Browsing by Subject "vascular plants"

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  • Kozhin, Mikhail N.; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2020)
    Finnish botanical expeditions which were made to Russian Lapland (present-day Murmansk Region and northern Karelia, Russia) in 1861 and 1863 published travel reports with preliminary information including numerous floristic novelties and phytogeographical observations, but they have been overlooked in present-day studies. Two reports appeared in print, by Gustav Selin on the expedition made in 1861, and by Nils Isak Fellman on the expedition made in 1863. We analysed the records of vascular plant species published in these reports in order to trace and evaluate first records and localities of rare and legally protected species on the basis of herbarium vouchers kept at H. In spite of high self-claims, Selin actually only reported nine species new to present-day Murmansk Region and one species new to Republic of Karelia, and four species of vascular plants that are currently under legal protection in Murmansk Region, whereas Fellman reported 11 species new to Murmansk Region and five species new to Karelia, with 34 species under legal protection in Murmansk Region. First records of alien plants were seven species from Selin and four species from Fellman. These records brought the contemporary floristic knowledge in Russian Lapland to 504 species of native plants (50% of the current total) and 54 species of alien plants (11% of the current total). Fellman's report included the first phytogeographical observations from the Kola Peninsula, with the first botanical limits observed, and the first descriptions of key botanical territories which are currently under strict protection. This study contributes to botanical history, plant protection and management of plant invasions in Murmansk Region.
  • Kurtto, Arto Kalevi; Sennikov, Alexander Nikolaevich; Lampinen, Raino Ensio; Finnish Museum of Natural History (The Committee for Mapping the Flora of Europe & Societas Biologica Fennica Vanamo, 2018)
  • Tiainen, Juha; Hyvönen, Terho; Hagner, Marleena; Huusela-Veistola, Erja; Louhi, Pauliina; Miettinen, Antti; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Palojärvi, Ansa; Seimola, Tuomas; Taimisto, Pauliina; Virkajärvi, Perttu (2020)
    Biodiversity degradation is a national and global problem which is interconnected with land use and climate change. All these are major unsolved questions and their interactions are only partly understood. Agriculture and especially cattle farming is under keen societal focus because of its significant role in soil carbon losses, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and biodiversity preservation. We reviewed the Finnish scientific literature to assess the impact of intensive contra extensive grass production on biodiversity using vascular plants, vertebrates, invertebrates and soil biota. Still a few decades ago, mixed farming was prevailing almost everywhere in Finland, but nowadays cereal production is essentially clustered in the southwest and milk and beef production in the northeast. This is reflected in the distribution of intensive (connected with cattle) and extensive grasslands (both types of farming). The bird community was most abundant and species rich in farmland which provides small fields in large blocks of farmland and many kinds of crops, including both intensive and extensive grasslands. Overall permanent grasslands with rather simply vegetation diversity can maintain a diverse community of spiders and leafhoppers, and act as overwintering habitat for polyphagous predators in field ecosystems. The ecological requirement of all species and species groups are probably never met at one site and consequently target should be in having differently managed areas at regional scale. For some of the taxa, ecosystem services could be indicated, but a research-based quantitative assessment is available only for carbon sequestration and weak impact of dung-beetles in diminishing GHG emissions from cow pats. Our review demonstrated that quite much is known about biodiversity in extensively managed grasslands, but very little in intensively managed grasslands. An important question is whether there is some threshold for the proportion of grasslands under which regional biodiversity will be reduced. Intensive production offers limited value to replace the high biodiversity value of semi-natural pastures.
