Browsing by Subject "vaccination"

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  • Heilmann, Romy M.; Guard, Melissa M.; Toresson, Linda; Unterer, Stefan; Grellet , Aurélien; Grützner, Niels; Suchodolski, J. S.; Steiner, Joerg (2021)
    Background: Fecal S100/calgranulin (S100A12 and calprotectin) concentrations are useful markers of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs. In people, fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations are affected by age, obesity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Knowledge about the effects of such factors on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in dogs is currently scarce. Objective: To evaluate the association between several factors and fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in a large cohort of healthy adult dogs. Methods: Single-spot fecal samples from 181 healthy pet dogs and data derived from a standard questionnaire served to evaluate the effect of age, sex, reproductive status, body weight and body condition, breed type and size, vaccination, endoparasite treatment, diet, environment and travel history on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations and the fecal calgranulin ratio (fCalR). Results: Univariate analysis showed a significant association of reproductive status (in female dogs) and breed size with fecal S100A12, fecal calprotectin and fCalR. Breed type was linked to fecal S100A12 concentrations and fCalR; recent vaccination (particularly with a vaccine against canine parvovirus) to fCalR. In multivariate models, breed size was linked to fecal S100A12 and calprotectin concentrations, and recent vaccination affected S100A12 concentrations. Conclusions: Breed size, recent vaccination and reproductive status in female dogs can affect fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations, and these biomarkers should be interpreted in light of those confounding factors. The utility of reference intervals for fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations might be improved through stratification by sex/reproductive status and breed size. Fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations are not confounded by age, body condition, deworming, diet, environment or travel history.
  • Louvanto, Karolina; Eriksson, Tiina; Gray, Penelope; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Bly, Anne; Harjula, Katja; Heikkila, Kaisa; Hokkanen, Mari; Huhtinen, Leila; Ikonen, Marja; Karttunen, Heidi; Nummela, Mervi; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Veivo, Ulla; Dillner, Joakim; Elfstöm, Miriam; Nieminen, Pekka; Lehtinen, Matti (2020)
    Less frequent cervical cancer screening in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinated birth cohorts could produce considerable savings without increasing cervical cancer incidence and loss of life-years. We report here the baseline findings and interim results of safety and accuracy of infrequent screening among HPV16/18 vaccinated females. The entire 1992-1994 birth-cohorts (30,139 females) were invited to a community-randomized HPV16/18-vaccination trial. A total of 9,482 female trial participants received HPV16/18-vaccination in 2007-2009 at age of 13-15. At age 22, 4,273 (45%) of these females consented to attend a randomized trial on frequent (ages 22/25/28; Arm 1: 2,073 females) vs. infrequent screening (age 28; Arm 2: 2,200 females) in 2014-2017. Females (1,329), who had got HPV16/18 vaccination at age 18 comprised the safety Arm 3. Baseline prevalence and incidence of HPV16/18 and other high-risk HPV types were: 0.5% (53/1,000 follow-up years, 10(4)) and 25% (2,530/10(4)) in the frequently screened Arm 1; 0.2% (23/10(4)) and 24% (2,413/10(4)) in the infrequently screened Arm 2; and 3.1% (304/10(4)) and 23% (2,284/10(4)) in the safety Arm 3. Corresponding prevalence of HSIL/ASC-H and of any abnormal cytological findings were: 0.3 and 4.2% (Arm 1), 0.4 and 5.3% (Arm 2) and 0.3 and 4.7% (Arm 3). Equally rare HSIL/CIN3 findings in the infrequently screened safety Arm A3 (0.4%) and in the frequently screened Arm 1 (0.4%) indicate no safety concerns on infrequent screening despite the up to 10 times higher HPV16/18 baseline prevalence and incidence in the former.
