Browsing by Subject "uusien sanojen oppiminen"

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  • Valkama, Hannele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage to the brain. People with aphasia can have difficulty in speech comprehension and production as well as reading and writing. There is considerable diversity in the patterns of speech and language impairment among patients with aphasia. Recovery from aphasia is highly variable, but there are three distinguishable phases: the acute, subacute, and chronic phase. Stud-ies have shown that some people with aphasia can learn novel words. Studying novel word learning in people with aphasia helps understand the role of new learning in recovery from aphasia. Previous studies from the chronic phase of aphasia suggest that semantic processing skills and novel word learning are linked. There is some evidence that aphasia severity and short-term verbal memory affect novel word learning ability. The objective of this study is to compare the speech and language skills and the novel word learning ability of people in the early stages of aphasia. The speech and language impairment pattern of the study participants was evaluated with the WAB (Western Aphasia Battery). The subtests Spontaneous speech, Auditory verbal comprehension, Naming and Word finding, Repetition, Reading and Writing were used as the measures for different language abil-ities. Novel word finding was evaluated with a computer-aided novel word learning task. The word learn-ing task included a practice session and two tests. The results from the tests were used as the measure for novel word learning ability. Receptive novel word learning was correlated with comprehension skills. This result strengthens the view that intact semantic processing is important in receptive novel word learning. Writing skills were also cor-related with receptive novel word learning, but reading skills were not. Repetition, naming, and spontane-ous speech were not correlated with receptive novel word learning.
  • Viljanen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder most commonly caused by a stroke. The ability to learn is essential to rehabilitation from aphasia. Verbal short-term memory is seen as one prerequisite for verbal learning and refers to the temporary, limited-capacity storage of linguistic information. It might explain the individual variation in the learning ability of people with aphasia since studies have shown that verbal short-term memory impairments are common in aphasia but may not occur in all individuals. A correlation has also been found between verbal short-term memory and novel word learning ability in chronic aphasia but some of the research findings are contradictory. Verbal short-term memory is little studied in the subacute stage of aphasia. Also, the relationship between verbal short-term memory and novel word learning ability has not been previously studied in subacute aphasia. Aims. The aim of this study was to examine verbal short-term memory in subacute aphasia and compare it with verbal short-term memory in healthy controls. The objective was also to determine whether there is a relationship between verbal short-term memory and novel word learning ability in people with aphasia and healthy subjects. Methods. 10 aphasic individuals were examined 0–3 months post-stroke. The control group consisted of 20 healthy elderly subjects. Verbal short-term memory was measured with a word pointing span task in which participants heard sequences of words and pointed corresponding images in a visual array of items. Novel word learning ability was examined with a computer-based word learning task in which participants’ task was to learn to identify correct nonword-visual referent associations on the basis of online visual feedback. The data was analyzed with statistical methods, as well as at the individual level. Results and conclusions. At the group level, verbal short-term memory capacity of the aphasic subjects was lower than that of the healthy controls, but there was individual variation. Some of the aphasic subjects had impaired verbal short-term memory, some performed at the level of the controls and one subject presented only partially impaired verbal short-term memory, regarding the span for serial order. Both the healthy and the aphasic subjects recalled items better than simultaneously their order. Verbal short-term memory capacity correlated with the severity of aphasia, naming accuracy and language processing skills of the aphasic subjects. Verbal short-term memory was not correlated with novel word learning ability in the aphasic and healthy subjects. Consequently, verbal short-term memory does not predict novel word learning ability, and even weak verbal short-term memory does not impede learning. However, the results suggested some kind of link between verbal short-term memory and novel word learning ability.