  • Lindholm, Tapio; Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Kravchenko, Alexey (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 40/2014
    Zaonezhye Peninsula (Zaonezhsky Peninsula; Заонежский полуостров in Russian transcription) is situated on the northwestern coast of Lake Onega in the Republic of Karelia, Russia. The territory of Zaonezhye is unique in that it contains nearly every type of terrain and unconsolidated sediment known in the vast expanses of northwest Russia. It is also eastern part of Fennoscandian shield. It is characterized by a high diversity of basic limestone and carbonate rocks that determine the fertility of local soils as well as the unique diversity of habitats, flora and fauna. Numerous rare calciphile plant and lichen species are found here, as well as rich, eutrophic wetlands. Long-term farming and animal husbandry have led to a large number of grassland communities in the area. As a result, a mosaic structure of diverse habitats has evolved here. Europe’s second largest lake, Lake Onega, with its clear and deep waters also affect the local climate, making it milder. This report provides for the first time detailed species lists of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, wood-growing fungi and insects covering the entire Zaonezhye Peninsula, Kizhi archipelago and other adjacent islands. The most important sites for protection were observed, and six new nature monuments in the southern and southerneast parts of Zaonezhye Peninsula are recommended to be established. This publication contents following articles characterizing nature of Zaonezhye area: 1. Geology and physical geography: 1.1.Geological description, 1.2. Geomorphology and Quaternary deposits, 1.3. Hydrological characteristics, 1.4. Soil cover, 1.5. Palaeogeography, 1.6. Existing and planned protected areas; 2. Landscapes and ecosystems: 2.1. Modern landscapes of Zaonezhye, 2.2. Landscape structure, 2.3. Structure of the forest covered land and forest stands, 2.4. Forest structures, 2.5. Mires, 2.6. Meadows; 3. Flora and fauna: 3.1. Vascular plants, 3.2. Bryophyte flora, 3.3 Species list of lichens and allied fungi, 3.4. Red listed and indicator lichens, 3.5. Aphyllophoroid fungi and 3.6. Insect fauna. 3.7. Localities in Zaonezhye area used in species lists of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, fungi and insects, and their toponyms.
  • Kastovska, Eva; Strakova, Petra; Edwards, Keith; Urbanova, Zuzana; Barta, Jiri; Mastny, Jiri; Santruckova, Hana; Picek, Tomas (2018)
    Peatlands are large repositories of carbon (C). Sphagnum mosses play a key role in C sequestration, whereas the presence of vascular plants is generally thought to stimulate peat decomposition. Recent studies stress the importance of plant species for peat quality and soil microbial activity. Thus, learning about specific plant-microbe-soil relations and their potential feedbacks for C and nutrient cycling are important for a correct understanding of C sequestration in peatlands and its potential shift associated with vegetation change. We studied how the long-term presence of blueberry and cotton-grass, the main vascular dominants of spruce swamp forests, is reflected in the peat characteristics, soil microbial biomass and activities, and the possible implications of their spread for nutrient cycling and C storage in these systems. We showed that the potential effect of vascular plants on ecosystem functioning is species specific and need not necessarily result in increased organic matter decomposition. Although the presence of blueberry enhanced phosphorus availability, soil microbial biomass and the activities of C-acquiring enzymes, cotton-grass strongly depleted phosphorus and nitrogen from the peat. The harsh conditions and prevailing anoxia retarded the decomposition of cotton-grass litter and caused no significant enhancement in microbial biomass and exoenzymatic activity. Therefore, the spread of blueberry in peatlands may stimulate organic matter decomposition and negatively affect the C sequestration process, whereas the potential spread of cotton-grass would not likely change the functioning of peatlands as C sinks.
  • Von Raab-Straube, Eckhard; Raus, Thomas; Bazos, I.; Cornec, J. P.; De Belair, G.; Dimitrakopoulos, P. G.; El Mokni, R.; Fateryga, A. V.; Fateryga, V. V.; Fridlender, A.; Gil, J.; Grigorenko, V. N.; Hand, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Mastrogianni, A.; Otto, R.; Raetzel, S.; Raus, Th.; Ristow, M.; Salas Pascual, M.; Strid, A.; Svirin, S. A.; Tsiripidis, I.; Uhlich, H.; Vela, E.; Verloove, F.; Vidakis, K.; Yena, A. V.; Yevseyenkov, P. E.; Zeddam, A. (2019)
    This is the eleventh of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to both the Med-Checklist and the Euro+Med (or Sisyphus) projects are presented. This instalment deals with the families Anacardiaceae, Asparagaceae (incl. Hyacinthaceae), Bignoniaceae, Cactaceae, Compositae, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Ericaceae, Gramineae, Labiatae, Leguminosae, Orobanchaceae, Polygonaceae, Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Staphyleaceae. It includes new country and area records and taxonomic and distributional considerations for taxa in Bidens, Campsis, Centaurea, Cyperus, Drymocallis, Engem, Hoffmannseggia, Hypopitys, Lavandula, Lithraea, Melilotus, Nicotiana, Olimarabidopsis, Opuntia, Orobanche, Phelipanche, Phragmites, Rumex, Salvia, Schinus, Staphylea, and a new combination in Drimia.
