Browsing by Subject "valtiotiede"

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  • Yli-Mäyry, Soile (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE AS A BRIDGE ACROSS CULTURES Soile Yli-Mäyry s art as experienced by Chinese, Japanese and Finnish audiences This study focuses on surveying and analysing experiences of Soile Yli-Mäyry s art in eleven different countries. Questionnaires were translated into nine different languages. In addition, interviews were conducted on the experiences of Chinese, Japanese and Finnish art audiences concerning a painting called Sun Wind . The study was mainly inspired by John Dewey s ideas of art as an interactive communication where the artist, the piece and those who experience it make up an interactive process. In this process experience is a meeting point with both individual and communal characteristics. The data was collected in conjunction with exhibitions in 1997−2005. The survey was carried out in eleven countries (Finland, United States, Brazil, China, Taiwan, Japan, India, Israel, Argentina, Germany and Switzerland). The survey data was made up of 2,563 returned questionnaires. The interviews in China, Japan and Finland were about the same painting Sun Wind , which was transported from Finland to Japan (Tokyo) and China. A total of 89 people were interviewed in Shanghai Art Museum, 30 people in Port-Ginza Gallery, Tokyo and 45 people in Soile Yli-Mäyry s Gallery in Finland. Three hypotheses that were turned into research questions directed the study: 1. Are there differences/ similarities between culturally different communities in the meanings attributed to experiences, e.g. according to emotional dimensions, or do experiences focus more on reflecting on one s own life or meanings attributed to the world around us? What kinds of experiential dimensions are there in different countries? Do similar, analogous experiences that transcend cultural barriers emerge in culturally different countries such as China, Japan and Finland? 2. Does the data display different types of experiencing subjects which are typical to a subject s own country or are they experiences that can be compared to those generated by an ideal landscape , where the art touches the subconscious and collective selfhood, being thus transnational and timeless? Closer analysis focuses on audience experiences in China, Japan and Finland (interviews, textual survey data). 3. Are the experiences and interpretations of experts similar/different to those of larger audiences? The survey data has been analysed with the help of cross-tabulation. After content analysis of the interviews and textual survey data, different ways of experiencing subjects were sketched by country (China, Japan, Finland). The types were both similar and dissimilar. The most important types were social/ecological (China), therapeutic/reserved (Japan) and narrative/projecting (Finland). There were differences in how experiences were emphasised: the Chinese public approached their experiences from the viewpoint of pragmatism and utility, where they could obtain new ideas for their own work or experiencing the exhibition gave courage to approach their own lives from a new perspective. In turn, the Japanese public experienced the art from a therapeutic angle and from a very reserved perspective, which Dylan Evans (2001, 13−17) has described as typical to Japanese culture. The experiences of the Finnish audience were strongly therapeutic and narrative. The people projected their emotions onto the piece and in a concrete manner forged them into a story. The partly similar results of this study in China, Japan and Finland demonstrate that the art displayed in the exhibitions contain images of the beginning or elements connected to the beginning of life, which touch the subconscious in the way an ideal landscape would. Experiencing the meaningfulness of one s own life through art is a common thread and a bridge across cultures that unites the experiences of the audiences of this study, be they Taoists, Confucians, Buddhists or Maoists in China, Shinto followers, Zen Buddhists in Japan or Evangelist-Lutherans in Finland. Keywords: experience, reception, bridge across cultures, types of experiencing subjects, experiential process, ideal landscape, elementality
  • Tanskanen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In my thesis I study agency work and especially agency workers quality of working life. My research data includes qualitative and quantitative materials. The qualitative materials include, for example, parliamentary documents, Internet discussion group data, articles from the daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat, Ministry of Labour reports and documents written from the employers point of view. The quantitative materials consist of the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey and the Finnish Labour Force Surveys for 2008 and 2009. My thesis consists of six original articles and a summarizing chapter. The results show that agency workers have a poorer quality of working life compared to other workers, both in the EU15 countries and in Finland. In the EU15 countries, agency workers are less likely than workers with a standard employment contract to have social support, job satisfaction, autonomy, work security and high qualifications. In Finland, agency workers, compared to other workers, are, for example, less educated, have a lower socio-economic status and lower levels of qualifications. In addition, agency workers are willing to do a higher amount of work and have more often searched for a new job than other workers. Compared to other workers, agency workers are less likely to hold a manager position in the workplace. Finally, both in the EU15 countries and in Finland, agency workers are paid less than other workers. According to my analyses, agency work is a neoliberal form of employment. The main characteristics of agency work are flexibility, insecurity and the hegemony of employers. Agency work has also been deregulated during the last decades and nowadays agency work is a relatively free and unregulated form of work. In the contemporary labour market in Finland, agency workers are in a poor position because agency work is unregulated, the Ministry of Employment and the Labour Movement have not improved the position of agency workers, and employers are lobbying for agency work. At the end of the summarizing chapter, the results are discussed with reference to evolutionary theory. The main themes are status striving, cooperation, fairness, reciprocity, fear and self-deception.
