Browsing by Subject "valuma-alueet"

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  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 15/2010
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2009/2010 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database,and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A progress report on ICP IM biodiversity assessment • Two reports on critical loads at ICP IM sites: - report on calculation of site specific critical loads for acidification and eutrophication for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems - relationships between critical load exceedances and empirical impact indicators
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2018)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 20 /2018
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2017/2018 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM data base, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output fluxes in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments and an assessment of the role of internal nitrogen parameters - A progress report on dynamic soil-vegetation modelling - A literature review: Post disturbance vegetation succession and resilience in forest ecosystems - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 33/2019
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2018/2019 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - An interim report on aluminium fractions in surface waters draining catchments of ICP Integrated Monitoring network - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2020)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 31/2020
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarises the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2019/2020 including: A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on temporal trends and input - output budgets of heavy metals in ICP IM catchments - An interim assessment of the impact of internal nitrogen-related parameters and exceedances of critical loads of eutrophication on long-term changes in the inorganic nitrogen output in European ICP Integrated Monitoring catchments - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Mustonen, Seppo E. (Vesihallitus, 1971)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 1
  • Koskiaho, Jari; Okruszko, Tomasz; Piniewski, Mikolaj; Marcinkowski, Pawel; Tattari, Sirkka; Johannesdottir, Solveig; Kärrman, Erik; Kämäri, Maria (Elsevier, 2020)
    Ecohydrology & Hydrobiology
    There exist numerous ecotechnologies for recovery and reuse of carbon and nutrients from various waste streams before they are lost to runoff. However, it remains largely unknown how growing implementation of such ecotechnologies affect nutrient emissions to surface waters at catchment scale. Here, this knowledge gap is addressed by application of SWAT model in three case study catchments draining to the Baltic Sea: Vantaanjoki (Finland), Fyrisån (Sweden) and Słupia (Poland). Sustainability analysis with Multi-Criteria Analysis was applied in the stakeholder workshops in the case study areas to assess different ecotechnology alternatives. The following ecotechnologies received the highest sustainability scores: in Vantaanjoki anaerobic digestion, based on mostly agricultural residues; in Fyrisån source-separation of wastewaters; in Słupia nutrient extraction within the wastewater treatment process. The effect of application of digestate on agricultural soils in the Vantaanjoki catchment was simulated by adjusting the model parameters describing the organic carbon content and physical properties of soil. The results showed small reductions of nutrient loads to the Gulf of Finland. Larger reductions of nutrient loads to Lake Mälaren in Sweden and the Baltic Sea in Poland were achieved as a result of the wastewater treatment upgrades. In the Fyrisån catchment, higher relative reductions were simulated for TN than TP, and in dry years than in wet years. Although the studied ecotechnologies did not show as high effectiveness in nutrient load reduction as combinations of traditional Best Management Practices reported in literature, they do have other multiple benefits including crop yield increase, electricity, heat and bio-based fertilizer production.
  • Skarbøvik, Eva; Jordan, Philip; Lepistö, Ahti; Kronvang, Brian; Stutter, Marc I.; Vermaat, Jan E. (Springer Nature, 2020)
    In the future, the world is expected to rely increasingly on renewable biomass resources for food, fodder, fibre and fuel. The sustainability of this transition to bioeconomy for our water systems depends to a large extent on how we manage our land resources. Changes in land use together with climate change will affect water quantity and quality, which again will have implications for the ecosystem services provided by water resources. These are the main topics of this Ambio special issue on “Environmental effects of a green bio-economy”. This paper offers a summary of the eleven papers included in this issue and, at the same time, outlines an approach to quantify and mitigate the impacts of bioeconomy on water resources and their ecosystem services, with indications of useful tools and knowledge needs.
