Browsing by Subject "uusien sanojen oppiminen"

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  • Jokinen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. One of the most common symptoms in aphasia is anomia, or word-finding difficulty. When retrieving words, that one has already learned causes a challenge, it is understandable that learning new ones can be difficult for people with aphasia. Studies have proven, though, that the ability to learn novel words doesn’t necessarily disappear in aphasia, but there is a wide individual variation in the learning ability. Because the ability to learn has been found to correlate with the response to therapy in aphasic individuals, researching learning and understanding it better is important from the clinical point of view. There are a lot of factors that affect learning, and modality could be one of them. In some previous studies, it has been noted that aphasic individuals were only able to learn novel words if they were in a written format. The aim of this study was to find out more about the effect of modality on learning novel words in chronic aphasia, and to compare the learning results of the aphasic individuals with those of healthy control participants. Methods. Two aphasic (AFA1 and AFA2) and two healthy control participants were recruited for this study. The learning experiment consisted of four learning conditions with different input-output modality combinations, meaning that the participants first either read or heard the words, and then either said them out loud or wrote them down. In each condition, there were 15 word-picture pairs to learn. The words were pseudowords and the pictures were black-and-white drawings of ancient farming equipment. Results and conclusions. The results of this study support the earlier results that suggest that even in chronic aphasia, learning novel words is still possible, but there is a lot of variation. In this experiment, AFA1 could learn words well, but AFA2 didn’t really learn them at all. Modality was found to be significant as well, since the learning results even for AFA1 were poor in two of the four learning conditions. Unlike in the previous studies, AFA1’s learning wasn’t dependent on reading the words but on writing them. Though her performance was most successful in the condition where the words were read and then written. In this condition, she learned all the 15 words and her learning was on the level of the healthy control participant. As of now, only few studies have been done on the effect of modality on learning in aphasia, but the results from this study and the previous ones encourage to do more research on this subject. Because a link has been found between learning ability and response to therapy, figuring out the best way to learn for each aphasic individual might also affect the treatment outcomes.
  • Elo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background and aims. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder most commonly caused by stroke. Aphasia manifests itself as difficulties in understanding and producing spoken or written language. Rehabilitation from aphasia requires the ability to learn. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic aphasia are able to learn and remember novel vocabulary in varying degrees. In addition, studies have shown that self-repair of speech is interrelated with linguistic recovery. However, the relationship between self-repair of connected speech and novel word acquisition in the non-chronic and chronic stages of aphasia has not previously been studied. The objective of this thesis is to describe the self-repair of connected speech and novel word learning ability in aphasic individuals and to determine whether self-repair and the ability to learn novel words are interrelated in the subacute (0–3 months) and chronic (12 months) stages of aphasia. Participants and methods. Four aphasic individuals were examined 0–3 months and again 12 months post-stroke within the Opi Sanoja research project at the University of Helsinki. Participants completed a computer-assisted learning experiment in which their aim was to learn the associations between novel words and images. Connected speech was collected from participants’ speech samples in a picture narration task, a stroke narrative and a thematic interview. The speech samples were transcribed according to the conventions used in conversation analysis and self-repairs were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively at both points in time. The relationship between self-repair and novel word acquisition was analyzed on a case-by-case basis and a group-level basis using scatter graphs and regression plots. Results and conclusions. Self-repairs of connected speech decreased and changed during the first year after stroke for all participants. The ability to learn novel words varied among the participants, but some participants were able to learn new words in the subacute and chronic stages of aphasia. On a case-by-case basis, no relationship was found between self-repair of connected speech and the ability to learn novel words in the subacute or chronic stages of aphasia. The learning ability in the subacute stage did not appear to predict the amount of self-repairs, nor the length of non-repaired problem sequences in the chronic stage. At the group level, in the subacute stage, there was a weak positive correlation between learning ability and self-correction rates, which turned negative in the chronic stage. There appeared to be a weak negative correlation between the length of non-repaired problem sequences and the ability to learn in the subacute stage, which disappeared in the chronic stage. However, group-level results were unreliable due to small sample size.