  • Raab-Straube, E. von; Raus, T.; Bazos, I.; Benítez-Benítez, C.; Bondareva, L.V.; Chiotelis, C.; Damianidis, C.; Ebel, A.L.; El Mokni, R.; Eleftheriadou, E.; Fateryga, V.; Jiménez-Mejías, P.; Martín-Bravo, S.; Míguez, M.; Rätzel, S.; Rätzel, B.; Ryff, L.; Ristow, M.; Sáez, L.; Samaras, D.A.; Sennikov, A.N.; Sequeira, M.; Strid, A.; Svirin, S.A.; Theodoropoulos, K.; Uhlich, H.; Zeddam, A. (2019)
    This is the tenth of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to both the Med-Checklist and the Euro+Med (or Sisyphus) projects are presentedThis instalment deals with the families Amaranthaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Crassulaceae, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, Labiatae, Leguminosae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Orobanchaceae, Pittosporaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae and VitaceaeIt includes new country and area records and taxonomic and distributional considerations for taxa in Acacia (Vachellia), Airopsis, Amaranthus, Bougainvillea, Bromus, Carex, Cerastium, Citharexylum, Clinopodium, Datura, Euphorbia, Ficus, Hieracium, Hypopitys, Kalanchoe, Lobelia, Parthenocissus, Phelipanche, Pittosporum, Polypogon, Rorippa, Spinacia and Symphyotrichum, and a new combination in Clinopodium. © 2019 The Authors.
  • Kasimir, Å; He, H.; Jansson, P-E; Lohila, A.; Minkkinen, K. (2021)
    Nutrient-rich peat soils have previously been demonstrated to lose carbon despite higher photosynthesis and litter production compared to nutrient-poor soils, where instead carbon accumulates. To understand this phenomenon, we used a process-oriented model (CoupModel) calibrated on data from two closely located drained peat soil sites in boreal forests in Finland, Kalevansuo and Lettosuo, with different soil C/N ratios. Uncertainty-based calibrations were made using eddy-covariance data (hourly values of net ecosystem exchange) and tree growth data. The model design used two forest scenarios on drained peat soil, one nutrient-poor with dense moss cover and another with lower soil C/N ratio with sparse moss cover. Three vegetation layers were assumed: conifer trees, other vascular plants, and a bottom layer with mosses. Adding a moss layer was a new approach, because moss has a modified physiology compared to vascular plants. The soil was described by three separate soil organic carbon (SOC) pools consisting of vascular plants and moss litter origin and decomposed organic matter. Over 10 years, the model demonstrated a similar photosynthesis rate for the two scenarios, 903 and 1,034 g C m(-2) yr(-1), for the poor and rich site respectively, despite the different vegetation distribution. For the nutrient-rich scenario more of the photosynthesis produce accumulated as plant biomass due to more trees, while the poor site had abundant moss biomass which did not increase living aboveground biomass to the same degree. Instead, the poor site showed higher litter inputs, which compared with litter from vascular plants had low turnover rates. The model calibration showed that decomposition rate coefficients for the three SOC pools were similar for the two scenarios, but the high quantity of moss litter input with low decomposability for the nutrient poor scenario explained the major difference in the soil carbon balance. Vascular plant litter declined with time, while SOC pools originating from mosses accumulated with time. Large differences between the scenarios were obtained during dry spells where soil heterotrophic respiration doubled for the nutrient-rich scenario, where vascular plants dominated, owing to a larger water depletion by roots. Where moss vegetation dominated, the heterotrophic respiration increased by only 50% during this dry period. We suggest moss vegetation is key for carbon accumulation in the poor soil, adding large litter quantities with a resistant quality and less water depletion than vascular plants during dry conditions.