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Marttila, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Lepistö, Ahti; Kløve, Bjørn (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 779 (2021), 146419
    Maintaining and improving surface water quality requires knowledge of nutrient and sediment loads due to past and future land-use practices, but historical data on land cover and its changes are often lacking. In this study, we tested whether land-use-specific export coefficients can be used together with satellite images (Landsat) and/or regional land-use statistics to estimate riverine nutrient loads and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and suspended solids (SS). The study area, Simojoki (3160 km2) in northern Finland, has been intensively drained for peatland forestry since the 1960s. We used different approaches at multiple sub-catchment scales to simulate TN, TP, and SS export in the Simojoki catchment. The uncertainty in estimates based on specific export coefficients was quantified based on historical land-use changes (derived from Landsat data), and an uncertainty boundary was established for each land-use. The uncertainty boundary captured at least 60% of measured values of TN, TP, and SS loads or concentrations. However, the uncertainty in estimates compared with measured values ranged from 7% to 20% for TN, 0% to 18% for TP, and 13% to 43% for SS for different catchments. Some discrepancy between predicted and measured loads and concentrations was expected, as the method did not account for inter-annual variability in hydrological conditions or river processes. However, combining historical land-use change estimates with simple export coefficients can be a practical approach for evaluating the influence on water quality of historical land-use changes such as peatland drainage for forest establishment.
  • Cano Bernal, José Enrique; Rankinen, Katri; Thielking, Sophia (Academic Press., 2022)
    Journal of Environmental Management
    The majority of the carbon worldwide is in soil. In a river catchment, the tight relationship between soil, water and climate makes carbon likely to be eroded and transported from the soil to the rivers. There are multiple variables which can trigger and accelerate the process. In order to assess the importance of the factors involved, and their interactions resulting in the changes in the carbon cycle within catchments, we have studied the catchments of 26 Finnish rivers from 2000 to 2019. These catchments are distributed all over Finland, but we have grouped them into three categories: southern, peatland and northern. We have run a boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis on chemical, physical, climatic and anthropogenic factors to determine their influence on the variations of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. TOC concentration has decreased in Finland between 2000 and 2019 by 0.91 mg/l, driven principally by forest ditching and % old forest in the catchment. Old forest is especially dominant in the northern catchments with an influence on TOC of 40.5%. In southern and peatland catchments, average precipitation is an important factor to explain the changes in TOC whilst in northern catchments, organic fields have more influence.
  • Kortelainen, Pirkko (National Board of Waters and the Environment, Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1993)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 13
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Marttila, Hannu; Haghighi, Ali Torabi; Saarimaa, Miia; Tolvanen, Anne; Lepistö, Ahti; Futter, Martyn N.; Kløve, Bjørn (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2021)
    Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 147(4), 04021006
    Spatiotemporal information on historical peatland drainage is needed to relate past land use to observed changes in catchment hydrology. Comprehensive knowledge of historical development of peatland management is largely unknown at the catchment scale. Aerial photos and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data enlarge the possibilities for identifying past peatland drainage patterns. Here, our objectives are (1) to develop techniques for semiautomatically mapping the location of ditch networks in peat-dominated catchments using aerial photos and LIDAR data, and (2) to generate time series of drainage networks. Our approaches provide open-access techniques to systematically map ditches in peat-dominated catchments through time. We focused on the algorithm in such a way that we can identify the ditch networks from raw aerial images and LIDAR data based on the modification of multiple filters and number of threshold values. Such data are needed to relate spatiotemporal drainage patterns to observed changes in many northern rivers. We demonstrate our approach using data from the Simojoki River catchment (3,160  km2) in northern Finland. The catchment is dominated by forests and peatlands that were almost all drained after 1960. For two representative locations in cultivated peatland (downstream) and peatland forest (upstream) areas of the catchment; we found total ditch length density (km/km2), estimated from aerial images and LIDAR data based on our proposed algorithm, to have varied from 2% to 50% compared with the monitored ditch length available from the National Land survey of Finland (NLSF) in 2018. A different pattern of source variation in ditch network density was observed for whole-catchment estimates and for the available drained-peatland database from Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE). Despite such differences, no significant differences were found using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test with a 0.05 significance level based on the samples of pixel-identified ditches between (1) aerial images and NLSF vector files and (2) LIDAR data and NLSF vector files.
