Browsing by Subject "type 2 diabetes"

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  • Kauppila, T.; Laine, M.K.; Honkasalo, Mika; Raina, Marko; Eriksson, J.G. (2020)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who had stopped attending their diabetes treatment system (referred to as “lost to follow-up”, LTF) but who succeeded in improving their glycaemic control after returning to the diabetes treatment system had changes in their diabetes medication when compared with similar patients who did not show improvement. “LTFs” who had baseline haemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) ≥53 mmol/mol and succeeded in reducing HbA1 c ≥ 6 mmol/mol during a 12–30 month follow-up period after adhering again to their diabetes treatment system were compared with “LTFs” who had an unsatisfactory change in HbA1 c or with “LTFs” who maintained good glycaemic control throughout the 12–30 month follow-up period. Unsatisfactory change in HbA1 c was determined as HbA1 c ≥ 53 mmol/mol and change <6 mmol/mol after the 12–30 month follow-up period in their diabetes treatment system or HbA1 c < 53 mmol/mol when returning to the diabetes treatment system but ≥53 mmol/mol at the end of the 12–30 month follow-up period. “LTFs” with improvement in glycaemic control used a higher number of different anti-hyperglycaemic agents (P < 0.001) and their dosages of metformin increased (P < 0.05) when compared with “LTFs” without improvement or “LTFs” with satisfactory glycaemic control. Cholesterol-, LDL-cholesterol- and triglyceride-concentrations decreased during the 12–30 month follow-up period (P < 0.05) in “LTFs” with improved glycaemic control, but not in the other groups. “LTFs” with T2D who had poor glycaemic control seemed to require an increase in their anti-diabetic medication when attempting to improve their glycaemic control. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Hebbar, Prashantha; Abubaker, Jehad Ahmed; Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse (2019)
    Despite dedicated nation-wide efforts to raise awareness against the harmful effects of fast-food consumption and sedentary lifestyle, the Arab population continues to struggle with an increased risk for metabolic disorders. Unlike the European population, the Arab population lacks well-established genetic risk determinants for metabolic disorders, and the transferability of established risk loci to this population has not been satisfactorily demonstrated. The most recent findings have identified over 240 genetic risk loci (with similar to 400 independent association signals) for type 2 diabetes, but thus far only 25 risk loci (ADAMTS9, ALX4, BCL11A, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, COL8A1, DUSP9, FTO, GCK, GNPDA2, HMG20A, HNF1A, HNF1B, HNF4A, IGF2BP2, JAZF1, KCNJ11 , KCNQ1, MC4R, PPAR gamma, SLC30A8, TCF7L2, TFAP2B, TP53INP1, and WFS1) have been replicated in Arab populations. To our knowledge, large-scale population- or family-based association studies are non-existent in this region. Recently, we conducted genome-wide association studies on Arab individuals from Kuwait to delineate the genetic determinants for quantitative traits associated with anthropometry, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and blood pressure levels. Although these studies led to the identification of novel recessive variants, they failed to reproduce the established loci. However, they provided insights into the genetic architecture of the population, the applicability of genetic models based on recessive mode of inheritance, the presence of genetic signatures of inbreeding due to the practice of consanguinity, and the pleiotropic effects of rare disorders on complex metabolic disorders. This perspective presents analysis strategies and study designs for identifying genetic risk variants associated with diabetes and related traits in Arab populations.
  • Marjonen, Heidi; Marttila, Minttu; Paajanen, Teemu; Vornanen, Marleena; Brunfeldt, Minna; Joensuu, Anni; Halmesvaara, Otto; Aro, Kimmo; Alanne-Kinnunen, Mervi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Borodulin, Katja; Koskinen, Seppo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Lindström, Jaana; Laine, Merja K.; Auro, Kirsi; Kääriäinen, Helena; Perola, Markus; Kristiansson, Kati (2021)
    We present a method for communicating personalized genetic risk information to citizens and their physicians using a secure web portal. We apply the method for 3,177 Finnish individuals in the P5 Study where estimates of genetic and absolute risk, based on genetic and clinical risk factors, of future disease are reported to study participants, allowing individuals to participate in managing their own health. Our method facilitates using polygenic risk score as a personalized tool to estimate a person's future disease risk while offering a way for health care professionals to utilize the polygenic risk scores as a preventive tool in patient care.