  • Stocchetti, Marikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation revolves around the enigmatic role of development policy in the European Union (EU), and its place and purpose in relation to the EU’s trade policy and to the Union at large. In particular, it looks at the preconditions that direct the EU’s work for the international development objectives of poverty eradication and sustainable development. In this regard, there has been considerable debate on policy coherence for development, or in other words, on how the EU policies in the field of trade work in favour of, or against, development goals. In fact, the EU has made binding commitments in the EU treaties and in international conventions to advance coherence from a development perspective. However, what actually constitutes policy coherence for development in the EU, and how it is defined and promoted have largely remained unstudied to date. In addition, the question of the power to establish common standards for policy coherence deserves a closer look, both within the EU and in global governance at large. This contribution aims to fill this research gap by tracing the key development- and trade-related processes and analysing their outcomes. These include the first joint policy statement by the European Commission, the European Council and the Parliament, entitled the European Consensus on Development (2005-), as well as those elements of the EU trade policy that were officially declared to manifest policy coherence for development. Regarding the latter, the EU position in relation to the WTO Doha Development Round, as well as the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), is a case in point. The dissertation addresses these issues in the broader historical, international and institutional settings before the Lisbon Treaty (2009), but also draws lessons for the present. The primary data consist of official EU documents and 34 semi-structured interviews with development and trade actors involved in these processes. Drawing on two analytical frameworks – power in global governance (Barnett & Duvall 2005) and normative power Europe (Manners 2002; 2006) – I examine the formation of the policy coherence for development principle in the EU’s development- and trade-related texts, discourse production and social practices that define, naturalise and reproduce certain norms while dismissing others (cf. Fairclough 1992; 2003). My findings indicate that the EU’s contribution to policy coherence for development is affected by intra- and inter-institutional tensions, as well as by ambiguity surrounding the role and purpose of development policy in the Union. In particular, I demonstrate how the proactive role of the Commission in the policy initiation was triggered primarily by the changes in the security and trade branches of the external relations, rather than by learning from the past development policies and its own goal attainment. Although these linkages can be seen as a strategic choice to improve the institutional position of European Community development policy both within the Commission as well as between the Commission and the Council, this choice compromised the development policy content. This tendency is particularly clear in the gradually narrowed, administratively and technically oriented approach to policy coherence for development. In relation to trade, policy coherence was limited mainly to the EU market access proposals for the Least Developed Countries. This aspect of trade liberalisation formed the core for both the international and EU consensus on trade and development. In turn, the reciprocal liberalisation of developing country markets under the Economic Partnership Agreements was initially much weaker. This changed with the dominant role and interests of DG Trade, which adopted the development policy discourse and influenced the Commission policy on development and trade. Consequently, the reciprocal free trade format and the European Commission’s interpretation of international trade law (i.e. GATT Article XXIV) also became the official understanding of policy coherence for development in the EU. As a result, the EU’s model for policy coherence is inclined towards trade policy coherence and in favour of the overall consistency of the Union, rather than policy coherence for development. Therefore, the EU’s normative model risks being inadequate when it comes to safeguarding and advancing development policy goals.