  • Freitas, Aline A.; Drumond, Anita; Carvalho, Vanessa S. B.; Reboita, Michelle S.; Silva, Benedito C.; Uvo, Cintia B. (MDPI AG, 2022)
    The São Francisco River Basin (SFRB) is one of the main watersheds in Brazil, standing out for generating energy and consumption, among other ecosystem services. Hence, it is important to identify hydrological drought events and the anomalous climate patterns associated with dry conditions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for 12 months was used to identify hydrological drought episodes over SFRB 1979 and 2020. For these episodes, the severity, duration, intensity, and peak were obtained, and SPI-1 was applied for the longest and most severe episode to identify months with wet and dry conditions within the rainy season (Nov–Mar). Anomalous atmospheric and oceanic patterns associated with this episode were also analyzed. The results revealed the longest and most severe hydrological drought episode over the basin occurred between 2012 and 2020. The episode over the Upper portion of the basin lasted 103 months. The results showed a deficit of monthly precipitation up to 250 mm in the southeast and northeast regions of the country during the anomalous dry months identified through SPI-1. The dry conditions observed during the rainy season of this episode were associated with an anomalous high-pressure system acting close to the coast of Southeast Brazil, hindering the formation of precipitating systems.
  • Kauppi, Lea (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 30, 21-41
    Tiivistelmä: Valuma-alueen vaikutus fosforin ja typen hajakuormitukseen.
  • Kostamo, Kirsi; Pekkonen, Minna; Ahlroth, Petri; Heikkinen, Risto; Kallasvuo, Meri; Kuningas, Sanna; Laamanen, Leena; Lappalainen, Antti; Veneranta, Lari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2018)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 24/2018
    Tarve turvata biologista monimuotoisuutta eli biodiversiteettiä on maailmanlaajuisesti suuri. Itämeren luonnon tilan heikentyminen johtuu ihmisen toiminnasta merellä, rannikolla ja Itämeren valuma-alueella. Mereiset luonnonsuojelualueet ovat keskeinen keino meriluonnon taantumisen pysäyttämisessä. Suojelualueilla turvataan sekä erilaisia vedenalaisia elinympäristöjä muodostavia avainlajeja että näitä elinympäristöjä elinkierrossaan hyödyntäviä muita lajeja. Luonnon monimuotoisuuden nopeaa heikkenemistä ei kuitenkaan voida pysäyttää yksinomaan perinteisten luonnonsuojelumenetelmien, kuten luonnonsuojelualueverkoston kehittämisen ja lajien tai luontotyyppien suojelun, avulla. Ekologinen kompensaatio on yksi niistä keinoista, joka voisi tuoda lisäkeinoja luonnon monimuotoisuuden turvaamiseen perinteisten suojelukeinojen rinnalle. Ekologisella kompensaatiolla tarkoitetaan menettelyä, jossa ihmistoiminnasta aiheutuva haitta luonnon monimuotoisuudelle hyvitetään turvaamalla vähintään yhtä paljon monimuotoisuutta toisaalla. Menettelyn tavoite on tuottaa hyötyä ekosysteemeille ja ylläpitää niiden tarjoamia keskeisiä ekosysteemipalveluita tilanteissa, joissa ihmistoiminta aiheuttaa luonnonympäristön heikentymistä. Hyvityksien tuottamien ekologisten hyötyjen tulisi olla selkeästi mitattavissa ja luonteeltaan pysyviä. Aiheutetun heikennyksen ja kompensaationa tuotettavan hyvityksen suuruusluokkaa ja vaikutusta tulisi arvioida nimenomaan ekologisilla mittareilla, mikä erottaa ekologiset kompensaatiot esimerkiksi hiili- ja ravinnekompensaatioista. Meriekosysteemien toimintaan ja lajistoon kohdistuvat kompensaatiot ovat haasteellisempia toteuttaa kuin kompensaatiot maaympäristössä. Tämä johtuu siitä, että meriekosysteemit ovat dynaamisesti ja kolmiulotteisesti kytkeytyneitä ekologisia kokonaisuuksia, joita luonnehtii voimakas paikkaan ja aikaan liittyvä biologisten komponenttien ja meriympäristön välinen vuorovaikutus. Tässä raportissa esitellään sekä valuma-alueella että rannikolla ja merellä mahdollisesti käyttökelpoisia periaatteita ja toimenpiteitä kompensaatioiden suunnitteluun ja toteutukseen. Valuma-alueella suoritettavia toimenpiteitä esitellään siksi, että ne voivat muodostaa yhdessä merialueella toteutettavien toimenpiteiden kanssa kokonaisuuden, jonka vaikutukset ylittävät yksinomaan merellä toteutettavien toimenpiteiden vaikutukset pureutuessaan tärkeimmän vedenalaisen luonnon monimuotoisuuden uhkatekijän, rehevöitymisen, paikallisiin vaikutuksiin erityisesti rannikon matalissa ja suojaisissa sisälahdissa. Tämän jälkeen esitellään rannikolla ja merenlahdissa, avoimemmilla hiekkapohjilla, sekä kalliorannoilla mahdollisesti käyttökelpoisia toimenpiteitä, jotka voisivat soveltua osaksi ekologiseen