  • Kochumon, Shihab; Arefanian, Hossein; Sindhu, Sardar; Shenouda, Steve; Thomas, Reeby; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ahmad, Rasheed (2021)
    Steroid receptor RNA activator 1 (SRA1) is involved in pathophysiological responses of adipose tissue (AT) in obesity. In vitro and animal studies have elucidated its role in meta-inflammation. Since SRA1 AT expression in obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relationship with immune-metabolic signatures remains unclear, we assessed AT SRA1 expression and its association with immune–metabolic markers in individuals with obesity/T2D. For this, 55 non-diabetic and 53 T2D individuals classified as normal weight (NW; lean), overweight, and obese were recruited and fasting blood and subcutaneous fat biopsy samples were collected. Plasma metabolic markers were assessed using commercial kits and AT expression of SRA1 and selected immune markers using RT-qPCR. SRA1 expression was significantly higher in non-diabetic obese compared with NW individuals. SRA1 expression associated with BMI, PBF, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR in the total study population and people without diabetes. SRA1 associated with waist circumference in people without diabetes and NW participants, whereas it associated inversely with HbA1c in overweight participants. In most study subgroups AT SRA1 expression associated directly with CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL2RA, and IL18, but inversely with CCL19 and CCR2. TGF-β/IL18 independently predicted the SRA1 expression in people without diabetes and in the total study population, while TNF-α/IL-2RA predicted SRA1 only in people with diabetes. TNF-α also predicted SRA1 in both NW and obese people regardless of the diabetes status. In conclusion, AT SRA1 expression is elevated in people with obesity which associates with typical immunometabolic markers of obesity/T2D, implying that SRA1 may have potential as a biomarker of metabolic derangements.
  • Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Mangialasche, Francesca; Kemppainen, Nina; Mecocci, Patrizia; Ngandu, Tiia; Rinne, Juha O.; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina (2020)
    We explored the association of type 2 diabetes related blood markers with brain amyloid accumulation on PiB-PET scans in 41 participants from the FINGER PET sub-study. We built logistic regression models for brain amyloid status with12 plasma markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, controlled for diabetes and APOE epsilon 4 carrier status. Lower levels of insulin, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), C-peptide, and plasminogen activator (PAI-1) were associated with amyloid positive status, although the results were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing. None of the models found evidence for associations between amyloid status and fasting glucose or HbA1c.
  • Ritzel, Robert; Roussel, Ronan; Giaccari, Andrea; Vora, Jiten; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2018)
    AimsTo investigate the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) vs insulin glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100) over 12months in a patient-level meta-analysis, using data from the EDITION studies in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods EDITION 1, 2 and 3 were multicentre, randomized, open-label, 2-arm, parallel-group, treat-to-target phase IIIa studies. Similar study designs and endpoints enabled a meta-analysis to be conducted. ResultsReductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were better sustained over 12months with Gla-300 than with Gla-100 (least squares [LS] mean difference in change from baseline: -0.10 % [95% confidence interval {CI} -0.18 to -0.02] or -1.09mmol/mol [95% CI -2.01 to -0.20]; P=.0174). Risk of confirmed (3.9mmol/L) or severe hypoglycaemia was 15% lower with Gla-300 vs Gla-100 at night (relative risk 0.85 [95% CI 0.77-0.92]) and 6% lower at any time of day (relative risk 0.94 [95% CI 0.90-0.98]). Rates of hypoglycaemia were 18% lower with Gla-300 vs Gla-100 at night (rate ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.67-0.99]), but comparable at any time of day. HbA1c ConclusionsIn a broad population of people with T2DM over 12months, use of Gla-300 provided more sustained glycaemic control and significantly lower hypoglycaemia risk at night and at any time of day compared with Gla-100.