  • Jokinen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. One of the most common symptoms in aphasia is anomia, or word-finding difficulty. When retrieving words, that one has already learned causes a challenge, it is understandable that learning new ones can be difficult for people with aphasia. Studies have proven, though, that the ability to learn novel words doesn’t necessarily disappear in aphasia, but there is a wide individual variation in the learning ability. Because the ability to learn has been found to correlate with the response to therapy in aphasic individuals, researching learning and understanding it better is important from the clinical point of view. There are a lot of factors that affect learning, and modality could be one of them. In some previous studies, it has been noted that aphasic individuals were only able to learn novel words if they were in a written format. The aim of this study was to find out more about the effect of modality on learning novel words in chronic aphasia, and to compare the learning results of the aphasic individuals with those of healthy control participants. Methods. Two aphasic (AFA1 and AFA2) and two healthy control participants were recruited for this study. The learning experiment consisted of four learning conditions with different input-output modality combinations, meaning that the participants first either read or heard the words, and then either said them out loud or wrote them down. In each condition, there were 15 word-picture pairs to learn. The words were pseudowords and the pictures were black-and-white drawings of ancient farming equipment. Results and conclusions. The results of this study support the earlier results that suggest that even in chronic aphasia, learning novel words is still possible, but there is a lot of variation. In this experiment, AFA1 could learn words well, but AFA2 didn’t really learn them at all. Modality was found to be significant as well, since the learning results even for AFA1 were poor in two of the four learning conditions. Unlike in the previous studies, AFA1’s learning wasn’t dependent on reading the words but on writing them. Though her performance was most successful in the condition where the words were read and then written. In this condition, she learned all the 15 words and her learning was on the level of the healthy control participant. As of now, only few studies have been done on the effect of modality on learning in aphasia, but the results from this study and the previous ones encourage to do more research on this subject. Because a link has been found between learning ability and response to therapy, figuring out the best way to learn for each aphasic individual might also affect the treatment outcomes.
  • Elo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background and aims. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder most commonly caused by stroke. Aphasia manifests itself as difficulties in understanding and producing spoken or written language. Rehabilitation from aphasia requires the ability to learn. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic aphasia are able to learn and remember novel vocabulary in varying degrees. In addition, studies have shown that self-repair of speech is interrelated with linguistic recovery. However, the relationship between self-repair of connected speech and novel word acquisition in the non-chronic and chronic stages of aphasia has not previously been studied. The objective of this thesis is to describe the self-repair of connected speech and novel word learning ability in aphasic individuals and to determine whether self-repair and the ability to learn novel words are interrelated in the subacute (0–3 months) and chronic (12 months) stages of aphasia. Participants and methods. Four aphasic individuals were examined 0–3 months and again 12 months post-stroke within the Opi Sanoja research project at the University of Helsinki. Participants completed a computer-assisted learning experiment in which their aim was to learn the associations between novel words and images. Connected speech was collected from participants’ speech samples in a picture narration task, a stroke narrative and a thematic interview. The speech samples were transcribed according to the conventions used in conversation analysis and self-repairs were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively at both points in time. The relationship between self-repair and novel word acquisition was analyzed on a case-by-case basis and a group-level basis using scatter graphs and regression plots. Results and conclusions. Self-repairs of connected speech decreased and changed during the first year after stroke for all participants. The ability to learn novel words varied among the participants, but some participants were able to learn new words in the subacute and chronic stages of aphasia. On a case-by-case basis, no relationship was found between self-repair of connected speech and the ability to learn novel words in the subacute or chronic stages of aphasia. The learning ability in the subacute stage did not appear to predict the amount of self-repairs, nor the length of non-repaired problem sequences in the chronic stage. At the group level, in the subacute stage, there was a weak positive correlation between learning ability and self-correction rates, which turned negative in the chronic stage. There appeared to be a weak negative correlation between the length of non-repaired problem sequences and the ability to learn in the subacute stage, which disappeared in the chronic stage. However, group-level results were unreliable due to small sample size.
