Browsing by Subject "values"

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  • Rikabi-Sukkari, Leila (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The Finnish national core curriculum for basic education is currently being renewed at the National Board of Education and the new curriculum will be implemented in August 2016. A curriculum defines the value basis and aims of teaching as well as the core contents to be taught. A curriculum is closely bound to its surrounding society reflecting its prevailing values, customs and traditions. Therefore, in order to renew the curriculum, it is essential to understand the societal changes and values recognized as important in the society. The drafts of the new curriculum were posted for the first time on the website of the National Board of Education for public commentary. This research examined what the feedback of the new curriculum draft was like; what themes did the commentators hold important concerning the curriculum and education in present and in the future? The research data consisted of 963 comments that were posted on the webpage of the National Board of Education regarding the draft of the general part of the new curriculum. The feedback form was open for 17 days in November and December 2012. The qualitative data analysis was done by coding with the help of Atlas.ti software. The comments discussed several issues regarding the Finnish school, its mission and the appreciations of the commentators. As a result, four major themes were found: 1) equality in education; 2) the use of authentic learning environments and multi-professional collaboration with surrounding community; 3) the role of Finnish cultural heritage and religious education and 4) sustainable development and global citizenship. These results reflect the values and topics the commentators held important for the future in terms of developing the Finnish school and society.
  • Perhoniemi, Riku (Helsingfors universitet, 2005)
    The study examined immigrants' attitudes towards acculturation, in other words the social and cultural changes that take place in the adaptation process. The perspective of acculturation studies was also expanded by examining immigrants' cultural values and their experiences of majority's expectations. In addition, special interest was directed to the relations between acculturation attitudes and values and both factors' relevance on psychological well-being. Indian born immigrants were selected as subjects as they are one of the fastest growing ethnic minorities in Finland. This minority has not been included in immigration studies previously. The seventy-five immigrants that participated as subjects represent a highly educated subgroup of Indian born immigrants. The study was carried out with posted questionnaires. Most of the subjects received an inquiry of their motivation to participate by e-mail or phone before the postal questionnaire. The results were in line with previous studies in Finland as the attitudes emphasising cultural integration were dominant. However, attitudes towards marriage, reflecting deeper and less flexible parts of culture, were dominated by separation motives. Immigrants' perceptions of majority's expectations reflected partly the real assimilation wishes demonstrated in previous studies. Against hypotheses, discrepancies between acculturation attitudes and experiences of majority's expectations did not predict immigrants' psychological well-being in a clear way. The highly educated Indian born immigrants emphasised self-direction and universalism in their values. This separates them from the traditional cultural values of India. The hypotheses made of the predictive relations between values and acculturation attitudes were partly confirmed. Also, the assumptions concerning both the stress buffering role of collectivistic values and the positive effect of achievement values on feelings of mastery were confirmed. Despite the limitations in the data, this study strengthens the view that cultural and personal values play a significant role in immigrants' adaptation process. Information about values can benefit individuals making hard decisions and coping with cultural change as well as officials modifying Finnish immigration policy and planning the support system for immigrants.