  • D'Alessio, D.; Haering, H. -U.; Charbonnel, B.; de Pablos-Velasco, P.; Candelas, C.; Dain, M. -P.; Vincent, M.; Pilorget, V.; Yki-Jarvinen, H.; EAGLE Investigators (2015)
  • Kauppila, Timo; Laine, Merja K.; Honkasalo, Mikko; Raina, Marko; Eriksson, Johan G. (2016)
    Objective: To characterize dropouts from type-2 diabetes (T2D) care in communal primary health care. Design: An observational study. Setting: In a Finnish city, patients with T2D who had not contacted the public primary health care system during the past 12 months were identified with a computer based search and contacted by a trained diabetes nurse. Subjects: Dropouts from T2D treatment. Main outcome measures: Demographic factors, laboratory parameters, examinations, medications, and comorbidities. Results: Of the patients with T2D, 10% (n=356) were dropouts and 60% of them were men. Median HbA(1c) was 6.5 (QR for 25% and 75%: 6.0, 7.7) %, (45 [42,61] mmol/mol). Of the dropouts, 14% had HbA(1c)9.0% (75mmol/mol), and these patients were younger than the other dropouts (mean age 54.4 [SD 10.8] years vs. 60.6 [9.4] years, p Conclusions: Ten percent of T2D patients were dropouts of whom those with a poor glycaemic control were younger than the other dropouts. BP and LDL cholesterol concentrations were non-optimal among the majority of the dropouts. Metformin was prescribed less frequently to the dropouts than is usual for T2D patients. The comorbidities were equally common among the dropouts as among the other T2D patients.
  • Hasan, Amal; Kochumon, Shihab; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Ahmad, Rasheed (2020)
    Purpose: The suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) has two main splice variants including a membrane bound (ST2) form, which activates the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) signaling pathway, and a secreted soluble form (sST2), which acts as a decoy receptor for ST2 ligand, interleukin (IL)-33. The IL-33/ST2 axis is protective against obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In humans, adipose tissue IL-33 displays distinct correlation profiles with glycated hemoglobin, ST2, and other immunometabolic mediators, depending on the glycemic health of the individuals. We determined whether adipose tissue ST2 displays distinct correlation profiles with immunometabolic mediators and whether ST2 and/or IL-33 are correlated with intracellular signaling molecules. Patients and Methods: A total of 91 adults with normal glycemia, prediabetes, and T2D were included. After measuring their anthropometric and biochemical parameters, subcutaneous adipose tissues were isolated and mRNA expression of biomarkers was measured. Results: In individuals with normal glycemia, adipose tissue ST2 was directly correlated with chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)-2, CCL5, IL-12, fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-4, but inversely correlated with cytochrome C oxidase subunit 7A1. IL-33 and ST2 were directly correlated with tumor necrosis factor receptorassociated factor 6 (TRAF6), NF-kappa B, and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5). In individuals with prediabetes, ST2 was inversely correlated with IL-5, whereas IL-33 but not ST2 was directly correlated with MyD88 and NF-kappa B. In individuals with T2D, ST2 was directly correlated with CCL2, IL-1 beta, and IRF5. IL-33 and ST2 were directly correlated with MyD88, TRAF6, and NF-kappa B. Conclusion: Adipose tissue ST2 and IL-33 show different correlation profiles with various immunometabolic biomarkers depending on the metabolic state of the individuals. Therefore, targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis might form the basis for novel therapies to combat metabolic disorders.