  • Kola, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Background. Aphasia is a deficit of language and cognition caused by brain damage. Rehabilitation is based on reactivating and reorganizing the nervous system – or learning things anew. Learning is based on many factors, that would require more thorough examination to best allocate and plan rehabilitation. The impact of reaction speed on the ability to learn novel words has not yet been studied in aphasic patients, although inter- and intraindividual variability in their reaction times clearly exists. Some aphasic patients have also been associated with a behavioral pattern called speed-accuracy trade-off, a pattern where a person balances between acting fast or accurately. This has led to overly cautious or overly hasty responding in some aphasic patients, which potentially could influence the learning ability. Objectives. The purpose of this study is to examine reaction times and response accuracy and their possible relationship in a novel word learning task in aphasic patients and healthy controls. Special interest is placed on the occurrence of speed-accuracy trade-offs, or overly cautious or fast responding related to response accuracy outcome. Additionally, it is being examined if intrapersonal variability in reaction times predicts novel word learning ability. Methods. The participants of this study consist of 10 aphasic patients in subacute stage and 21 healthy age-matched controls. This study was executed as a part of “Opi sanoja” research project, in which novel word learning ability was studied through a computer-based word learning task. The purpose of the task was to learn six pseudo-words associated with a picture. The pictures were shown in pairs, of which the examinee was told to choose the right one according to seen and heard pseudo-word and earlier received feedback. Reaction speed was measured by reaction times recorded by the word learning task. Reaction times were compared with response accuracy in and between the study groups. Results and conclusions. Aligned with previous studies, aphasic patients learned novel words worse than the controls, although great interindividual variability was noted. The reaction times of aphasic patients were significantly slower, but again interindividual variability was large in the group. Reaction speed correlated with novel word learning in the control group, but not significantly in the aphasic group. Intraindividual reaction time variability was notable in both groups, being twice as large in the aphasic group. Broader intraindividual variability correlated with weaker novel word learning ability in the control group. The speed-accuracy trade-off pattern occurred in two aphasic patients: one with overly cautious and one with overly hasty response behavior. According to this study, examining reaction times and possibly speed-accuracy trade-offs with, for example, a specific learning test would help to recognize the patients with maladaptive timing patterns. This would benefit the patient, as optimizing the speed-accuracy trade-offs has been studied to improve item naming, the effect even being transferred to connected speech. The relationship of speed-accuracy trade-offs with novel word learning requires further studying, taking into consideration factors behind reaction times and word learning ability.
  • Kiiski, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Naming is part of word-finding process where we retrieve words from our mental lexicon. Word retrieval is one of the fundamental procedures in linguistic processing. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder caused by a cerebrovascular accident. Word-finding or naming difficulty is the most common symptom of aphasia. Normal aging is also associated with decline in word-finding and naming abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate how healthy young adults, healthy elder participants and subacute aphasic participants perform in novel word naming task. Subacute aphasic participants performance in the naming task was compared with data collected on the performance of healthy control groups. In addition, the connection between performance in the novel word recognition task and in the naming task ability was examined. There was a total of 50 participants in this study. The sample of the study consisted of three groups: subacute aphasic participants (n=10), healthy young adults (n=20) and healthy elder participants (n=20). On first occasion the word learning task was completed on a computer program where participants practiced six pseudoword-picture pairings. Novel word learning was measured by word recognition task and naming task on two different occasions that were one week apart from each other. The performance in the naming task differentiated significantly between all the groups. Healthy young adults performed significantly better than subacute aphasic participants. Subacute aphasic participants’ and healthy elder participants’ performance in the naming task was close to significance. However, it can’t be inferred from the result that there is no difference in performance between these groups. There was a significant difference between performance of the healthy elderly participants and the healthy young adults. There was a correlation between the performance in the word recognition task and word naming task when investigating the whole sample. There was no correlation found between the two tasks when the groups were assessed independently. Additionally, this study provides new research data of the naming ability of young healthy adults, the elderly and subacute aphasic participants.
  • Majatsalo, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background. One way to define aphasia is to consider it as an impairment of language functions emerging after the period of language acquisition. Aphasia is most often due to an ischemic or hemorrahagic stroke and causes common problems in word retrieval, naming as well as expressive and receptive language skills. The symptoms of aphasia may be mild moderate, severe or most severe depending on the lesion size and location. The recovery from aphasia is based on the reorganization of neural networks in the brain and is generally divided into three main phases: acute, subacute and chronic. Acquisition of novel words requires intensive exposition to them through hearing or seeing as well as a good functioning of short-term and long-term memories. There has been only a little research in acquisition of novel words in subacute aphasia. Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the ability of a person in subacute phase of aphasia to learn novel words in a situation resembling ambiguous natural language learning context. Another aim is to study the connection between the learning ability and the language profile of the participant. Methods. The research material consisted of background information of the participant as well as the results of linguistic-cognitive tests and the novel word learning test. In the last-mentioned the participant learned six nonwords and their picture referents cross-situationally which means that the correct word-referent pairs develop gradually with the help of participant's own observations and feedback. Results and conclusions. Compared to the results of the nearest study available as to the study design the participant showed both statistically significant ability to learn novel words and also ability to store the new material during one week after the testing. In spite of a severe aphasia the participant reached the highest learning results together a chronic participant whose aphasia severity grade was mild. One possible explanation to this may be that the participant could make a successful advantage of both the residual of the linguistic-cognitive profile as well as the visual modality of the word learning task.