  • Borovichev, Evgeny; Kozhin, Mikhail; Ignashov, Pavel A.; Kirillova, Natalya R.; Kopeina, Ekaterina; Kravchenko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Oleg; Kutenkov, Stanislav; Melekhin, Aleksey V.; Popova, Ksenia B.; Razumovskaya, Anna V.; Sennikov, Alexander; Fadeeva, Margarita; Khimich, Yulia (2020)
  • García-Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Helm, Aveliina; Alahuhta, Janne (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 786 (2021), 147491
    Patterns of species rarity have long fascinated ecologists, yet most of what we know about the natural world stems from studies of common species. A large proportion of freshwater plant species has small range sizes and are therefore considered rare. However, little is known about the mechanisms and geographical distribution of rarity in the aquatic realm and to what extent diversity of rare species in freshwater plants follows their terrestrial counterparts. Here, we present the first in–depth analysis of geographical patterns, potential deterministic ecogeographical factors and projected scenarios of freshwater vascular plant rarity using 50 × 50 km grid cells across Europe (41°N–71°N) and North America (25°N–78°N). Our results suggest that diversity of rare species shows different patterns in relation to latitude on the two continents, and that hotspots of rarity concentrate in a relatively small proportion of the European and North American land surface, especially in mountainous as well as in climatically rare and stable areas. Interestingly, we found no differences among alternative rarity definitions and measures when delineating areas with notably high diversity of rare species. Our findings also indicate that few variables, namely a combination of current climate, Late Quaternary climate–change velocity and human footprint, are able to accurately predict the location of continental centers of rare species diversity. However, these relationships are not geographically homogeneous, and the underlying factors likely act synergistically. Perhaps more importantly, we provide empirical evidence that current centers of rare species diversity are characterized by higher anthropogenic impacts and might shrink disproportionately within this century as the climate changes. Our reported distributional patterns of species rarity align with the known trends in species richness of other freshwater organisms and may help conservation planners make informed decisions mitigating the effects of climate change and other anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity.
  • Rikberg, Jon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The Red List Index (RLI) has widely been recognized as a useful tool in keeping track of extinction risk trends of large taxa. The RLI is an index based on IUCN’s threat categories. Functional diversity (FD) is a way of measuring biodiversity that describes species´ traits that are linked to species´ ecological roles. In this work I have mapped the spatial distribution of the RLI and functional diversity for Finnish vascular plants. I first produced species distribution models (SDMs) for all 1194 species of vascular plants in the Finnish Red List 2010 based on records from the Kastikka and Hertta databases and environmental data. A functional tree incorporating 971 of those species was calculated using seven functional traits. The traits that I used were life form, maximum plant height, seed mass, seedbank longevity, life span, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). The trait data was gained from the databases Leda and TRY. Based on the SDMs, the functional tree, and the Finnish Red List, taxonomic and functional diversity and RLI were mapped for the whole of Finland using 10 x 10 km cells. This was the first time FD and RLI were mapped for vascular plant species across Finland. Null models were used to compare observed values with the ones expected if species (and consequently traits) distributions were random accross the country. Taxonomic diversity (TD) was higher than expected in southern Finland and lowest in northern Finland, suggesting a strong latitudinal gradient. TD correlated with the same environmental variables as FD. Thus, it is likely that both TD and FD are dirven by the same environmental variables. FD was higher than expected in southern and western Finland and lower in the northern and eastern parts of the country. A strong environmental filtering in the north might cause low FD by limiting species´ distributions within many clades and favouring species with similar traits that allow them to survive in extreme conditions. In southern Finland, competitive exclusion might limit the co-existence of species with similar traits, thus increasing trait divergence. The RLI values were lowest in the Åland islands, along the southern coast, in a few sites in eastern Finland (e.g. Koli and Kuusamo areas), around Kemi and the Gulf of Bothnia and in Kilpisjärvi. Thus, these sites have high concentrations of threatened species. The low RLI sites correspond well with areas with either limestone or dolomite deposits, which explains why many of these areas are floristically unique and present high concentrations of threatened species. In addition, many of the sites with low RLI are geographical extreme areas in Finland, corresponding to the distribution limits of many species. The RLI was high in Ostrobothnia and in large parts of Lapland. In Ostrobothnia, centuries of forest management and a homogenous bedrock and topography have resulted in a vascular plant community based mostly on common species. It is possible, that regional extinctions have happened in Ostrobothnia already before red listing measures began, thus explaining the high RLI values today. On sites with more variety among habitats and bedrock, the RLI values were significantly lower than in the rest of Lapland, suggesting that the high RLI values for parts of Lapland are due to homogeneous plant communities in the northern boreal forests that host only few threatened species. The spatial distribution of the RLI and functional diversity for vascular plants in Finland were mapped for the first time. A strong latitudinal gradient was found for TD and FD. Low RLI values were found on calcareous soils and on geographic extremes in Finland. To track possible changes in the RLI it would be crucial to remap the RLI in 2019 when the next Finnish Red List is published. A comparision between this work and the remapping based on the 2019 assessment would track changes in the extinction risk across Finland. The current limitation with RLI is that it only considers taxonomic diversity. However, in future work it is possible to incorporate the functional tree used in this thesis into RLI to calculate a functionally weighted RLI.