  • Heikkilä, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aphasia is a linguistic disorder that occurs after language acquisition and can lead to difficulties with expressive and receptive language. Aphasia is most often caused by a stroke. The inability to retrieve words, also known as anomia, is the most common symptom of aphasia and it is most often assessed with object-naming tasks. It is acknowledged that in aphasia learning is fundamental aspect of the recovery process and this has led to increasing interest to study novel word learning ability in aphasia. So far, word learning ability in people with aphasia has been studied mainly in chronic stage. The aim of this study was to examine novel word learning ability in subacute aphasia using recognition and naming task and to investigate the possible connection between recognition and naming ability. Additionally, the possible connection between naming of familiar objects and new objects was investigated. The sample of this study was part of the Opi sanoja research project and included ten adults with subacute aphasia (maximum 3 months post-stroke). Participants completed a learning task on computer and their aim was to learn six pseudoword-picture pairings. The novel word learning ability of the participants was assessed using recognition and confrontation naming task. The tasks were administered on two different occasions one week apart from each other. The ability to name familiar objects was assessed using Boston Naming Test. Participants’ ability to name novel objects wasn’t correlated with their ability to recognize the novel objects. Furthermore, participants’ ability to name familiar objects didn’t correlate with the ability to name novel objects. However, there was considerable inter-individual variability in learning performance. Some of the participants were able to recognize novel objects at the statistically significant level immediately after the learning task and one week later. However, some of the participant’s couldn’t recognize the objects either immediately after the learning task or one week later. At the group level participants’ performance on the novel object naming task was poor and was virtually at floor. However, consideration of individual participant results revealed that one of the participants was able to name some of the novel objects correctly. Based on the results, people in subacute aphasia recognize novel targets better than name them. The results are in line with previous studies that have investigated ability to learn new words in chronic aphasia and support the initial evidence that people with subacute aphasia can learn novel words. The findings of this study also provide preliminary understanding of the ability to name novel objects in subacute aphasia.
  • Majatsalo, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background. One way to define aphasia is to consider it as an impairment of language functions emerging after the period of language acquisition. Aphasia is most often due to an ischemic or hemorrahagic stroke and causes common problems in word retrieval, naming as well as expressive and receptive language skills. The symptoms of aphasia may be mild moderate, severe or most severe depending on the lesion size and location. The recovery from aphasia is based on the reorganization of neural networks in the brain and is generally divided into three main phases: acute, subacute and chronic. Acquisition of novel words requires intensive exposition to them through hearing or seeing as well as a good functioning of short-term and long-term memories. There has been only a little research in acquisition of novel words in subacute aphasia. Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the ability of a person in subacute phase of aphasia to learn novel words in a situation resembling ambiguous natural language learning context. Another aim is to study the connection between the learning ability and the language profile of the participant. Methods. The research material consisted of background information of the participant as well as the results of linguistic-cognitive tests and the novel word learning test. In the last-mentioned the participant learned six nonwords and their picture referents cross-situationally which means that the correct word-referent pairs develop gradually with the help of participant's own observations and feedback. Results and conclusions. Compared to the results of the nearest study available as to the study design the participant showed both statistically significant ability to learn novel words and also ability to store the new material during one week after the testing. In spite of a severe aphasia the participant reached the highest learning results together a chronic participant whose aphasia severity grade was mild. One possible explanation to this may be that the participant could make a successful advantage of both the residual of the linguistic-cognitive profile as well as the visual modality of the word learning task.
  • Martinsuo, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Background. Aphasia refers to a disability in the processing of linguistic information. It is most typically due to a stroke. Aphasia impairs a person's ability to understand, produce and use language. Recovery from aphasia is generally divided into three main stages: acute, subacute and chronic. So far, the ability to learn new words in aphasia has only been studied in chronic aphasia. Learning new words is a complex process. In natural language learning, the relationship between a word and its meaning is often not unambiguous, but the words and their possible meanings are numerous, and the connections are complex. The learning of new words can take place by hearing or by reading. The prerequisite for rehabilitation from aphasia is the ability to learn new things, but aphasia research typically uses familiar and everyday words. However, the use of familiar words in research makes it difficult to interpret the results. In order to assess whether a person with aphasia is able to learn new vocabulary, research must be done on a vocabulary that was not available to the person before aphasia. Objectives. The aim of this thesis is to determine, whether people with subacute aphasia can learn novel vocabulary in a situation that imitates natural language learning. This thesis also investigates how the learning ability of people with aphasia compares to the learning ability of healthy matched controls in the same task and how the matched controls learn compared to healthy young adults. Methods. The participants of the study consisted of three groups: young controls, matched controls and aphasic participants. The aphasic participants were examined at HUS Hospital District in Laakso Hospital in Helsinki and in Hyvinkää Hospital. The word learning task consisted of six 3-syllable nonwords that were practiced using a computer program. The task was to combine a spoken and written novel word with the correct novel image, choosing from two different images. Results and conclusions. Learning novel words is possible in subacute aphasia. However, there was great variability in the ability to learn between the aphasic participants. Some learned the words well, others learned some words, and some did not seem to learn the words at all. In addition, some of aphasic participants in the subacute stage were able to maintain the vocabulary they learned for at least a week after learning. Some of the aphasic participants learned the words on par with matched controls but for some the learning was significantly weaker. Both young adults and matched controls performed well on the learning task, but young adults learn the words faster than matched controls.