  • Rikula, Ulla (Evira, 2008)
    Evira Research Reports
    Canine distemper (CD) is one of the longest-known infectious diseases of dogs and is still prevalent in many parts of the world. Vaccination combined with biosecurity measures is the most productive way to prevent and control infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of vaccination are realized not only on the individual but also on the population level, the latter in the form of herd immunity (HI). Control of CD among dogs relies heavily on vaccination, while in fur farms and zoos with several species or large numbers of CD-susceptible animals in close contact, biosecurity measures in some cases offer the only available means for CD control. Modified live CD virus vaccines have been successfully used to control CD among farmed mink, and since no licensed vaccines for other species kept for fur exist, mink CD vaccines have also been used for foxes and raccoon dogs in CD emergency situations. CD vaccines for dogs (Canis familiaris) and mink (Mustela vison) were studied in experimental settings for their ability to induce virus-neutralising (VN) antibodies in target species. Mink vaccines were also assessed in silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Purpose-bred beagle dogs were vaccinated twice with one of three CD vaccines: Candur® SHP, Canlan®-3 or Dohyvac® DA2P, and the levels of VN antibodies were determined at the time of vaccination and one month after the second vaccination. Fur animals were vaccinated once with Distemink®, Distem®-R-TC or vaccine 3 (which was not licensed in Finland) and the levels of VN antibodies were determined at vaccination and 2-4 times 1-4 months afterwards. Significant differences among vaccine groups were found both in the proportion of animals with measurable levels of VN antibodies and in the mean titres of antibodies. The levels of VN antibodies were also determined from a large field sample (n = 4 627) of vaccinated dogs. In addition to the three CD vaccines in the seroconversion study above, additional two vaccines, Duramune®-4 and Nobivac® DHP, had been used in the field. Each dog with a known vaccination history, date of birth, sex and breed was sampled once. Based on the overall geometric mean titre of the dogs vaccinated with a single vaccine brand, vaccines were divided into high-take (Candur®, Nobivac® and Duramune®) and low-take (Dohyvac® and Canlan®) groups. The vaccine groups differed significantly among dogs less than two years of age both in the proportion of dogs with detectable VN antibodies and in the mean titres. Both the number of vaccinations and age were associated with the titre and vaccine usage. To control for possible confounding factors, the comparison 8 of titres among vaccine usage groups was adjusted by classifying them according to the number of vaccinations (one to four) and the age group (less than one, one to two, or over two years old). The same division into low- and high-take vaccines was observed, irrespective of the number of vaccinations the dogs had received. The observations of this seroprevalence study regarding Candur® , Canlan® and Dohyvac® were consistent with the results of the seroconversion study. CD was reintroduced into Finland in 1990 after 16 years of absence. The disease remained at a low endemic level in 1990-1994, reached epidemic proportions in 1994-1995 and disappeared during 1995. The epidemic also involved vaccinated dogs. Among the virologically-confirmed cases the proportion of Dohyvac®-vaccinated dogs was higher than expected from the market shares on the assumption that all the vaccines had an equal take. As a result of this observation, Dohyvac® was withdrawn from and Nobivac® and Duramune® introduced to the market during 1995. A drastic redistribution of the market shares between the low-take and high-take vaccines took place, and this coincided with the decline and dying out of the outbreak. The observed occurrence pattern of CD from 1990-1996 was largely attributed to the changes in the level of HI, although the possible contribution of other factors, such as developments in the dog demographics, was also recognized. It was concluded that an HI above 75% is needed to keep CD in check, i.e., only sporadic cases of CD, at most, can occur. With the currently used vaccines an HI of 80% corresponds to a vaccine coverage of some 94%. It was concluded that the development of vaccine-induced immunity is a multifactorial process depending on the properties of the vaccine, on the individual variation, age, species and other factors influencing the immunocompetence of the host. On the individual level the prevention of clinical signs is sufficient, but on the population level, halting the circulation of the virus is crucial for the definitive control of CD. The ultimate test and criterion for a vaccine is its contribution to herd immunity. Heterogeneity in the dog population contributes to the occurrence of CD.