  • Rissanen, Tuuli Katariina; Niittynen, Pekka; Soininen, Janne; Luoto, Miska (2021)
    Aim To examine how snow cover and permafrost affect plant species distributions at a subcontinental extent. Location Mountain realm of Fennoscandia, northern Europe. Time period Species data from 1 January 1990-25 February 2019. Major taxa studied Arctic-alpine and boreal vascular plants. Methods We examined the effect of snow persistence and permafrost occurrence on the distributions of arctic-alpine and boreal plant species while controlling for climate, topography and geological factors. Data comprised 475,811 observations from 671 species in the Fennoscandian mountains. We investigated the relationships between species distributions and environmental variables using four modelling methods and ensemble modelling building on both non-spatial and spatial models. Results Snow persistence was the most important driver of plant species distributions, with the greatest variable importance for both arctic-alpine (38.2%) and boreal (49.9%) species. Permafrost had a consistent minor effect on the predicted distributions. Arctic-alpine plants occur in areas with long snow persistence and permafrost, whereas boreal species showed the opposite habitat preferences. Main conclusions Our results highlight the importance of snow persistence in driving the distribution of vascular plant species in cold environments at a subcontinental scale. The notable contribution of the cryosphere to plant species distribution models indicates that the inclusion of snow information in particular may improve our understanding and model predictions of biogeographical patterns in cold regions.
  • Khapugin, Anatoliy A.; Soltys-Lelek, Anna; Fedoronchuk, Nikolay M.; Muldashev, Albert A.; Agafonov, Vladimir A.; Kazmina, Elena S.; Vasjukov, Vladimir M.; Baranova, Olga G.; Buzunova, Irina O.; Teteryuk, Lyudmila; Dubovik, Dmitriy; Gudzinskas, Zigmantas; Kukk, Toomas; Kravchenko, Alexey; Yena, Andrey; Kozhin, Mikhail N.; Sennikov, Alexander N. (2021)
    By the method of data re-collection and re-assessment, we here test the completeness of distribution areas of the species and species aggregates of Rosa in Eastern Europe as mapped in volume 13 of Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE), and discuss insights into the issues connected with the data. We found many new occurrences which are additions to the published maps: 1068 records of species and 570 records of species aggregates. The new occurrences are listed with references to the sources, and the updated AFE maps are provided. The greatest increase by new native occurrences was revealed for the species that are widespread or taxonomically complicated, and by new alien occurrences for the species that currently expand their secondary distribution areas. The mapping work published in 2004 is considered good, with minor omissions caused by possible oversights and incomplete sampling. The majority of new additions originated in the period after the original data collection. Nearly the same amount of new data originated from larger and smaller herbarium collections, underlining the value of small collections for chorological studies. We found that only ca 20% of new records based on herbarium specimens have been published, thus highlighting the need for data papers for publication of distributional data. The greatest increase by new records based on herbarium specimens was found for insufficiently studied territories (Belarus, central, northern and eastern parts of Russia), whereas the same level of increase for the territories with reasonably good coverage (Latvia) was achieved by observations. We conclude that the overall sparsity of published records in Eastern Europe is caused by a lower level of data collection rather than by poor data availability, and that floristic surveys based on herbarium specimens cannot compete in speed and density of records with observation-based surveys, which may become the main source of distributional information in the future.