kompensaatiosuunnitteluun. Lopuksi kuvataan lyhyesti esimerkkejä yksittäisiin lajeihin kohdistuvista kompensaatiomahdollisuuksia. Useimpia raportissa kuvattuja toimenpiteitä voidaan tapauksesta riippuen hyödyntää myös ihmistoiminnan aiheuttamien ekologisten haittojen tai heikennysten vähentämiseksi tai lieventämiseksi. Suunnittelussa on suositeltavaa noudattaa lievennyshierarkiaa ja erottaa selkeästi mitkä toimenpiteet ovat lieventämistä ja mitkä jäljelle jäävien vaikutusten kompensaatio. Olennaista on, että mikäli päädytään esimerkiksi ennallistamaan elinympäristöjä poistamalla kasvillisuutta tai ruoppaamalla merenpohjaa, toimenpiteiden suunnitteluun, toteutukseen ja niiden vaikutusten seurantaan nimenomaan kompensaatioina on kiinnitetty huomiota.
  • Mattsson, Tuija (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 36
    The terrestrial export of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is associated with climate, vegetation and land use, and thus is under the influence of climatic variability and human interference with terrestrial ecosystems, their soils and hydrological cycles. The present study provides an assessment of spatial variation of DOM concentrations and export, and interactions between DOM, catchment characteristics, land use and climatic factors in boreal catchments. The influence of catchment characteristics, land use and climatic drivers on the concentrations and export of total organic carbon (TOC), total organic nitrogen (TON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) was estimated using stream water quality, forest inventory and climatic data from 42 Finnish pristine forested headwater catchments, and water quality monitoring, GIS land use, forest inventory and climatic data from the 36 main Finnish rivers (and their sub-catchments) flowing to the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the export of DOM in relation to land use along a European climatic gradient was studied using river water quality and land use data from four European areas. Additionally, the role of organic and minerogenic acidity in controlling pH levels in Finnish rivers and pristine streams was studied by measuring organic anion, sulphate (SO4) and base cation (Ca, Mg, K and Na) concentrations. In all study catchments, TOC was a major fraction of DOM, with much lower proportions of TON and DOP. Moreover, most of TOC and TON was in a dissolved form. The correlation between TOC and TON concentrations was strong and TOC concentrations explained 78% of the variation in TON concentrations in pristine headwater streams. In a subgroup of 20 headwater catchments with similar climatic conditions and low N deposition in eastern Finland, the proportion of peatlands in the catchment and the proportion of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karsten) of the tree stand had the strongest correlation with the TOC and TON concentrations and export. In Finnish river basins, TOC export increased with the increasing proportion of peatland in the catchment, whereas TON export increased with increasing extent of agricultural land. The highest DOP concentrations and export were recorded in river basins with a high extent of agricultural land and urban areas, reflecting the influence of human impact on DOP loads. However, the most important predictor for TOC, TON and DOP export in Finnish rivers was the proportion of upstream lakes in the catchment. The higher the upstream lake percentage, the lower the export, indicating organic matter retention in lakes. Molar TOC:TON ratio decreased from headwater catchments covered by forests and peatlands to the large river basins with mixed land use, emphasising the effect of the land use gradient on the stoichiometry of rivers. This study also demonstrated that the land use of the catchments is related to both organic and minerogenic acidity in rivers and pristine headwater streams. Organic anion dominated in rivers and streams situated in northern Finland, reflecting the higher extent of peatlands in these areas, whereas SO4 dominated in southern Finland and on western coastal areas, where the extent of fertile areas, agricultural land, urban areas, acid sulphate soils, and sulphate deposition is highest. High TOC concentrations decreased pH values in the stream and river water, whereas no correlation between SO4 concentrations and pH was observed. This underlines the importance of organic acids in controlling pH levels in Finnish pristine headwater streams and main rivers. High SO4 concentrations were associated with high base cation concentrations and fertile areas, which buffered the effects of SO4 on pH.
  • Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Akujärvi, Anu; Anttila, Kati; Manninen, Terhikki; Markkanen, Tiina (Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021)
    Water 13 (2021), 472
    Climate change may alter the services ecosystems provide by changing ecosystem functioning. As ecosystems can also resist environmental perturbations, it is crucial to consider the different processes that influence resilience. Our case study considered increased NO3− concentration in drinking water due to the climate change. We analyzed changes in ecosystem services connected to water purification at a catchment scale in southern Finland. We combined climate change scenarios with process-based forest growth (PREBAS) and eco-hydrological (PERSiST and INCA) models. We improved traditional model calibration by timing of forest phenology and snow-covered period from network of cameras and satellite data. We upscaled the combined modelling results with scenarios of population growth to form vulnerability maps. The boreal ecosystems seemed to be strongly buffered against NO3- leaching by increase in evapotranspiration and vegetation NO3- uptake. Societal vulnerability varied greatly between scenarios and municipalities. The most vulnerable were agricultural areas on permeable soil types.
  • Tertsunen, Jermi; Martinmäki, Kati; Heikkinen, Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Saukkoriipi, Jaakko; Tammela, Simo; Saarinen, Tuomas; Tolkkinen, Mikko; Hyvärinen, Marja; Ihme, Raimo; Yrjänä, Timo; Klöve, Björn (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Suomen ympäristö 37/2012
    Sanginjoki, Oulujoen alin sivujoki, on Oulun seudun tärkeimpiä virkistysalueita ja Merikosken kalatietä lähin potentiaalinen vaelluskalojen nousualue. Joen ajoittainen happamuus kuitenkin heikentää Sanginjoen virkistyskäytöllistä ja ekologista arvoa. Kaupunki ja vesi – Sanginjoen virkistyskäyttöarvon parantaminen ja ekologinen kunnostus (2008-2011) -hankkeessa selvitettiin Sanginjoen happamuuden alkuperää, seurattiin laajasti eri alueilta jokeen laskevien valumavesien pH:n muutoksia sekä testattiin menetelmiä happamien huuhtoumien ennaltaehkäisyyn ja neutralointiin. Tulosten perusteella laadittiin toimenpidesuunnitelma happamuuden ehkäisemiseksi sekä happamuuden aiheuttamien haittojen lieventämiseksi. Julkaisussa on myös esitetty tietoa Sanginjoen ja sen valuma-alueen ominaisuuksista, joen ekologisesta tilasta, vedenlaadun kehityksestä sekä happamuuden ehkäisemiseen soveltuvista menetelmistä. Tulosten perusteella Sanginjoen veden happamuus usein voimistuu virtaamien kasvaessa. Etenkin kesä- ja syyssateiden yhteydessä havaittiin alhaisia pH-lukemia, joihin vaikuttivat maaperä, kasvillisuus ja maankäyttö. Hapan huuhtouma on pääosin peräisin turvepitoisten maiden orgaanisesta huuhtoumasta, mutta paikallisesti vedenlaatuun voivat vaikuttaa alueella esiintyvät happamat sulfaattimaat ja mustaliuskealueet. Sanginjoen vesi on ollut myös luontaisesti hapanta lähinnä suo- ja turvemaiden happamien valumavesien johdosta, mutta happamuus on todennäköisesti lisääntynyt ihmistoiminnan vaikutuksesta. Sanginjoen valuma-alueella testattujen vesiensuojelu- ja kunnostusmenetelmien vaikutukset happamien valumavesien neutraloinnissa vaihtelivat, mutta osa menetelmistä osoittautui käyttökelpoiseksi ja niitä voidaan suositella käytettävän jatkossa niin Sanginjoella kuin vastaavilla happamuudesta kärsivillä kohteilla. Menetelmien kehittämistä ja erityisesti vaikutusten seurantaa tulee kuitenkin edelleen jatkaa. Hankkeessa testatut menetelmät ovat keinoja ihmistoiminnasta aiheutuvan happamuuden lisääntymisen torjunnassa. Parhaiten Sanginjoen ja muiden happamuudesta kärsivien vesistöjen hapanta kuormitusta ehkäistään huomioimalla maankäytössä happamuuden kannalta kriittisten turve- ja sulfidipitoisten alueiden ominaisuudet ja sijoittuminen jo ennen maankäytön toimenpiteitä ja kuormituksen syntymistä.
