversing the sign of shear vs. rotation allows us to separate the rotation-and shear-generated contributions. Results. As in earlier studies, we find the generation of significant amounts of vorticity, the rotational flow comprising on average 65% of the total flow. The vorticity production can be related to the baroclinicity of the flow, especially in the regions of hot, dilute clustered supernova bubbles. In these regions, the vortex stretching acts as a sink of vorticity. In denser, compressed regions, the vortex stretching amplifies vorticity, but remains sub-dominant to baroclinicity. The net helicities produced by rotation and shear are of opposite signs for physically motivated rotation laws, with the solar neighbourhood parameters resulting in the near cancellation of the total net helicity. We also find the excitation of oscillatory mean flows, the strength and oscillation period of which depend on the Coriolis and shear parameters; we interpret these as signatures of the anisotropic-kinetic-alpha (AKA) effect. We use the method of moments to fit for the turbulent transport coefficients, and find alpha(AKA) values of the order 3-5 km s(-1). Conclusions. Even in a weakly rotationally and shear-influenced system, small-scale anisotropies can lead to significant effects at large scales. Here we report on two consequences of such effects, namely on the generation of net helicity and on the emergence of large-scale flows by the AKA effect, the latter detected for the first time in a direct numerical simulation of a realistic astrophysical system.
  • Viviani, M.; Warnecke, J.; Käpylä, M. J.; Käpylä, P. J.; Olspert, N.; Cole-Kodikara, E. M.; Lehtinen, J. J.; Brandenburg, A. (2018)
    Context. Both dynamo theory and observations of stellar large-scale magnetic fields suggest a change from nearly axisymmetric configurations at solar rotation rates to nonaxisymmetric configurations for rapid rotation. Aims. We seek to understand this transition using numerical simulations. Methods. We use three-dimensional simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic convection in spherical shell wedges and considered rotation rates between 1 and 31 times the solar value. Results. We find a transition from axi- to nonaxisymmetric solutions at around 1.8 times the solar rotation rate. This transition coincides with a change in the rotation profile from antisolar- to solar-like differential rotation with a faster equator and slow poles. In the solar-like rotation regime, the field configuration consists of an axisymmetric oscillatory field accompanied by an m = 1 azimuthal mode (two active longitudes), which also shows temporal variability. At slow (rapid) rotation, the axisymmetric (nonaxisymmetric) mode dominates. The axisymmetric mode produces latitudinal dynamo waves with polarity reversals, while the nonaxisymmetric mode often exhibits a slow drift in the rotating reference frame and the strength of the active longitudes changes cyclically over time between the different hemispheres. In the majority of cases we find retrograde waves, while prograde waves are more often found from observations. Most of the obtained dynamo solutions exhibit cyclic variability either caused by latitudinal or azimuthal dynamo waves. In an activity-period diagram, the cycle lengths normalized by the rotation period form two different populations as a function of rotation rate or magnetic activity level. The slowly rotating axisymmetric population lies close to what in observations is called the inactive branch, where the stars are believed to have solar-like differential rotation, while the rapidly rotating models are close to the superactive branch with a declining cycle to rotation frequency ratio and an increasing rotation rate. Conclusions. We can successfully reproduce the transition from axi- to nonaxisymmetric dynamo solutions for high rotation rates, but high-resolution simulations are required to limit the effect of rotational quenching of convection at rotation rates above 20 times the solar value.
  • Zhao, L-L; Zank, G. P.; He, J. S.; Telloni, D.; Hu, Q.; Li, G.; Nakanotani, M.; Adhikari, L.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Horbury, T. S.; O'Brien, H.; Evans, Bradley; Angelini, Corrado (2021)
    Aims. An interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) event was observed by the Solar Orbiter at 0.8 AU on 2020 April 19 and by Wind at 1 AU on 2020 April 20. Futhermore, an interplanetary shock wave was driven in front of the ICME. Here, we focus on the transmission of the magnetic fluctuations across the shock and we analyze the characteristic wave modes of solar wind turbulence in the vicinity of the shock observed by both spacecraft. Methods. The observed ICME event is characterized by a magnetic helicity-based technique. The ICME-driven shock normal was determined by magnetic coplanarity method for the Solar Orbiter and using a mixed plasma and field approach for Wind. The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations were generated by applying both a fast Fourier transform and Morlet wavelet analysis. To understand the nature of waves observed near the shock, we used the normalized magnetic helicity as a diagnostic parameter. The wavelet-reconstructed magnetic field fluctuation hodograms were used to further study the polarization properties of waves. Results. We find that the ICME-driven shock observed by Solar Orbiter and Wind is a fast, forward oblique shock with a more perpendicular shock angle at the Wind position. After the shock crossing, the magnetic field fluctuation power increases. Most of the magnetic field fluctuation power resides in the transverse fluctuations. In the vicinity of the shock, both spacecraft observe right-hand polarized waves in the spacecraft frame. The upstream wave signatures fall within a relatively broad and low frequency band, which might be attributed to low frequency MHD waves excited by the streaming particles. For the downstream magnetic wave activity, we find oblique kinetic Alfven waves with frequencies near the proton cyclotron frequency in the spacecraft frame. The frequency of the downstream waves increases by a factor of similar to 7-10 due to the shock compression and the Doppler effect.
