Browsing by Subject "uterine cancer"

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  • Khatun, Masuma; Urpilainen, Elina; Ahtikoski, Anne; Arffman, Riikka K.; Pasanen, Annukka; Puistola, Ulla; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Andersson, Leif C.; Butzow, Ralf; Loukovaara, Mikko; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2021)
    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is a glycoprotein hormone involved in diverse biological processes, including regulation of calcium phosphate homeostasis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress responses, and cancer development. The role of STC-1 in endometrial cancer (EC) is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the protein expression pattern of STC-1 in a tissue microarray (TMA) cohort of hysterectomy specimens from 832 patients with EC. We then evaluated the prognostic value of STC-1 expression regarding the clinicopathologic features and patients survival over a period of 140 months. Our results revealed that in EC tissue samples, STC-1 is mainly localized in the endometrial epithelium, although some expression was also observed in the stroma. Decreased STC-1 expression was associated with factors relating to a worse prognosis, such as grade 3 endometrioid tumors (p = 0.030), deep myometrial invasion (p = 0.003), lymphovascular space invasion (p = 0.050), and large tumor size (p = 0.001). Moreover, STC-1 expression was decreased in tumors obtained from obese women (p = 0.014) and in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2; p = 0.001). Interestingly, the data also showed an association between DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency and weak STC-1 expression, specifically in the endometrial epithelium (p = 0.048). No association was observed between STC-1 expression and disease-specific survival. As STC-1 expression was particularly low in cases with obesity and DMT2 in the TMA cohort, we also evaluated the correlation between metformin use and STC-1 expression in an additional EC cohort that only included women with DMT2 (n = 111). The analysis showed no difference in STC-1 expression in either the epithelium or the stroma in women undergoing metformin therapy compared to metformin non-users. Overall, our data may suggest a favorable role for STC-1 in EC behavior; however, further studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanism and possible applications to cancer treatment.
  • Raglan, Olivia; Kalliala, Ilkka .; Markozannes, Georgios; Cividini, Sofia; Gunter, Marc J.; Nautiyal, Jaya; Gabra, Hani; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Tsilidis, Kostas K.; Kyrgiou, Maria (2019)
    Although many risk factors could have causal association with endometrial cancer, they are also prone to residual confounding or other biases which could lead to over- or underestimation. This umbrella review evaluates the strength and validity of evidence pertaining risk factors for endometrial cancer. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational studies evaluating the association between non-genetic risk factors and risk of developing or dying from endometrial cancer were identified from inception to April 2018 using PubMed, the Cochrane database and manual reference screening. Evidence was graded strong, highly suggestive, suggestive or weak based on statistical significance of random-effects summary estimate, largest study included, number of cases, between-study heterogeneity, 95% prediction intervals, small study effects, excess significance bias and sensitivity analysis with credibility ceilings. We identified 171 meta-analyses investigating associations between 53 risk factors and endometrial cancer incidence and mortality. Risk factors were categorised: anthropometric indices, dietary intake, physical activity, medical conditions, hormonal therapy use, biochemical markers, gynaecological history and smoking. Of 127 meta-analyses including cohort studies, three associations were graded with strong evidence. Body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were associated with increased cancer risk in premenopausal women (RR per 5 kg/m(2) 1.49; CI 1.39-1.61) and for total endometrial cancer (RR per 0.1unit 1.21; CI 1.13-1.29), respectively. Parity reduced risk of disease (RR 0.66, CI 0.60-0.74). Of many proposed risk factors, only three had strong association without hints of bias. Identification of genuine risk factors associated with endometrial cancer may assist in developing targeted prevention strategies for women at high risk.