  • Hanspach, Jan; Haider, Lisbeth Jamila; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Gulsrud, Natalie M.; Raymond, Christopher M.; Torralba, Mario; Martin-Lopez, Berta; Bieling, Claudia; Garcia-Martin, Maria; Albert, Christian; Beery, Thomas H.; Fagerholm, Nora; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Drews-Shambroom, Annika; Plieninger, Tobias (2020)
    Current sustainability challenges demand approaches that acknowledge a plurality of human-nature interactions and worldviews, for which biocultural approaches are considered appropriate and timely. This systematic review analyses the application of biocultural approaches to sustainability in scientific journal articles published between 1990 and 2018 through a mixed methods approach combining qualitative content analysis and quantitative multivariate methods. The study identifies seven distinct biocultural lenses, that is, different ways of understanding and applying biocultural approaches, which to different degrees consider the key aspects of sustainability science-inter- and transdisciplinarity, social justice and normativity. The review suggests that biocultural approaches in sustainability science need to move from describing how nature and culture are co-produced to co-producing knowledge for sustainability solutions, and in so doing, better account for questions of power, gender and transformations, which has been largely neglected thus far. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
  • Sortheix, Florencia M.; Parker, Philip D.; Lechner, Clemens; Schwartz, Shalom (2019)
    We investigate the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC) on the personal values of youth and young adults (age 16-35 years) from 16 European countries. Using time series cross-sectional data from seven waves (2002-2014) of the European Social Survey, we examined (1) whether the GFC led to value shifts between cohorts of young people and (2) whether welfare state provision moderate the expected value shifts. Multilevel analyses showed that, following the GFC, the importance of security, tradition, benevolence, and, to a lesser extent, conformity values increased. In contrast, hedonism, self-direction, and stimulation values decreased. In line with our moderation hypothesis, power, and, to a lesser extent, achievement values increased following the GFC in countries low on welfare expenditures but decreased in countries high on welfare expenditures. Contrary to expectations, increases in tradition and benevolence values were more pronounced in high-welfare countries.
  • Lounela, Anu (2020)
    Climate change mitigation pilot projects (REDD+ - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) affect and interact with the local population in Central Kalimantan and many other parts of Indonesia. Rather than being politically and economically neutral activities, climate change mitigation projects tend to objectify the value of carbon, land and labour, contributing to a process of commodification of nature and social relations. In this specific case study, a set of values - equality and autonomy - central to the Ngaju people, the indigenous population in Central Kalimantan, become contested in the course of the climate change mitigation project. These central values are produced in everyday activities that include mobility and the productive base - subsistence and market-based production - among the Ngaju people. On the other hand, the climate change mitigation project-related environmental practices and actions produce values that point to individual (material) benefit and stratification of the society. The aim of the paper is to draw attention to and create understanding of value production and related tensions in the efforts to 'fix' environmental degradation problems through the climate change mitigation pilot project in Central Kalimantan.
  • Hakala, Pirjo (Helsingfors universitet, 2003)
    The aim of the study was to find out, how the craftsmen of textile of the archipelago reach for ecological sustainability. In addition, what does the ecological orientation mean for the craftsman and how to understand ecological handicrafts. Both the product and the creator serve as a narrator. To answer these questions interviews were made with nine craftsmen who live in the Archipelago. The interviews were analysed with content analysis method. The research report proceeds in a dialogue between theory and the analysis. The relationship between the sustainable development and the handicrafts of archipelago was observed as the theoretical basis of the research. By investing in cultural, social, financial and industrial sustainability the fundamental aim of ecological sustainability is possible to attain. Values, skills and knowledge of a craftsman have an influence on the various sectors of the development. The operational environment of the craftsmen is the archipelago, its nature and the culture created by man. One objective was to work out, how the archipelago and its notion played a part in their way of working and telling about their products. Ecology in the handicrafts of the archipelago appeared in various ways. Cultural and social sustainability materialized better than economical and industrial sustainability. Education seemed to be the best way to get intermediate goals on the way to the sustainable development. Handicrafts was seen as a part of the culture of archipelago and the networks in a sparsely populated area is experienced as an important thing. The ecological acting is commonly connected to the material of handicraft and its methods of production. Values take shape, when the craftsman talked about his family and told his story about growing into the craftsmanship. Striving for ecological sustainability in handicrafts aroused also mixed feelings. Craftsmanship is lifeblood on the market, which is ruled by the global market economy. Does it mean that striving for ecological sustainability is an attempt to reach for truth?