  • Lehtisalo, Jenni; Lindstrom, Jaana; Ngandu, Tiia; Kivipelto, Miia; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Finnish Diabet Prevention Study DP (2016)
    BackgroundType 2 diabetes is linked with cognitive dysfunction and dementia in epidemiological studies, but these observations are limited by lack of data on the exact timing of diabetes onset. We investigated diabetes, dysglycaemia, and cognition in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, in which the timing and duration of diabetes are well documented. MethodsThe Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study comprised middle-aged, overweight participants with impaired glucose tolerance but no diabetes at baseline (n=522), randomized to lifestyle intervention or a control group. After an intervention period (mean duration 4years) and follow-up (additional 9years), cognitive assessment with the CERAD test battery and Trail Making Test A (TMT) was executed twice within a 2-year interval. Of the 364 (70%) participants with cognitive assessments, 171 (47%) had developed diabetes. ResultsCognitive function did not differ between those who developed diabetes and those who did not. Lower mean 2-h glucose at an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA(1C) during the intervention period predicted better performance in the TMT (p=0.012 and 0.024, respectively). Those without diabetes or with short duration of diabetes improved in CERAD total score between the two assessments (p=0.001) whereas those with long duration of diabetes did not (p=0.844). ConclusionsBetter glycemic control among persons with baseline impaired glucose tolerance predicted better cognitive performance 9years later in this secondary analysis of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study population. In addition, learning effects in cognitive testing were not evident in people with long diabetes duration. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Dayeh, Tasnim; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Perfilyev, Alexander; Jansson, Per-Anders; de Mello, Vanessa D.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Vaag, Allan; Groop, Leif; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte (2016)
    Identification of subjects with a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) is fundamental for prevention of the disease. Consequently, it is essential to search for new biomarkers that can improve the prediction of T2D. The aim of this study was to examine whether 5 DNA methylation loci in blood DNA (ABCG1, PHOSPHO1, SOCS3, SREBF1, and TXNIP), recently reported to be associated with T2D, might predict future T2D in subjects from the Botnia prospective study. We also tested if these CpG sites exhibit altered DNA methylation in human pancreatic islets, liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic subjects. DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA was associated with an increased risk for future T2D (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16, P-value = 0.007, Q-value = 0.018), while DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood DNA was associated with a decreased risk for future T2D (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.95, P-value = 0.006, Q-value = 0.018) after adjustment for age, gender, fasting glucose, and family relation. Furthermore, the level of DNA methylation at the ABCG1 locus cg06500161 in blood DNA correlated positively with BMI, HbA1c, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels, and was increased in adipose tissue and blood from the diabetic twin among monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D. DNA methylation at the PHOSPHO1 locus cg02650017 in blood correlated positively with HDL levels, and was decreased in skeletal muscle from diabetic vs. non-diabetic monozygotic twins. DNA methylation of cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg11024682 (SREBF1), and cg19693031 (TXNIP) was not associated with future T2D risk in subjects from the Botnia prospective study.
  • Ji, Linong; Chan, Juliana C. N.; Yu, Miao; Yoon, Kun Ho; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Sung Hee; Huang, Chien-Ning; Te Tu, Shih; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Paldanius, Päivi Maria; Sheu, Wayne H. H. (2021)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the East Asian population is characterized by phenotypes such as low body mass index, an index of beta-cell dysfunction, and higher percentage of body fat, an index of insulin resistance. These phenotypes/pathologies may predispose people to early onset of diabetes with increased risk of stroke and renal disease. Less than 50% of patients with T2D in East Asia achieve glycaemic targets recommended by national or regional guidelines, which may be attributable to knowledge and/or implementation gaps. Herein, we review the latest evidence with special reference to East Asian patients with T2D and present arguments for the need to use early combination therapy to intensify glycaemic control. This strategy is supported by the 5-year worldwide VERIFY study, which reported better glycaemic durability in newly diagnosed patients with T2D with a mean HbA1c of 6.9% treated with early combination therapy of vildagliptin plus metformin versus those treated with initial metformin monotherapy followed by addition of vildagliptin only with worsening glycaemic control. This paradigm shift of early intensified treatment is now recommended by the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. In order to translate these evidence to practice, increased awareness and strengthening of the healthcare system are needed to diagnose and manage patients with T2D early for combination therapy.