  • Hussein, Tareq; Hammad, Mahmoud H.; Fung, Pak Lun; Al-Kloub, Marwan; Odeh, Issam; Zaidan, Martha A.; Wraith, Darren (2021)
    In this study, we proposed three simple approaches to forecast COVID-19 reported cases in a Middle Eastern society (Jordan). The first approach was a short-term forecast (STF) model based on a linear forecast model using the previous days as a learning data-base for forecasting. The second approach was a long-term forecast (LTF) model based on a mathematical formula that best described the current pandemic situation in Jordan. Both approaches can be seen as complementary: the STF can cope with sudden daily changes in the pandemic whereas the LTF can be utilized to predict the upcoming waves' occurrence and strength. As such, the third approach was a hybrid forecast (HF) model merging both the STF and the LTF models. The HF was shown to be an efficient forecast model with excellent accuracy. It is evident that the decision to enforce the curfew at an early stage followed by the planned lockdown has been effective in eliminating a serious wave in April 2020. Vaccination has been effective in combating COVID-19 by reducing infection rates. Based on the forecasting results, there is some possibility that Jordan may face a third wave of the pandemic during the Summer of 2021.
  • Gray, Penelope; Palmroth, Johanna; Luostarinen, Tapio; Apter, Dan; Dubin, Gary; Garnett, Geoff; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Merikukka, Marko; Pimenoff, Ville; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Vanska, Simopekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti (2018)
    Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines promises to control HPV infections. However, HPV vaccination programs may lay bare an ecological niche for non-vaccine HPV types. We evaluated type-replacement by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial executed in HPV vaccination naive population. Thirty-three communities were randomized to gender-neutral vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (Arm A), HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B) and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C). Resident 1992-95 born boys (40,852) and girls (39,420) were invited. 11,662 boys and 20,513 girls were vaccinated with 20-30% and 45-48% coverage, respectively. HPV typing of 11,396 cervicovaginal samples was performed by high throughput PCR. Prevalence ratios (PR) between arms and ranked order of HPV types and odds ratio (OR) for having multiple HPV types in HPV16 or 18/45 positive individuals were calculated. The ranked order of HPV types did not significantly differ between arms or birth cohorts. For the non-HPV vaccinated 1992-1993 birth cohorts increased PR, between the gender-neutral intervention versus control arms for HPV39 (PRA 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-3.02) and HPV51 (PRA 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.19) were observed. In the gender-neutral arm, increased clustering between HPV39 and the vaccine-covered HPV types 16 or 18/45 (ORA16 = 5.1, ORA18/45 = 11.4) was observed in the non-HPV vaccinated 1994-1995 birth cohorts. Comparable clustering was seen between HPV51 and HPV16 or HPV18/45 (ORB16 = 4.7, ORB18/45 = 4.3), in the girls-only arm. In conclusion, definitively consistent postvaccination patterns of HPV type-replacement were not observed. Future occurrence of HPV39 and HPV51 warrant investigation.
  • Hovi, Marita; Heiskala, Hannu; Aronen, Eeva T.; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Olsen, Päivi; Nokelainen, Pekka; Kirjavainen, Turkka (2022)
    ABSTRACT Aim We assessed psychosocial burdens in children who developed narcolepsy after receiving the Pandemrix H1N1 vaccine during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Parental quality of life was also assessed. Methods This multicentre study covered four of the five Finnish University Hospital Districts, which dealt with about 90% of the paediatric narcolepsy cases after the Pandemrix vaccination. The medical records of children diagnosed from 2010-2014 were reviewed. The questionnaires included the Youth Self Report (YSR), Children?s Depression Inventory (CDI), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and questions on parental resources, stress and quality of life. Results We obtained the medical records of 94 children who were aged 5-17 years at the time of their narcolepsy diagnosis and questionnaire data for 73 of those children. Most children had strong narcolepsy symptoms 25% had CDI scores that suggested depression. In addition, 41% had total CBCL problem scores above the clinically significant limit and 48% were anxious, withdrawn and had somatic complaints. Sleep latency was weakly associated with the CBCL total problem score. Half of the children needed psychiatric interventions and parental stress was common. Conclusion Depression and behavioural problems were common in children with narcolepsy after the Pandemrix vaccination and their parents frequently reported feeling stressed.
