Browsing by Subject "vastuullinen matkailu"

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  • Sakko, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Globalization, climate change and the principles of sustainable development have made responsibility an important part of the societal debate. Responsibility is, above all, responsibility for the effects of activities. As festivals also have complex effects on the surrounding society, corporate responsibility thinking has also become part of festival production. Responsibility can be implemented by considering the stakeholders and their needs, and by ensuring not only economic viability but also the vitality of environmental resources. Sustainable development can be achieved by responsible actions. The purpose of the study was to show how responsibility has been considered in festivals organized in Finland. The aim of the study was to find out what measures and choices the festival organizers have used to promote the festival's economic, socio-cultural and ecological responsibility. The study also explored how the festival organisers see the responsible choices affecting stakeholders and the image of the festival. One of the aims of the study was also to find out what are the reasons behind more responsible activities and what challenges festivals have experienced in implementing responsibility into festival production. In addition, it was studied how festivals have measured and communicated the realization of their responsibility. The research problem is approached by reviewing the literature on tourism impacts, the principles of sustainable tourism and theories of corporate social responsibility. The growth and importance of cultural tourism was used as a basis for defining events and their role in tourism. Through events and event tourism, the definition of festivals and the connection of festivals to tourism was deepened. The context of the responsible festival was approached through the framework of responsible tourism. The empirical part consisted of a survey and interviews for festival organisations. A total of 40 responses were received to the survey and there were three festival representatives interviewed. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods in the processing of the results and material. This wider perspective supported the broad dimensions of both responsibility and festivals. The study found that festivals have already incorporated responsibility into their activities. About every other festival already had responsibility-related action plan and all festivals considered it likely that they would increase their acts of responsibility in the future. Financial responsibility had been promoted, among other things, by supporting the local economy and following good governance. Socio-cultural responsibility had been considered, for example, by positively influencing the image and attractiveness of the festival’s region. In terms of environmental responsibility, the festivals had focused above all on waste management and accessibility. The most significant reason for promoting responsibility was the organisation's own ideology and values behind its activities. In addition, the festival visitors' demands for responsibility were also one of the essential reasons. Surveys aimed for festivalgoers were considered as a primary measure of responsibility. Responsibility had been communicated mainly in the instructions of the employees, but also on the social media sites of the festival. The biggest challenge in responsibility was the lack of common guidance in the event industry. Indeed, festival representatives felt that responsibility could best be promoted in the industry by creating such a guide. Festival representatives felt that responsibility has the most impact on promoting positive image of the event. It was also seen that responsibility influences the satisfaction of festival visitors as well as encourages their own responsibility. Thus, it seems that in festivals, responsibility has already been implemented in many ways, even if the festivals do not have an actual conscious responsibility plan. This also signals that responsibility is becoming part of all festival production activities, which provides good foundation for striving for the sustainability of festivals