  • Polianskyte-Prause, Zydrune; Tolvanen, Tuomas A.; Lindfors, Sonja; Kon, Kanta; Hautala, Laura C.; Wang, Hong; Wada, Tsutomu; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Lehtonen, Sanna (2022)
    Ebselen, a multifunctional organoselenium compound, has been recognized as a potential treatment for diabetes-related disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby ebselen regulates metabolic pathways remain elusive. We discovered that ebselen inhibits lipid phosphatase SHIP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 2), an emerging drug target to ameliorate insulin resistance in diabetes. We found that ebselen directly binds to and inhibits the catalytic activity of the recombinant SHIP2 phosphatase domain and SHIP2 in cultured cells, the skeletal muscle and liver of the diabetic db/db mice, and the liver of the SHIP2 overexpressing (SHIP2-Tg) mice. Ebselen increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in cultured myotubes, enhanced insulin sensitivity and protected liver tissue from lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the db/db mice, and improved glucose tolerance more efficiently than metformin in the SHIP2-Tg mice. SHIP2 overexpression abrogated the ability of ebselen to induce glucose uptake and reduce ROS production in myotubes and blunted the effect of ebselen to inhibit SHIP2 in the skeletal muscle of the SHIP2-Tg mice. Our data reveal ebselen as a potent SHIP2 inhibitor and demonstrate that the ability of ebselen to ameliorate insulin resistance and act as an antioxidant is at least in part mediated by the reduction of SHIP2 activity.
  • Martikainen, Janne; Lehtimaki, Aku-Ville; Jalkanen, Kari; Lavikainen, Piia; Paajanen, Teemu; Marjonen, Heidi; Kristiansson, Kati; Lindström, Jaana; Perola, Markus (2022)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with increasing prevalence is a significant global public health challenge. Obesity, unhealthy diet, and low physical activity are one of the major determinants of the rise in T2D prevalence. In addition, family history and genetic risk of diabetes also play a role in the process of developing T2D. Therefore, solutions for the early identification of individuals at high risk for T2D for early targeted detection of T2D, prevention, and intervention are highly preferred. Recently, novel genomic-based polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been suggested to improve the accuracy of risk prediction supporting the targeting of preventive interventions to those at highest risk for T2D. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the cost-utility of an additional PRS testing information (as a part of overall risk assessment) followed by a lifestyle intervention and an additional medical therapy when estimated 10-year overall risk for T2D exceeded 20% among Finnish individuals screened as at the high-risk category (i.e., 10%-20% 10-year overall risk of T2D) based on traditional risk factors only. For a cost-utility analysis, an individual-level state-transition model with probabilistic sensitivity analysis was constructed. A 1-year cycle length and a lifetime time horizon were applied in the base-case. A 3% discount rate was used for costs and QALYs. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC) and estimates for the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) were calculated to assist decision makers. The use of the targeted PRS strategy reclassified 12.4 percentage points of individuals to be very high-risk individuals who would have been originally classified as high risk using the usual strategy only. Over a lifetime horizon, the targeted PRS was a dominant strategy (i.e., less costly, more effective). One-way and scenario sensitivity analyses showed that results remained dominant in almost all simulations. However, there is uncertainty, since the probability (EVPI) of cost-effectiveness at a WTP of 0(sic)/QALY was 63.0% (243(sic)) indicating the probability that the PRS strategy is a dominant option. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the PRS provides moderate additional value in Finnish population in risk screening leading to potential cost savings and better quality of life when compared with the current screening methods for T2D risk.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Björnson, Elias; Matikainen, Niina; Söderlund, Sanni; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Ainola, Mari; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Fuchs, Johannes; Thorsell, Annika; Andersson, Linda; Adiels, Martin; Packard, Chris J.; Boren, Jan (2021)