  • Dimsdale, Th. (Stockholm, 1784)
  • Vesikari, Timo; Virta, Miia; Heinonen, Seppo; Eymin, Cécile; Lavis, Nathalie; Chabanon, Anne Laure; Gresset-Bourgeois, Viviane (2020)
    ABSTRACTVaccination against influenza during pregnancy provides direct protection to pregnant women and indirect protection to their infants. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3s) are safe and effective during pregnancy, but quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4s) have not been evaluated in pregnant women and their infants. Here, we report the results of a randomized phase IV study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of IIV4 vs. IIV3 in pregnant women. Participants aged ≥18 years at weeks 20 to 32 of gestation were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive a single dose of IIV4 (n = 230) or IIV3 (n = 116). Between baseline and 21 days after vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers increased in both groups by similar magnitudes for the two influenza A strains and single B strain common to IIV4 and IIV3. For the additional B strain in IIV4, HAI titers were higher in IIV4 recipients than IIV3 recipients (post-/pre-vaccination geometric mean titer ratio, 6.3 [95% CI: 5.1 ? 7.7] vs. 3.4 [95% CI: 2.7 ? 4.3]). At delivery, in both groups, HAI antibody titers for all strains were 1.5 ? 1.9-fold higher in umbilical cord blood than in maternal blood, confirming active transplacental antibody transfer. Rates of solicited and unsolicited vaccine-related adverse events in mothers were similar between the two groups. Live births were reported for all participants and there were no vaccine-related adverse events in newborns. These results suggest IIV4 is as safe and immunogenic as IIV3 in pregnant women, and that maternal immunization with IIV4 should protect newborns against influenza via passively acquired antibodies.
  • Vink, P.; Torrell, J.M.R.; Fructuoso, A.S.; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Sang-Il; Zaltzman, J.; Ortiz, F.; Plana, J.M.C.; Rodriguez, A.M.F.; Rodrigo, H.R.; Marti, M.C.; Perez, R.; Roncero, F.M.G.; Kumar, D.; Chiang, Y.-J.; Doucette, K.; Pipeleers, L.; Morales, M.L.A.; Rodriguez-Ferrero, M.L.; Secchi, Antonio; McNeil, S.A.; Campora, L.; Di Paolo, E.; El Idrissi, M.; López-Fauqued, M.; Salaun, B.; Heineman, T.C.; Oostvogels, L. (2020)
    Background. The incidence of herpes zoster is up to 9 times higher in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in renal transplant (RT) recipients ≥18 years of age receiving daily immunosuppressive therapy. Methods. In this phase 3, randomized (1:1), observer-blind, multicenter trial, RT recipients were enrolled and received 2 doses of RZV or placebo 1-2 months (M) apart 4-18M posttransplant. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies, and vaccine response rates were assessed at 1M post-dose 1, and 1M and 12M post-dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each dose, respectively. Solicited general symptoms and unsolicited AEs were also collected 7 days before first vaccination. Serious AEs (including biopsy-proven allograft rejections) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were recorded up to 12M post-dose 2. Results. Two hundred sixty-four participants (RZV: 132; placebo: 132) were enrolled between March 2014 and April 2017. gE-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were higher in RZV than placebo recipients across postvaccination time points and persisted above prevaccination baseline 12M post-dose 2. Local AEs were reported more frequently by RZV than placebo recipients. Overall occurrences of renal function changes, rejections, unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, and pIMDs were similar between groups. Conclusions. RZV was immunogenic in chronically immunosuppressed RT recipients. Immunogenicity persisted through 12M postvaccination. No safety concerns arose. © The Author(s) 2019.