  • Fagerholm, Fabian; Pagels, Max Erich Alexander (Springer Science+Business Media, 2014)
  • Myyry, Liisa; Helkama, Klaus; Silfver-Kuhalampi, Mia; Petkova, Kristina; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Liik, Kadi (2021)
    University students (n = 758) from Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, and Portugal were given a list of morally relevant behaviors (MRB), the Schwartz Value Survey (PVQ40) and Tangney’s TOSCA, measuring empathic guilt, guilt over norm-breaking, and shame. A factor analysis of MRB yielded 4 dimensions: prosocial behaviors, interpersonal transgressions, antisocial behaviors and secret transgressions. Prosocial behaviors were predicted by self-transcendence–self-enhancement (SET) value contrast only while the three transgression categories were associated with both SET and openness to change–conservation (hedonism–conformity) contrast. Norm-breaking guilt was more strongly associated with behaviors than were empathic guilt and shame. However, shame was (positively) associated with secret transgressions in three countries, after controlling for values. The associations were strongest in Bulgaria and Estonia while fewer associations were found in Finland and Portugal. The implications of the findings for the cross-cultural psychology of morality are discussed.
  • Puupponen, Antti; Lonkila, Annika; Savikurki, Anni; Karttunen, Kaisa; Huttunen, Suvi; Ott, Anna (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Journal of Rural Studies
    Environmental and political debate concerning the role of agriculture in sustainability has long been on the agenda. However, owing to climate change, an analysis of the transition to a low-carbon society must also be considered from the perspective of justice. Dairy farming, in particular, faces pressure in this context, when contemplating changing consumer behaviors and reduction in the carbon footprint of dairy products. Accordingly, many dairy farmers are struggling with the profitability and high production costs of farming. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of dairy farmers in Finland. The theoretical background is predicated upon the “just transition” literature. Additionally, recent literature regarding farmers' attitudes and agency, related to climate and environmental change, is utilized. A collaborative, empirical study of the Finnish dairy co-op Valio Ltd.‘s carbon-neutral milk chain program was conducted. The authors interviewed 18 dairy farmers and examined their motivations and barriers to carbon-neutral practices. Their experiences and perceptions of justice, in the context of a carbon-neutral milk chain, were studied. This study elucidates how to shift to carbon-neutral agriculture in such a way that dairy farmers perceive this systemic change as justified and acceptable. The results indicate that from the farmers' perspective, three key justice issues need consideration: 1) profitability of farming, 2) blaming of farmers, and 3) use of agricultural peatlands.
  • Peijari, Minerva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis aims to study if personal values mediate the effect of gender on pro-environmental behavior, PEB. It is important to investigate the antecedents of PEB, since the current climate crisis is caused by human behavior. Among the most influential areas of behaviors are those related to energy. Therefore, two energy related behaviors were chosen to represent PEB in this study: energy use reduction and intention of buying an energy efficient appliance. Values have been shown to affect behavior and there is some evidence of gender differences in values, thus gender and values were chosen as predictors of the behaviors. The theoretical basis for this argument lies in Schwartz theory of basic values and several models on antecedents of PEB, e.g. the Value-Belief-Norm Theory. The material comes from the 2016 dataset of the European Social Survey Round 8 (ESS8), which included a module on climate change and energy and used the Portrait Values Questionnaire for measuring values. The data is limited to the Finnish nationally representative sample. The hypotheses examine whether Finnish women behave more proenvironmentally than Finnish men do, and whether women’s higher self-transcendent values and men’s higher self-enhancement values explain this difference in PEB. Hypotheses were tested through hierarchical stepwise regression analysis and mediation analysis. The results were as expected, with