  • Taka, Maija; Sillanpää, Nora; Niemi, Tero; Warsta, Lassi; Kokkonen, Teemu; Setälä, Heikki (Elsevier, 2022)
    Science of the total environment
    Urban hydrology is characterized by increased runoff and various pollutant sources. We studied the spatio-temporal patterns of stormwater metal (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) concentrations and loads in five urbanized and one rural catchment in Southern Finland. The two-year continuous monitoring revealed a non-linear seasonal relationship between catchment urban intensity and metal export. For runoff, seasonal variation decreased with increasing imperviousness. The most urbanized catchments experienced greatest temporal variation in metal concentrations: the annual Cu and Zn loads in most of the studied urbanized catchments were up to 86 times higher compared to the rural site, whereas Fe loads in the urbanized catchments were only circa 29% of the rural load. Total metal levels were highest in the winter, whereas the winter peak of dissolved metal concentrations was less pronounced. The collection of catchment characteristics explained well the total metal concentrations, whereas for the dissolved concentrations the explanatory power was weaker. Our catchment-scale analysis revealed a mosaic of mainly diffuse pollutant sources and calls for catchment-scale management designs. As urban metal export occurred across seasons, solutions that operate also in cold conditions are needed. Highlights • Impact of urban land use on metal export was studied by monitoring six catchments. • Continuous monitoring, automatic sampling and statistical modelling were performed. • Urban intensity increased seasonality in concentrations, especially for Zn and Cu. • Highest total metal load occurred in winter; seasonality in dissolved metals was modest.
  • Niinioja, Riitta; Rämö, Anita (Pohjois-Karjalan ympäristökeskus & Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2006)
    Suomen ympäristö 59/2006
    Lieksassa Patvinsuon kansallispuistossa Hietajärven yhdennetyn seurannan alueella on tehty vuodesta 1987 tiivistä ja monipuolista ekosysteemin seurantaa. Pohjois-Karjalan ympäristökeskus järjesti marraskuun 23. päivänä 2005 alueellisen ympäristön tilan seminaarin Joensuussa. Tilaisuuden aiheena oli ”Hietajärven alue - ympäristön seurannan helmi Pohjois-Karjalassa”. Tilaisuus oli kolmas ympäristön seurantaa ja sen tuottamaa tietoa käsittelevä seminaari Pohjois-Karjalassa. Nyt käsillä olevassa julkaisussa valotetaan Hietajärven alueen seurantatuloksien kautta, miten yhden alueen monipuolinen tutkimus ja seuranta useiden tahojen yhteistyönä tuottaa arvokasta tutkimustietoa mm. ilman kautta tulevasta laskeumasta ja sen vaikutuksesta metsä- ja vesiekosysteemiin sekä maa- ja pohjaveteen. Tätä tietoa käytetään kansainvälisesti, valtakunnallisesti ja alueellisesti arvioitaessa ja ennakoitaessa ympäristön muuttumista ja sen syitä.
  • García‐Girón, Jorge; Lindholm, Marja; Heino, Jani; Toivonen, Heikki; Alahuhta, Janne (Wiley, 2022)
    Limnology and Oceanography
    Community ecology has had a strong focus on single snapshots of species compositional variation in time. However, environmental change often occurs slowly at relatively broad spatio-temporal scales, which requires historically explicit assessments of long-term metacommunity dynamics, such as the order of species arrival during community assembly (i.e., priority effects), a theme that merits further empirical quantification. In this study, we applied the Bayesian inference scheme of Hierarchical Modeling of Species Communities together with information on functional traits and evolutionary dependencies to efficiently explore the question of how ecological communities are organized in space and time. To do this, we used a comprehensive time-series dataset from boreal lake plants and adopted the perspective that more sound conclusions on metacommunity dynamics can be gained from studies that consider a historically integrative approach over long timeframes. Our findings revealed that historical contingency via priority effects can profoundly shape community assembly under the influence of environmental change across decades (here, from the 1940s to the 2010s). Similarly, our results supported the existence of both positive and negative species-to-species associations in lake plants, suggesting that functional divergence can switch the inhibition–facilitation balance at the metacommunity level. Perhaps more importantly, this proof-of-concept study supports the notion that community ecology should include a historical perspective and suggests that ignoring priority effects may risk our ability to identify the true magnitude of change in present-day biotic communities.