    Aim: To elucidate the impact of liraglutide on the kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B48- and apoB100-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) after a single fat-rich meal. Materials and Methods: Subjects with T2D were included in a study to investigate postprandial apoB48 and apoB100 metabolism before and after 16 weeks on 1.8 mg/day liraglutide (n = 14) or placebo (n = 4). Stable isotope tracer and compartmental modelling techniques were used to determine the impact of liraglutide on chylomicron and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and clearance after a single fat-rich meal. Results: Liraglutide reduced apoB48 synthesis in chylomicrons by 60% (p <.0001) and increased the triglyceride/apoB48 ratio (i.e. the size) of chylomicrons (p <.001). Direct clearance of chylomicrons, a quantitatively significant pathway pretreatment, decreased by 90% on liraglutide (p <.001). Liraglutide also reduced VLDL1-triglyceride secretion (p = .017) in parallel with reduced liver fat. Chylomicron-apoB48 production and particle size were related to insulin sensitivity (p = .015 and p <.001, respectively), but these associations were perturbed by liraglutide. Conclusions: In a physiologically relevant setting that mirrored regular feeding in subjects with T2D, liraglutide promoted potentially beneficial changes on postprandial apoB48 metabolism. Using our data in an integrated metabolic model, we describe how the action of liraglutide in T2D on chylomicron and VLDL kinetics could lead to decreased generation of remnant lipoproteins.
  • Mustonen, Erja; Horhammer, Iiris; Absetz, Pilvikki; Patja, Kristiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Talja, Martti; Kuronen, Risto; Linna, Miika (2020)
    Objective To evaluate the long-term effect of telephone health coaching on health care and long-term care (LTC) costs in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Data Sources/Study Setting Randomized controlled trial (RCT) data were linked to Finnish national health and social care registries and electronic health records (EHR). Post-trial eight-year economic evaluation was conducted. Study Design A total of 1,535 patients (>= 45 years) were randomized to the intervention (n = 1034) and control groups (n = 501). The intervention group received monthly telephone health coaching for 12 months. Usual health care and LTC were provided for both groups. Principal Findings Intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant change in total health and long-term care costs (intervention effect euro1248 [3 percent relative reduction], CI -6347 to 2217) in the intervention compared to the control group. There were also no significant changes among subgroups of patients with T2D or CAD. Conclusions Health coaching had a nonsignificant effect on health care and long-term care costs in the 8-year follow-up among patients with T2D or CAD. More research is needed to study, which patient groups, at which state of the disease trajectory of T2D and cardiovascular disease, would best benefit from health coaching.
  • Saunajoki, Anni; Auvinen, Juha; Bloigu, Aini; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Hussi, Esko; Cederberg-Tamminen, Henna; Suija, Kadri; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Timonen, Markku (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the associations between albuminuria and fasting (FPG), 1 h post-load (1 h PG) and 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2 h PG) in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 496 people free of known diabetes (mean age 72 years) participated in the examinations including the OGTT with plasma glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h and levels of HbA1c. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and was defined as >= 3.0 mg/mmol. Compared with those without albuminuria, participants with albuminuria had significantly higher 1 h PG and 2 h PG levels, but not FPG or HbA1c levels. An elevated 1 h PG increased the estimated odds ratio of albuminuria more than three times in people with prediabetic 1 h PG (8.6-11.5 mmol/L: OR 3.60; 95% CI 1.70-7.64) and diabetic 1 h PG (>= 11.6 mmol/L: OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.29-7.23). After adjusting for blood pressure and age, the association of elevated 1 h PG with albuminuria remained significant. Prediabetic or diabetic FPG, 2 h PG, or HbA1c did not have a statistically significant association with albuminuria. These findings suggest that 1 h PG seems to be the best glycemic parameter and is useful in recognizing persons with an elevated risk of early kidney disease due to hyperglycemia.