  • Vaara, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The Land of Forester Corps. The Study on Corporatism in Finnish Forestry The study explains the control of forestry entrepreneurship by forest organizations. The study material consists of other related studies, statutes, articles and own observations. In the turn of the 19th and 20th century the state started to form the administration of forestry. This action complied the general attitudes related to forester culture at the era. These attitudes formed among state forest officials were anti-agriculture opinions, low competence in business economics and poor consideration of societal aspects. Forest Management Society Tapio was established in 1908 as a state-external central agency for the extension of private forest owners under a pressure the existing forester culture. Its position was strategic in order to steer the forestry extension towards the forms desired by the forester corps. The forester corps gained also a strategic position in the future enforcement of the forest laws, when superior enforcement of the Forest Act of 1917 was allocated to the State Forest Service. The goal of the forester corps has been an independent forestry within the public administration and in forestry as a business. This goal has been in conflict with prevailing landownership, industries and natural conditions in Finland. State governance of forestry was replaced by the corporative governance of Forestry Boards in 1928. They were given, in addition to law enforcement, also the extension of private forest owners. In 1950 the Forest Management Associations, which had also acted as the trustees of the private forest owners since 1942, were made the official local agencies of the Forestry Boards. In 1987 the Forestry Boards were given the entitlement to allocate state subsidies. This combination of remits fullfills the characteristics of a centralizet administrative authority where power of sanctioning and rewarding, attidute control and even the control of the trustee organizations is centralized to the same organization. At meanwhile the control of the administrative authority is eliminated. The afore mentioned arrangements have eliminated political surveillance, trusteeship of private forest owners, surveillance of judiciary and media as well as critical forest research. As a result is a system where there is almost no restrictions for the actions of the organizations controlling private forest owners. Also free markets are eliminated from forestry. Entrepreneurs and competition do not exist and efficiency ia measured according to quantity instead of costs. Forestry work services are produced by monopoly organizations. Forest Management Associations in wood production and forest industry entreprises in wood harvesting. The works of forestry have been arranged as a collective economy lead by these organizations. The end result of the arrangements is a totalitarian corporatism where governance resembles a centralized state administration and the economic system a centralized planned economy. The forestry practiced inside these frames is in a state of chaos what comes to production activity, livelihood-circumstances and also management of forest ecosystems. The chaos is hidden by massive PR-activities and demonstrations of technically effective harvesters.
  • Smith, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Abstract This dissertation addresses the difficulties encountered in international relations between Russia and the West, specifically Europe, in spite of their cultural and geographical proximity and the expectation that Russia and Europe would share values and interests following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The problem is addressed through focussing on a particular aspect of Russia s national and state identity greatpowerness . Greatpowerness - the self-perception that Russia always has been and still is a great power - is a significant part of Russia s self identity. The effects of Russian greatpowerness are examined through investigation of Russia s relations with three European international organisations the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe from the early 1990s through to 2004. The particular issue through which these relationships are explored are the two Chechen wars of 1994-1996 and 2000-2004. Russian actions in Chechnya provoked frequent criticisms from the West, but were seen in Russia in the 1990s as an internal matter, and as part of the international war on terrorism in the 2000s. In both cases, they reflected in part Russia s great power aspirations. There were particular sets of expectations from the Russian side based on its self-perception in each case. It is argued in the dissertation that this plays a part in understanding the difficulties and apparent inconsistencies encountered in Russia s relationship with the West. The dissertation contributes to explaining inconsistencies in Russian foreign policy behaviour towards the West which are not adequately accounted for by existing empirical and theoretical approaches. It begins with a discussion of definitions of being a Great Power and understandings of greatpowerness as an issue of self-perception in state identity. It then looks at Russian understandings of international relations, different Russian foreign policy schools and a series of factors