small, but statistically significant, differences between men and women in both values and behavior. On average, Finnish women have more self-transcendent values and behave more pro-environmentally, than Finnish men do. The mediation was supported even when covariates were included, which further supports the findings. The only exception to this was the mediation of gender on energy efficacy behavior through self-enhancement values. Explanations for this and the other results are discussed, as well as critique of the binary definition of gender and other limitations. This study adds to the understanding of antecedents of pro-environmental behavior, which is fundamental to achieving effective behavior change.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Saari, Sisko (2006)
    The study deals with Max Scheler, Erik Ahlman and Lauri Rauhala's ideas of the human being, and its focus is on spirituality, values and the question 'what is a human being?'. Scheler applies the phenomenological method to e.g. ethics, religious philosophy and sociology. According to Scheler's outlook on life, emotion – in its spiritual form – guides and defines the contents of life, rules the world and history, but emotion is also irrational and makes the source of creative energy. Furthermore, Scheler favours metaphysical individualism which puts emphasis on the 'self's' independency and value as concrete and existential and denies its deriving from the idea of spiritual. In spirituality the human being is somehow committed to deity. Spirituality is however an autonomous and original circle of being, self-supporting and super-individual. Spiritual activity is a person's activity. A person is a psychophysical whole. Human beings are part of the Cosmos. Ahlman studies the human being with the aid of special features deriving from spirituality. The prime mover of spiritual activity is the spiritual fundament of the human being. It is not the same as the conscious, thinking ego but by thinking we can become aware of it. The spirit is self-understanding. As Ahlman puts it, the human being is a rational being which is equipped with the ability to understand oneself. The word 'spirit' is positive to its value. The superego is the spirit's implementation in the human being. Truthfulness and emotionality make the spirit. Volition's world takes action in the human being. It is singular and absolute but also problematic: volition has emotions with it. Volition manifests itself as ethical awareness. Its special quality becomes clear in expressions. All activity contains intuition. Intuition makes us understand what cannot be understood by sense. Intuition goes hand in hand with intellect and serves it. Values and volition are inner realities, even though they have their expression on the outside. Metaphysics appears in the human being's impersonality: the human being approaches the spirit, represents a timeless idea. Rauhala takes the human being as an individual, a holistic whole, applying the idea of the human being and the view on the human being, the ontological-philosophical analysis to his studies. According to Rauhala's trichotomy, the concept of being consists of physicality, consciousness and situationality. Those are features which have rational grounds. Spirituality belongs to the highest level of consciousness. The human being's uniqueness in the world is based on the hidden wisdom of evolution in that the human being has developed awareness of the ego and the world. The human being is a person. Features of humanity are e.g. consciousness, intentionality, the unconscious, the conscious and ethicality. To work ethicality requires a human individual. The distinguishing feature of these three philosophers is their different approach to the problem. Common for them are their aims to obtain knowledge to solve the problem of the human being. Main sources: - Ahlman, Erik: Ihmisen probleemi - johdatus filosofisen antropologian kysymyksiin (1953), Arvojen ja välineitten maailma - eetillis-idealistinen maailmantarkastelukoe (1920), Totuudellisuuden probleemi (1929), Kulttuurin perustekijöitä - kulttuurifilosofisia tarkasteluja (1939). - Rauhala, Lauri: Ihmiskäsitys ihmistyössä (1983), Henkinen ihmisessä (1992), Ihmisen ainutlaatuisuus (1998). - Scheler, Max: Der Formalismus in der Ethik und die Materiale Wertethik - Neuer Versuch der Grundlegung eines ethischen Personalismus (1954), Die Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos (1930).