  • Bompada, Pradeep; Goncalves, Isabel; Wu, Chuanyan; Gao, Rui; Sun, Jiangming; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Luan, Cheng; Renstroem, Erik; Groop, Leif; Weng, Jianping; Hansson, Ola; Edsfeldt, Andreas; De Marinis, Yang (2021)
    There is emerging evidence of an association between epigenetic modifications, glycemic control and atherosclerosis risk. In this study, we mapped genome-wide epigenetic changes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and advanced atherosclerotic disease. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) using a histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) mark in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atherosclerosis with T2D (n = 8) or without T2D (ND, n = 10). We mapped epigenome changes and identified 23,394 and 13,133 peaks in ND and T2D individuals, respectively. Out of all the peaks, 753 domains near the transcription start site (TSS) were unique to T2D. We found that T2D in atherosclerosis leads to an H3K9ac increase in 118, and loss in 63 genomic regions. Furthermore, we discovered an association between the genomic locations of significant H3K9ac changes with genetic variants identified in previous T2D GWAS. The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146, together with several human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants, were among the domains with the most dramatic changes of H3K9ac enrichments. Pathway analysis revealed multiple activated pathways involved in immunity, including type 1 diabetes. Our results present novel evidence on the interaction between genetics and epigenetics, as well as epigenetic changes related to immunity in patients with T2D and advanced atherosclerotic disease.
  • Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Koskinen, Juha; Brown, Emily; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Sabin, Matthew; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2021)
    Aims To investigate the association between overweight/obesity and fatty liver index (FLI) on the odds of incident prediabetes/type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020 participants after 10 years follow up. Methods At baseline (in 2001) 2020 participants, males and females, aged 24-39 years, were stratified according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (= 25-= 30 kg/m(2)) and FLI (as high FLI >= 60 or low FLI
  • Sarin, Heikki V.; Taba, Nele; Fischer, Krista; Esko, Tonu; Kanerva, Noora; Moilanen, Leena; Saltevo, Juha; Joensuu, Anni; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus (2019)
    Background: Food neophobia is considered a behavioral trait closely linked to adverse eating patterns and reduced dietary quality, which have been associated with increased risk of obesity and noncommunicable diseases. Objectives: In a cross-sectional and prospective study, we examined how food neophobia is associated with dietary quality, health-related biomarkers, and disease outcome incidence in Finnish and Estonian adult populations. Methods: The study was conducted based on subsamples of the Finnish DIetary, Lifestyle, and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) cohort (n = 2982; age range: 25-74 y) and the Estonian Biobank cohort (n = 1109; age range: 18-83 y). The level of food neophobia was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale, dietary quality was evaluated using the Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS), and biomarker profiles were determined using an NMR metabolomics platform. Disease outcome information was gathered from national health registries. Follow-up data on the NMR-based metabolomic profiles and disease outcomes were available in both populations. Results: Food neophobia associated significantly (adjusted P <0.05) with health-related biomarkers [e.g., omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, citrate, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, HDL, and MUFA] in the Finnish DILGOM cohort. The significant negative association between the severity of food neophobia and omega-3 fatty acids was replicated in all cross-sectional analyses in the Finnish DILGOM and Estonian Biobank cohorts. Furthermore, food neophobia was associated with reduced dietary quality (BSDS: beta: -0.03 +/- 0.006; P = 8.04 x 10(-5)), increased fasting serum insulin (beta: 0.004 +/- 0.0013; P = 5.83 x 10(-3)), and increased risk of type 2 diabetes during the similar to 8-y follow-up (HR: 1.018 +/- 0.007; P = 0.01) in the DILGOM cohort. Conclusions: In the Finnish and Estonian adult populations, food neophobia was associated with adverse alteration of health-related biomarkers and risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases. We also found that food neophobia associations with omega-3 fatty acids and associated metabolites are mediated through dietary quality independent of body weight.