Browsing by Subject "valkuaisrehu"

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  • Laukkanen, Salla (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Microalgae are unicellular organisms with excellent nutritional composition, ability to efficiently produce biomass and low environmental demands. The use of microalgae in animal feeds is common in aquaculture and newly introduced to animal husbandry. There is a growing need for alternative protein feeds to diminish the environmental cost of feed production and competition with food production. This research examined if soy protein can be replaced with microalgal protein in concentrate feeding of dairy cows. The effect of protein source on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, amino acid intake and use in mammary gland as well as plasma metabolites were evaluated. The feeding experiment was conducted in the research farm of the University of Helsinki in the summer of 2014. The study design was a 4x4 Latin square with four multiparous ayrshire dairy cows and four different experimental diets (isonitrogenously soybean meal (Glycine max), Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris or 1:1 mixture of Chlorella and Nannochloropsis gaditana as protein feed). The experimental concentrates (12.5 kg/d) were based on cereals and molassed sugarbeet pulp. The cows were given grass silage ad libitum. The physiological feeding experiment lasted for 12 weeks, with four experimental periods of three weeks. Feed intake was recorded and samples of feed, milk, feces and blood were taken to determine the effect of the experimental feeds on the cows. Inclusion of microalgae lowered the intake of concentrate feeds, but overall dry matter intake remained unchanged as the intake of grass silage was increased. The only effect on milk production and milk composition was the slightly higher fat concentration of milk when microalgal feeds were fed. In plasma, acetic acid and free fatty acid concentrations were higher and insulin concentrations lower when feed included microalgae, and also the mammary metabolism of these metabolites was affected by the experimental diets. The results refer to slight changes in rumen fermentation and mammary gland metabolism when microalgae replaced soy in the feeds. The effects of different feeds on amino acid metabolism were minor. Based on mammary uptake-output ratio, the most limiting amino acid in all diets seemed to be methionine. Based on the results of this experiment, microalgal feeds are equal or even slightly superior to soy as a protein feed of dairy cows when it comes to nutritional composition and productive responses. Inferior palatability of microalgae compared to soy, high production costs of microalgal feeds and lack of systematic scientific research are nevertheless hindering the large-scale commercial use of microalgae in domestic animal feeds.
  • Mäkinen, Henna-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In order to increase protein self-sufficiency and food production, it is necessary to study new protein feeds. Faba bean (Vicia faba) is a nitrogen-fixing plant, and thereby a good choice for versatile rotation of crops. Faba beans contain less crude protein and considerably more starch than rapeseed meal. Most of the faba bean protein degrades in rumen and it contains less methionine than rapeseed meal protein. Microalgae contain plenty of crude protein and their production requires less surface area than cultivation of field crops. Microalgae can also be grown in harsh climate conditions. However, microalgae have, in some of the earlier studies, reduced palatability of the diet. Aim of this Master’s Thesis was to compare rapeseed meal, faba bean seeds and Spirulina microalgae effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Hypothesis were decreased feed intake when Spirulina was added to the diet; lower milk production with faba bean diet than with rapeseed diet; and increased milk production when a part of faba bean protein was replaced with Spirulina protein. The study was conducted at Viikki research farm at Helsinki during the spring of 2015. Eight multiparous ayrshire dairy cows were used. At the beginning of the study, on average 113 days were passed since calving of the cows. The study design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Cows of the other square were rumen fistulated. Treatments (rapeseed, rapeseed + Spirulina, faba bean, faba bean + Spirulina) were isonitrogenous. In microalgae treatments protein from Spirulina was used to substitute half of the protein from rapeseed or faba bean. Total mixed ration (TMR) included in addition to protein feeds grass silage, barley, molassed sugar beet pulp and vitamins and minerals. Cows received TMR ad libitum. There were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI) between rapeseed and faba bean treatments. According to the hypothesis, DMI was decreased with Spirulina diets. Hypothesis regarding milk production were also realised. Milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein and lactose yields were lower with faba bean than with rapeseed treatments. Adding Spirulina to diet increased milk yield in faba bean treatment, but decreased it in rapeseed treatment. Adding Spirulina to diet did not affect energy-corrected milk yield significantly. Spirulina did not affect fat yields, and it lowered the protein and lactose yields in rapeseed treatment, and increased them in faba bean treatment. Based on the findings of the study, faba bean and Spirulina are inferior protein feeds compared to rapeseed meal in grass silage and grain based diets. Faba bean protein’s high rumen degradability and low methionine concentration probably limit milk production. Spirulina and faba bean combined meet dairy cow’s amino acid needs better than faba bean alone. However, Spirulina’s negative impact on DMI may restrict its usage as a protein feed for dairy cows.