  • Pullinen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims of the study. The left and right are widely used terms in politics. The terms do not have exact academic definitions, but right-wing stances have often been connected with conservatism and authoritarianism, and left-wing stances with liberalism and egalitarianism. Values are defined as basic principles used for the selection of actions and evaluation of persons and circumstances. The 10 Schwartz basic values are universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, and self-direction. They can be expressed by means of two dimensions: self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement, and conservation vs. openness to change. Left-wing stances have been connected to self-transcendence and openness to change values, and right-wing stances to self-enhancement and conservation values in Western European countries including Finland. The aim of this thesis was to study Finnish people's impressions of left-wing and right-wing values, and the differences in impressions between left-wingers and right-wingers, using the Schwartz values and value dimensions. Methods. The data was collected in 2012 with an Internet questionnaire. The participants (N=1886) were recruited via mailing lists. They were asked to place themselves onto a left-right continuum (0=left, 10=right). Their personal values and their impressions of left-wing and right-wing values were measured using the Short Schwartz Values Survey (SSVS). The differences in the absolute means for each value between left-wingers and right-wingers were compared with t-tests to see whether the values were regarded as more left-wing or right-wing. Value hierarchies were looked at to reveal the relative orders of importance of values. Results and conclusions. Universalism and benevolence were perceived to be more left-wing than right-wing values. All other values were perceived to be more right-wing than left-wing. Right-wingers were seen as more conservative than left-wingers, and left-wingers as more self-transcendent than right-wingers. However, there were differences between left-wingers and right-wingers in how they perceived left-wing and right-wing values, in a way that suggested a possible ingroup-outgroup bias. Both groups saw the other group as giving foremost priority to power and higher priority to hedonism than the ingroup. Left-wingers also viewed right-wingers as less benevolence- and universalism-driven than the ingroup. The results shed light upon what people mean with the terms left and right. They also help to understand why political discourse can become easily polarized.
  • Raymond, Christopher M.; Cebrián-Piqueras, Miguel A.; Andersson, Erik; Andrade, Riley; Schnell, Alberto Arroyo; Battioni Romanelli, Barbara; Filyushkina, Anna; Goodson, Devin J.; Horcea-Milcu, Andra; Johnson, Dana N.; Keller, Rose; Kuiper, Jan J.; Lo, Veronica; López-Rodríguez, María D.; March, Hug; Metzger, Marc; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Salcido, Evan; Sellberg, My; Stewart, William; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Plieninger, Tobias; van Riper, Carena J.; Verburg, Peter H.; Wiedermann, Magdalena M. (2022)
    The draft Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework commits to achievement of equity and justice outcomes and represents a “relational turn” in how we understand inclusive conservation. Although “inclusivity” is drawn on as a means to engage diverse stakeholders, widening the framing of inclusivity can create new tensions with regard to how to manage protected areas. We first offer a set of tensions that emerge in the light of the relational turn in biodiversity conservation. Drawing on global case examples applying multiple methods of inclusive conservation, we then demonstrate that, by actively engaging in the interdependent phases of recognizing hybridity, enabling conditions for reflexivity and partnership building, tensions can not only be acknowledged but softened and, in some cases, reframed when managing for biodiversity, equity, and justice goals. The results can improve stakeholder engagement in protected area management, ultimately supporting better implementation of global biodiversity targets.
  • Sillander, Kenneth (2021)
    This introduction to the special issue Qualifying Sociality through Values interrogates the relationship between sociality and values, two concepts that have gained increasing traction in anthropology, but which have not previously been jointly considered. It presents the twofold agenda of the special issue which is to explore how sociality is valued and how values affect sociality. It opens up these ambiguous and morally charged concepts and discusses their utility and ethnographic purchase as tools for understanding social life in practice. The introduction also outlines the contributions and the special issue's principal findings. Sociality is rendered as a multilaterally value-shaped and ambiguously valued situated practice which is subject to both extension and contraction. Values come out as multi-purposive evaluative criteria which operate as open-ended social resources to different effects, imparting both direction and contingency.