  • Carro, J. De (Viennae, 1804)
  • Malik, Adnan; Lehtola, Laura; Isosomppi, Sanna; Smura, Teemu; Saarenheimo, Jaana; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Särelä, Eeva (2022)
    We describe an outbreak of delta variant SARS-CoV-2 on a psychogeriatric ward of elderly patients. Retrospectively collected data was analysed using Fisher's exact test to assess the association between patients' vaccination status and infection rates, severity of disease and mortality. Vaccination with two doses was shown to reduce severity of disease (5% vs. 75%, p < 0.001) and mortality (5% vs. 50%, p < 0.018) amongst an elderly inpatient population during an outbreak of delta variant SARS-CoV-2. Vaccination should be encouraged in elderly care institutions. Furthermore, adequate vaccination in elderly care institutions is an important consideration in current booster (third/fourth) dose schedules.
  • Kunze, Michael; Banovic, Pavle; Bogovic, Petra; Briciu, Violeta; Civljak, Rok; Dobler, Gerhard; Hristea, Adriana; Kerlik, Jana; Kuivanen, Suvi; Kyncl, Jan; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Lindquist, Lars; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Roglic, Srdan; Smiskova, Dita; Strle, Franc; Vapalahti, Olli; Vranjes, Nenad; Vynograd, Nataliya; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Pilz, Andreas; Palmborg, Andreas; Erber, Wilhelm (2022)
    There has been an increase in reported TBE cases in Europe since 2015, reaching a peak in some countries in 2020, highlighting the need for better management of TBE risk in Europe. TBE surveillance is currently limited, in part, due to varying diagnostic guidelines, access to testing, and awareness of TBE. Consequently, TBE prevalence is underestimated and vaccination recommendations inadequate. TBE vaccine uptake is unsatisfactory in many TBE-endemic European countries. This review summarizes the findings of a scientific workshop of experts to improve TBE surveillance and vaccine uptake in Europe. Strategies to improve TBE surveillance and vaccine uptake should focus on: aligning diagnostic criteria and testing across Europe; expanding current vaccine recommendations and reducing their complexity; and increasing public education of the potential risks posed by TBEV infection.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf EFSA AHA; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose; Sihvonen, Liisa Helena (2020)
    Effectiveness of surveillance and control measures against Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Mayotte (overseas France) and in continental EU were assessed using mathematical models. Surveillance for early detection of RVF virus circulation implies very low design prevalence values and thus sampling a high number of animals, so feasibility issues may rise. Passive surveillance based on notified abortions in ruminants is key for early warning and at present the only feasible surveillance option. The assessment of vaccination and culling against RVF in Mayotte suggests that vaccination is more effective when quickly implemented throughout the population, e.g. at a rate of 200 or 2,000 animals vaccinated per day. Test and cull is not an option for RVF control in Mayotte given the high number of animals that would need to be tested. If the risk of RVFV introduction into the continental EU increases, ruminant establishments close to possible points of disease incursion should be included in the surveillance. An enhanced surveillance on reproductive disorders should be applied during summer in risk areas. Serosurveillance targets of 0.3% animals should be at least considered. RVF control measures possibly applied in the continental EU have been assessed in the Netherlands, as an example. Culling animals on farms within a 20 km radius of detected farms appears as the most effective measure to control RVF spread, although too many animals should be culled. Alternative measures are vaccination in a 50 km radius around detection, ring vaccination between 20 and 50 km and culling of detected farms. The assessment of zoning showed that, following RVFV introduction and considering an R-0 = 2, a mean vector dispersal of 10 km and 10 farms initially detected, RVFV would spread beyond a radius of up to 100 km or 50 km from the infected area with 10% or 55% probability, respectively. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Ifversen, Marianne; Meisel, Roland; Sedlacek, Petr; Kalwak, Krzysztof; Sisinni, Luisa; Hutt, Daphna; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Balduzzi, Adriana; Diesch, Tamara; Jarisch, Andrea; Gungor, Tayfun; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Bonig, Halvard; Kuhlen, Michaela; Ansari, Marc; Nava, Tiago; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Diaz-de-Heredia, Cristina; Trigoso, Eugenia; Falkenberg, Ulrike; Hartmann, Mihaela; Deiana, Marco; Canesi, Marta; Broggi, Chiara; Bertaina, Alice; Gibson, Brenda; Krivan, Gergely; Vettenranta, Kim; Matic, Toni; Buechner, Jochen; Lawitschka, Anita; Peters, Christina; Yesilipek, Akif; Yalcin, Koray; Lucchini, Giovanna; Bakhtiar, Shahrzad; Turkiewicz, Dominik; Niinimaki, Riitta; Wachowiak, Jacek; Cesaro, Simone; Dalissier, Arnaud; Corbacioglu, Selim; Willasch, Andre Manfred; Bader, Peter (2021)