  • Martinsuo, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background. Aphasia refers to a disability in the processing of linguistic information. It is most typically due to a stroke. Aphasia impairs a person's ability to understand, produce and use language. Recovery from aphasia is generally divided into three main stages: acute, subacute and chronic. So far, the ability to learn new words in aphasia has only been studied in chronic aphasia. Learning new words is a complex process. In natural language learning, the relationship between a word and its meaning is often not unambiguous, but the words and their possible meanings are numerous, and the connections are complex. The learning of new words can take place by hearing or by reading. The prerequisite for rehabilitation from aphasia is the ability to learn new things, but aphasia research typically uses familiar and everyday words. However, the use of familiar words in research makes it difficult to interpret the results. In order to assess whether a person with aphasia is able to learn new vocabulary, research must be done on a vocabulary that was not available to the person before aphasia. Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to determine, whether people with subacute aphasia can learn novel vocabulary in a situation that imitates natural language learning. This thesis also investigates how the learning ability of people with aphasia compares to the learning ability of healthy matched controls in the same task and how the matched controls learn compared to healthy young adults. Methods. The participants of the study consisted of three groups: young controls, matched controls and aphasic participants. The aphasic participants were examined at HUS Hospital District in Laakso Hospital in Helsinki and in Hyvinkää Hospital. The word learning task consisted of six 3-syllable nonwords that were practiced using a computer program. The task was to combine a spoken and written novel word with the correct novel image, choosing from two different images. Results and conclusions. Learning novel words is possible in subacute aphasia. However, there was great variability in the ability to learn between the aphasic participants. Some learned the words well, others learned some words, and some did not seem to learn the words at all. In addition, some of aphasic participants in the subacute stage were able to maintain the vocabulary they learned for at least a week after learning. Some of the aphasic participants learned the words on par with matched controls but for some the learning was significantly weaker. Both young adults and matched controls performed well on the learning task, but young adults learn the words faster than matched controls.
  • Heikkilä, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aphasia is a linguistic disorder that occurs after language acquisition and can lead to difficulties with expressive and receptive language. Aphasia is most often caused by a stroke. The inability to retrieve words, also known as anomia, is the most common symptom of aphasia and it is most often assessed with object-naming tasks. It is acknowledged that in aphasia learning is fundamental aspect of the recovery process and this has led to increasing interest to study novel word learning ability in aphasia. So far, word learning ability in people with aphasia has been studied mainly in chronic stage. The aim of this study was to examine novel word learning ability in subacute aphasia using recognition and naming task and to investigate the possible connection between recognition and naming ability. Additionally, the possible connection between naming of familiar objects and new objects was investigated. The sample of this study was part of the Opi sanoja research project and included ten adults with subacute aphasia (maximum 3 months post-stroke). Participants completed a learning task on computer and their aim was to learn six pseudoword-picture pairings. The novel word learning ability of the participants was assessed using recognition and confrontation naming task. The tasks were administered on two different occasions one week apart from each other. The ability to name familiar objects was assessed using Boston Naming Test. Participants’ ability to name novel objects wasn’t correlated with their ability to recognize the novel objects. Furthermore, participants’ ability to name familiar objects didn’t correlate with the ability to name novel objects. However, there was considerable inter-individual variability in learning performance. Some of the participants were able to recognize novel objects at the statistically significant level immediately after the learning task and one week later. However, some of the participant’s couldn’t recognize the objects either immediately after the learning task or one week later. At the group level participants’ performance on the novel object naming task was poor and was virtually at floor. However, consideration of individual participant results revealed that one of the participants was able to name some of the novel objects correctly. Based on the results, people in subacute aphasia recognize novel targets better than name them. The results are in line with previous studies that have investigated ability to learn new words in chronic aphasia and support the initial evidence that people with subacute aphasia can learn novel words. The findings of this study also provide preliminary understanding of the ability to name novel objects in subacute aphasia.