  • Kulonen, Minna (1999)
    The thesis focuses on the sociopolitical value promotion by the multinational corporations, which according to the recent research has increased during 1990's. The phenomena is analysed with the help of the concept of 'moral markets', which refers to the continual flux of the contemporary moral values. The moral values are created and enhanced by the actors at the moral markets. The study is the so called pilot study on the phenomena, which has just begun to develop and of which there exists only minimal previous research. The aim of the thesis is to systematically analyse the value promotion of the corporations and the actors and elements related to the phenomena. The system theory, which emphasises the relationship between the organisation and the external environment, is used as a contextual theory. It has been used as a basis in order to form more specific model on the functions of 'the moral markets' and the power hierarchy behind it. The theory of legitimation of power by David Beetham forms the main theory of the study. The thesis is a case study, in which is used both quantitative content analysis and qualitative text analysis. The case corporations are Shell, Nestlé, McDonald's and Nike, which have been and still are on the boycott. The quantitative analysis pointed out that the promotion of values was both relatively extensive and intensive in three of the four case corporations. Also the so called boycott values were in a central position in three of the four cases, which may seem to indicate that boycotts are one essential reason for the value promotion of the case corporations. From the results of the quantitative analysis there was formed the following value promotion profiles: boycott-centric activity (Shell and Nike), 2) symbolic surplus value -centric activity (McDonald's) and 3) boycott-centric passivity (Nestlé). According to the analysis it seems to be that both Shell and Nike are actively involved in the value creation at the moral markets. Also McDonald's seems to participate in the functions of the moral markets. However, in the case of McDonald's the symbolic surplus values and core values seem to be used to direct the attention away from the actual boycotts and its consequences. In the case of Nestlé the corporation is more passive and defensive when regarding the value promotion. Also the legitimation of the corporation is mainly practised by the means of reactive form of control as the legislation and government intervention. The most important sources of the study are the web sites of the case corporations. The other sources of the study are both socio-scientific and economical reviews, journals and books. The material has been achieved also through the Internet.
  • Vartiainen, Hanna-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Because personality can be defined as a relatively permanent and individual way of thinking, feeling, and acting, and because personal values can be used to explain our motives and attitudes, both personality and personal values may be considered to influence mate selection. The similarity of couples has been observed to be linked to relationship satisfaction and a smaller divorce risk, which makes the consistent study of couple similarity important. The purpose of this study was to investigate couple similarity in Big Five personality traits, as well as in the 10 and 19 personal values defined by Schwartz. Based on these theories and earlier research, three hypotheses could be set, according to which couples are similar (1) in the personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion, (2) on the motivational dimensions of personal values, and in hedonism, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security from the 10 value types, and (3) in hedonism and tradition, as well as in all the specified value types of self-direction, universalism, benevolence, conformity, and security from the 19 value types. The sample of this study was a part of a larger project, and it consisted of 261 18-55-year-old heterosexual couples, all of which were either parents of small children, expecting their first child, or university students and their spouses. The results of this study principally corresponded to the hypotheses. The couples were observed to be similar in all Big five personality traits, on the motivational value dimensions, in universalism, tradition, conformity, hedonism, self-direction, security, benevolence, achievement, and power from the 10 value types, in all of the specified value types of universalism, self-direction, conformity, and power, as well as in the specified value types of benevolence-dependability, security-societal, humility, and face from the 19 value types. According to these results, it seems that men and women do not end up in relationships completely arbitrarily, but that personality traits and personal values guide couple formation at least to some extent.