  • Rissanen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of supplementary protein feeding of dairy cattle is to increase dry matter intake and milk yield. In Finland, rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. oleifera, Brassica napus L. oleifera) is commonly used protein feed in animal nutrition. However, low self-sufficiency of supplemental protein and a changing climate increase the need to find alternatives for conventional protein feeds. Micro algae might be potential protein feed for dairy cattle. The aim of the study was to evaluate if protein feeding and replacing rapeseed meal by micro algae Spirulina platensis as a protein supplement affect feed intake, milk production and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. The study was conducted in the Viikki research farm of the University of Helsinki. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (186 d in milk on average) were used in balanced, replicated 4x4 Latin square with 21-d periods. There were four experimental concentrate feedings (12 kg/d). The control treatment was negative control without a protein supplement. Three other treatments were supplemented isonitrogenously with rapeseed meal, Spirulina or a mixture of rapeseed meal and Spirulina (1:1 on the crude protein basis). Cows were offered 2nd cut grass silage (D-value 656 g/kg dry matter) ad libitum and concentrates were given separately. In the study, protein supplementation tended to increase silage intake compared to control feeding. However, treatment had no effect on total dry matter intake. The substitution of the rapeseed meal by Spirulina decreased concentrate intake and it also tended to decrease milk protein yield. There was no difference in milk, ECM or milk fat yield between the treatments. In milk production, lack of response to protein feeding might be explained by a shortage of energy in the rumen due to low D-value of the silage. Because the diets were low in fat, there were only minor changes in milk fatty acid composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition reflected the differences in the fatty acid composition of the protein feeds. Substitution of the rapeseed meal by Spirulina decreased stearic acid (end-product of oleic acid ruminal biohydrogenation) but increased palmitic and γ-linolenic acid proportion in milk fat. Spirulina lipid contains γ-linolenic acid more than conventional animal feeds. According to this study, it is possible to replace rapeseed meal by Spirulina partly or completely without a decrease in total dry matter intake or milk yield on separate feeding. However, in this study protein supplementation did not increase dry matter intake or milk yield of dairy cattle in mid-lactation.
  • Tarsia, Essi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Lots of protein feeds are imported to Europe. In Finland at most 25 % of all protein feeds used are home-grown. Legumes and single-cell protein are of interest to replace imported protein feeds. The aim of this study was to explore faba bean (Vicia faba) and Spirulina-algae (Spirulina platensis) as protein source for dairy cows. The study design was replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with four diets and four periods of three weeks. The experiment was 2 x 2 factorial. Rapeseed meal and rolled faba bean were compared as protein sources. The partial replacement (half) of rapeseed meal and faba bean protein with Spirulina-algae was also investigated. All the protein supplements were isonitrogenous. In this study, effects of protein supplements on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition, production of microbial protein in the rumen, plasma amino acids and mammary uptake of amino acids and nitrogen partitioning were examined. This study was made at the research farm of the University of Helsinki in 21.2.–15.5.2015. There were eight multiparous Finnish ayrshire dairy cows at mid-lactation. The cows were divided in two blocks the other block having rumen fistulated animals. All the total mixed ratios contained grass silage of good quality, barley, sugar pulp and minerals supplemented with different protein sources. Cows were offered total mixed ratios ad libitum. Replacing rapeseed meal and faba bean with Spirulina-algae reduced dry matter intake. The milk yield was 1,4 kg/d greater on rapeseed meal diets compared with faba bean diets. Mixing Spirulina-algae with faba bean increased milk, protein and lactose yields, but when mixed with rapeseed meal decreased them. Both milk urea and rumen ammonia concentrations were higher in faba bean diets than in rapeseed meal diets. The concentration of several essential amino acids in plasma and mammary uptake of histidine and methionine were lower in faba bean diets than in rapeseed meal diets. Replacing faba bean partially with Spirulina increased AV-difference of essential amino acids. Nitrogen balances were positive in all experimental diets. There were no differences in nitrogen intake. Feeding faba beans reduced nitrogen secretion in milk and faeces compared to rapeseed meal diets. Replacing rapeseed meal and faba bean partially with Spirulina increased the proportion of nitrogen secreted in urine and lowered nitrogen balance. According to this study replacing rapeseed meal completely with faba bean seeds reduce milk and protein yields on diets based on grass silage and cereals. Mixing Spirulina with faba bean increased milk, protein and lactose yields, but decreased them when mixed with rapeseed meal. Protein of faba bean and Spirulina probably completed each others. More research is needed with high levels of micro algae on dry matter intake, animal performance and degradability of microalgal protein in rumen.
  • Päkkilä, Liisa-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of faba bean on amino acid, glucose, NEFA, BHBA, acetate and insulin concentration in plasma. In addition, AV-difference, extraction, and uptake of nutrients by mammary gland was investigated. The primary purpose of this study was to examine suitability of faba bean as protein feed for dairy cows. Firstly, faba bean was compared to grain based control feed, which did not contain any protein supplement, and it was fed with restrictively fermented silage. Secondly, faba bean was compared to rapeseed meal and mixture of rapeseed meal and faba bean as isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Eight multiparous cows in the experiment were divided into two blocks and replicated 4 × 4 latin square design was used. Concentrates were fed at a rate of 14 kg/d and silage was fed ad libitum. Cows were approximately 100 days in milk in the beginning of the experiment. Rapeseed meal did not increase silage intake as much as expected according to results of earlier experiments. When rapeseed meal was replaced with faba bean, milk production, energy corrected milk production, protein production and fat production increased quadratically. When protein content of the concentrate increased, concentration of essential amino acids increased in plasma. When rapeseed meal was replaced with faba bean, concentration of non-essential amino acids increased linearly. Concentration of histidine in plasma was high on all treatments compared to results of earlier experiments. Concentration of methionine in plasma was at the same level as results of earlier experiments. Extraction of methionine was exceptionally high when rapeseed meal was fed, but uptake rate of methionine by mammary gland was bigger than output rate. Concentration of glucose in plasma was high compared to results of earlier experiments on every treatment. Relative and absolute uptake of glucose by mammary gland was especially high when mixed protein feed was fed. Supply of energy and amino acid profile corresponded well to cows needs with mixed protein feed.