  • Kajdic, P.; Pfau-Kempf, Y.; Turc, L.; Dimmock, A. P.; Palmroth, M.; Takahashi, K.; Kilpua, E.; Soucek, J.; Takahashi, N.; Preisser, L.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Trotta, D.; Burgess, D. (2021)
    We study the interaction of upstream ultralow frequency (ULF) waves with collisionless shocks by analyzing the outputs of 11 2D local hybrid simulation runs. Our simulated shocks have Alfvenic Mach numbers between 4.29 and 7.42 and their theta BN angles are 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 50 degrees. The ULF wave foreshocks develop upstream of all of them. The wavelength and the amplitude of the upstream waves exhibit a complex dependence on the shock's MA and theta BN. The wavelength positively correlates with both parameters, with the dependence on theta BN being much stronger. The amplitude of the ULF waves is proportional to the product of the reflected beam velocity and density, which also depend on MA and theta BN. The interaction of the ULF waves with the shock causes large-scale (several tens of upstream ion inertial lengths) shock rippling. The properties of the shock ripples are related to the ULF wave properties, namely their wavelength and amplitude. In turn, the ripples have a large impact on the ULF wave transmission across the shock because they change local shock properties (theta BN, strength), so that different sections of the same ULF wavefront encounter shock with different characteristics. Downstream fluctuations do not resemble the upstream waves in terms the wavefront extension, orientation or their wavelength. However, some features are conserved in the Fourier spectra of downstream compressive waves that present a bump or flattening at wavelengths approximately corresponding to those of the upstream ULF waves. In the transverse downstream spectra, these features are weaker.
  • Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, O.; Kajdic, P.; Turc, L.; Perrone, D.; Escoubet, C. P.; Walsh, A. (2017)
    At electron scales, the power spectrum of solar-wind magnetic fluctuations can be highly variable and the dissipation mechanisms of the magnetic energy into the various particle species is under debate. In this paper, we investigate data from the Cluster mission's STAFF Search Coil magnetometer when the level of turbulence is sufficiently high that the morphology of the power spectrum at electron scales can be investigated. The Cluster spacecraft sample a disturbed interval of plasma where two streams of solar wind interact. Meanwhile, several discontinuities (coherent structures) are seen in the large-scale magnetic field, while at small scales several intermittent bursts of wave activity (whistler waves) are present. Several different morphologies of the power spectrum can be identified: (1) two power laws separated by a break, (2) an exponential cutoff near the Taylor shifted electron scales, and (3) strong spectral knees at the Taylor shifted electron scales. These different morphologies are investigated by using wavelet coherence, showing that, in this interval, a clear break and strong spectral knees are features that are associated with sporadic quasi parallel propagating whistler waves, even for short times. On the other hand, when no signatures of whistler waves at similar to 0.1-0.2f(ce) are present, a clear break is difficult to find and the spectrum is often more characteristic of a power law with an exponential cutoff.
  • Guseva, Sofya; Aurela, Mika; Cortés, A; Kivi, Rigel; Lotsari, Eliisa; MacIntyre, Sally; Mammarella, Ivan; Ojala, Anne; Stepanenko, Victor; Uotila, Petteri; Vähä, Aki; Vesala, Timo; Wallin, M.B.; Lorke, Andreas (2021)
    Inland waters, such as lakes, reservoirs and rivers, are important sources of climate forcing trace gases. A key parameter that regulates the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere is the gas transfer velocity, which itself is controlled by near-surface turbulence in the water. While in lakes and reservoirs, near-surface turbulence is mainly driven by atmospheric forcing, in shallow rivers and streams it is generated by bottom friction of gravity-forced flow. Large rivers represent a transition between these two cases. Near-surface turbulence has rarely been measured in rivers and the drivers of turbulence have not been quantified. We analyzed continuous measurements of flow velocity and quantified turbulence as the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy over the ice-free season in a large regulated river in Northern Finland. Measured dissipation rates agreed with predictions from bulk parameters, including mean flow velocity, wind speed, surface heat flux, and with a one-dimensional numerical turbulence model. Values ranged from similar to 10-10m2s-3 to 10-5m2s-3. Atmospheric forcing or gravity was the dominant driver of near-surface turbulence for similar fraction of the time. Large variability in near-surface dissipation rate occurred at diel time scales, when the flow velocity was strongly affected by downstream dam operation. By combining scaling relations for boundary-layer turbulence at the river bed and at the air-water interface, we derived a simple model for estimating the relative contributions of wind speed and bottom friction of river flow as a function of depth.
  • Snellman, J. E.; Brandenburg, A.; Käpylä, P. J.; Mantere, M. J. (2012)