  • Hirvelä, Shari (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This study deals with social representations of social order in Finland. While empirically testing a recent theoretical model of social order representations (Staerklé, 2009), I also investigated the role of values in social representation. Additionally, by including a group diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) into my study, I explored the roles that reflexivity and perspective taking on the one hand, and marginalisation on the other, have in representing social order. I therefore compared social order representation contents and processes of an undefined group of Finnish people (N = 281) with a group of Finnish people diagnosed with ASDs (N = 36), using a mixed method, questionnaire-based design, which included both open and closed questions. Quantitatively, my methods were based primarily upon confirmatory factor analyses and correlation procedures. Qualitatively, I used discourse analysis based in Hallidayan (1978) linguistics, rhetorical analyses based in the methods outlined by Burke (1945; 1950), and Greimas’s (1966/1983) actantial model. While focusing upon the dialogism paradigm within social representations theory (Marková, 2003), I had two theoretical aims. First, I began an articulation of treating values as part of the meaning in representation. Second, I explored the development of a social semiotic approach to representation, which included power dynamics as part of representation processes. Empirically, the Staerklé model held up well and largely conformed to its theoretical underpinnings. The participants demonstrated all of the social order conceptions proposed by Staerklé. Based upon the results, I did, however, suggest some modifications to the model due to some awkwardness related to marginalisation, Finnish-style liberalism, and the welfare state. Results showed that overall, Finnish people conceptualise social order in terms of an equality/inequality thema influenced heavily by security value expressions and power dynamics, while anchoring that understanding in the modern welfare model. Differences in positioning towards that common understanding were related to marginalisation, differences in perspective taking, and different ways of expressing power. I concluded by suggesting that representation is very much a motivated process with value-laden contents, and that social representations research needs to better incorporate these dimensions into its agenda.
  • Jaari, Aini (2004)
    This study aimed to clarify underlying variables of global self-esteem in work-aged Finnish men and women as assessed on a measure developed by M. Rosenberg (1965). The study examined the relationship between self-esteem and (1) sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1979) and sense of competence, (2) Machiavellism (Mach IV) and (3) personal values assessed through the Portraits measure (Schwartz, 2001) and completed in relation to work and spiritual values. Based on Eagly's (1987) theory of gender role differences, the self-esteem of young adults in further education or at work was compared. The study consisted of two data sets collected through questionnaires: the first in 1995 (n=368), the second in 2001 (n=1283). The central variables were gender, age, education and professional/occupational categories. The sets of data were also examined in relation to salary and type of occupational enterprise including farming. Results showed that neither gender nor age was related to level of self-esteem. However, the more educated the individuals the higher their self-esteem. Low self-esteem was best explained by a low sense of coherence and Machiavellian cynicism. Both can be considered related to weak social integration within society. Cynicism was highest among those men and women aged under 31 years with low levels of education and also those engaged in farming. Young people in further education had more problems with their sense of coherence than those in employment. Well-educated entrepreneurs achieved the highest scores on the self-esteem measure while those engaged in farming had the lowest scores. It seems that a proportion of the farming population perceive themselves deceived and marginalized within the Finnish society which, in turn, contributes to their low self-esteem, cynical attitude and conflicting values. Although this study showed that women were more social and emphatic than men, gender role differences at the workplace had narrowed. For both sexes, roles at the workplace were shaped by society's norms, expectations and demands. A sense of competence and success at the workplace was a very important correlate of self-esteem for both men and women. It can be concluded that work is an important route to social integration in society and work has a positive effect on the individual's sense of self-worth. According to the study, men and especially women at work appear to base their self-esteem on personal competence in the areas of knowledge, skills and social relations and on individual self-enhancement and values. The results of the study are in accordance with the views of Morris Rosenberg. Weak and problematic interpersonal relationships (integration between individuals) and weak institutional and norm-dependent behaviour are typical of persons with low self-esteem.
  • Lounela, Anu K. (2021)
    This article explores how changing environmental conditions and practices connect with shifting forms and valuations of sociality in a Ngaju Dayak village in the radically transformed peatlands of southern Borneo. It proposes that the production of values and social relations is indivisible from the production of a livelihood through material means and dwelling in the local environment. The article describes how changing Ngaju orientations to social life and the riverscape have been interlinked with fluctuations in the local valuescape. The focus is on two distinct but overlapping forms of organising sociality and labour in the riverine environment, and how they have influenced and been influenced by the dialectically conjoined Ngaju values of solidarity and autonomy, and, more recently, by emerging economic value. It is argued that the valuation of sociality crucially reflects the changing valuation of land and nature and related politics of value within the local riverscape. Finally, the article shows that the radically transformed riverine environment sets limits on (imagining) environmental practices, forms of sociality, and how they are valued.