which are persistent in Russian greatpowerness: sovereignty, ressentiment, isolationism, expansionism, imperialism, multilaterism and multipolarity. Next it sets the course of the two Chechen wars in the context of Russian political and international development. The main empirical section of the dissertation is taken up by the three case studies of the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, noting similarities and distinctions in each case as to how Russia experienced interaction with the three different organisations. The Council of Europe has adopted a rather pragmatic approach in its cooperation with Russia and hence, in spite of some difficulties, the relationship has been the best of the three. This cooperation has challenged Russian greatpowerness the least and expectations came closest to outcomes. Cooperation with the EU has been of a different nature since Russia is not a member state. Here the relationship has had good and bad periods, which have very much depended on how Russia has felt about its level of expectations met by outcomes. The Russian relationship to the OSCE was also full of ups and downs always with strongly power political reasons. Russian expectations were highest in regards to the OSCE. However it challenged Russian greatpowerness most and caused biggest disappointment. In conclusion, it is shown that Russian self-perception of greatpowerness and the aspiration to have its status as a Great Power recognised internationally provides one part of the explanation of the apparent inconsistencies while showing a form of consistency in Russia s relationship with the West.
  • Mäkelä, Tiina (Lahden Diakoniasäätiö, 2014)
    Tiredness and loss of energy are common complaints among the elderly that often fail to receive the attention they deserve even when raised by the sufferers themselves. This study sought to investigate tiredness among the elderly namely, its features and underlying factors and to establish whether it is linked to daily living skills and the use of services that support independent living. In particular, the analysis focused on the link between the tiredness that the elderly experience and their care responsibilities, health-related lifestyles and confidence in daily living skills. The study also explored changes in tiredness, daily living skills and the use of services over a three-year follow-up period. The study is part of the Good Aging in the Lahti Region (Ikihyvä Päijät-Häme) research project that explores the aging of people born in 1926 30, 1936 40 and 1946 50. The project participants have been randomly selected from the Population Register. The subjects examined in this study were born between 1926 and 1930 and living in the Päijät-Häme region of Finland. The subjects provided the study data through questionnaires in 2002 and 2005. A total of 883 participants from the oldest age group responded to the first questionnaire. The panel data, which were used in publications II IV, included all 629 participants who responded to both questionnaires. The links between tiredness, daily living skills and service use as well as the factors underlying tiredness were studied using linear and logistic regression analysis. Differences between groups were examined using both one-way and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a paired t test. Most of the respondents had experienced tiredness during the month before completing the questionnaire, and one-fourth had experienced considerable tiredness. Although the prevalence of tiredness showed no change during the follow-up period, some respondents felt more energetic and others more tired toward the end of the period. Tiredness was more common among women and care givers. Those who were physically less active than others of their age also experienced more tiredness, whereas regular social interaction and confidence in one s daily living skills provided protection from tiredness. As expected, those who felt tired also reported a higher incidence of illness, insomnia and pains and aches than did the other respondents, although in this study, illness did not predict tiredness. Tiredness did, however, predict poor daily living skills and more frequent use of services, but was not an independent predictor when adjusting for baseline living skills and service use. Although tiredness alone does not cause an elderly person to fare poorly or to require more assistance than others of his or her age group, it is a serious complaint that serves as an early indicator of reduced functional ability and greater need for services. Tiredness among the elderly is a multifaceted phenomenon with a number of contributory factors related to interpersonal relationships, self-confidence and health-related lifestyles, and cannot be reduced to a mere physical symptom or individual pathology. Tiredness is also a social construct manifested in the form permitted by each era. Tiredness must be recognised in service situations, and its background and significance must be understood so that each individual can benefit from appropriate assistance and support. Investigating tiredness should be a part of the comprehensive assessment of the health and functional ability of the elderly. An easy way to identify tiredness is simply to enquire about it. Keywords: tiredness, daily living skills, service use, elderly, aging, older people, old age