    Specific protocols define eligibility, conditioning, donor selection, graft composition and prophylaxis of graft vs. host disease for children and young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). However, international protocols rarely, if ever, detail supportive care, including pharmaceutical infection prophylaxis, physical protection with face masks and cohort isolation or food restrictions. Supportive care suffers from a lack of scientific evidence and implementation of practices in the transplant centers brings extensive restrictions to the child's and family's daily life after HSCT. Therefore, the Board of the Pediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) held a series of dedicated workshops since 2017 with the aim of initiating the production of a set of minimal recommendations. The present paper describes the consensus reached within the field of infection prophylaxis.
  • Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Kleino, Iivari; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri; Kainulainen, Leena; Gräsbeck, Michaela; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Mäkitie, Outi; Klemetti, Paula (2020)
    Background: Live viral vaccines are generally contraindicated in patients with combined immunodeficiency including cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH); however, they may be tolerated in milder syndromes. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of live viral vaccines in patients with CHH. Methods: We analyzed hospital and immunization records of 104 patients with CHH and measured serum antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in all patients who agreed to blood sampling (n= 50). We conducted a clinical trial (identifier: NCT02383797) of live VZV vaccine on five subjects with CHH who lacked varicella history, had no clinical symptoms of immunodeficiency, and were seronegative for VZV; humoral and cellular immunologic responses were assessed post-immunization. Results: A large proportion of patients have been immunized with live viral vaccines, including measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) (n= 40, 38%) and VZV (n= 10, 10%) vaccines, with no serious adverse events. Of the 50 patients tested for antibodies, previous immunization has been documented with MMR (n= 22), rubella (n= 2) and measles (n= 1) vaccines. Patients with CHH demonstrated seropositivity rates of 96%/75%/91% to measles, mumps and rubella, respectively, measured at a medium of 24 years post-immunization. Clinical trial participants developed humoral and cellular responses to VZV vaccine. One trial participant developed post-immunization rash and knee swelling, both resolved without treatment. Conclusion: No serious adverse events have been recorded after immunization with live viral vaccines in Finnish patients with CHH. Patients generate humoral and cellular immune response to live viral vaccines. Immunization with live vaccines may be considered in selected CHH patients with no or clinically mild immunodeficiency.
  • Ballhorn, Georg Friedrich; Stromeyer, Christian Friedrich (Leipsic, 1801)
  • Koskinen, Heli I. (2020)
    Foals are susceptible to many infectious diseases and they should be treated and protected differently compared to adult horses. Objectives of this study were to investigate vaccination and deworming practices of foal owners in Finland. The questionnaire study was executed. Foal owners (n = 236) gave a response and 217 of them told that they vaccinate their foals against equine influenza and tetanus (combination vaccine) (88 %) and herpes (12 %), but not against rabies (1,8 %). About 8 % did not vaccinated their foal at all and a risk of being non-vaccinated was regionally distributed (p<0,05). Among foal owners deworming (99,2 %) preferred over vaccination (92 %). Foals were dewormed by taking regular fecal samples first (76%), but also routine treatments without samples were favored (22 %). Differences between foals of this study and horse population in general (horses of all ages) need to take seriously when conclusions are drawn. Different recommendations come from different veterinarians should be taken under further research.
  • Bouchholz, A. G. (1804)