Browsing by Subject "vectors"

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  • Netherlands, Edward C.; Cook, Courtney A.; Du Preez, Louis H.; Vanhove, Maarten P.M.; Brendonck, Luc; Smit, Nico J. (2020)
    Haemogregarine (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) blood parasites are commonly reported from anuran hosts. Dactylosomatidae (Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1955) is a group of haemogregarines comprising Dactylosoma Labbe, 1894 and Babesiosoma Jakowska and Nigrelli, 1956. Currently Dactylosoma and Babesiosoma contain five recognised species each. In the current study, a total of 643 anurans, comprising 38 species, 20 genera, and 13 families were collected from South Africa (n = 618) and Belgium (n = 25), and their blood screened for the presence of dactylosomatid parasites. Three anuran species were found infected namely, Ptychadena anchietae (Bocage, 1868) and Sclerophrys gutturalis (Power, 1927) from South Africa, and Pelophylax lessonae (Camerano, 1882) from Belgium. Based on morphological characteristics, morphometrics and molecular results a new dactylosomatid, Dactylosoma kermiti n. sp. is described form Pty. anchietae and Scl. gutturalis. The species of Dactylosoma isolated from Pel. lessonae could not, based on morphological or molecular analysis, be identified to species level. Phylogenetic analysis shows species of Dactylosoma infecting anurans as a monophyletic group separate from the other haemogregarine groups. Additionally, the mosquitoes Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) mashonaensis Theobald, 1901 and U. (Pfc.) montana Ingram and De Meillon, 1927 were observed feeding on Scl. gutturalis in situ and possible dividing stages of this new parasite were observed in the mosquitoes. This study is the first to describe a dactylosomatid parasite based on morphological and molecular data from Africa as well as observe potential stages in possible dipteran vectors.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf EFSA AHA; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose; Sihvonen, Liisa Helena (2020)
    Effectiveness of surveillance and control measures against Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Mayotte (overseas France) and in continental EU were assessed using mathematical models. Surveillance for early detection of RVF virus circulation implies very low design prevalence values and thus sampling a high number of animals, so feasibility issues may rise. Passive surveillance based on notified abortions in ruminants is key for early warning and at present the only feasible surveillance option. The assessment of vaccination and culling against RVF in Mayotte suggests that vaccination is more effective when quickly implemented throughout the population, e.g. at a rate of 200 or 2,000 animals vaccinated per day. Test and cull is not an option for RVF control in Mayotte given the high number of animals that would need to be tested. If the risk of RVFV introduction into the continental EU increases, ruminant establishments close to possible points of disease incursion should be included in the surveillance. An enhanced surveillance on reproductive disorders should be applied during summer in risk areas. Serosurveillance targets of 0.3% animals should be at least considered. RVF control measures possibly applied in the continental EU have been assessed in the Netherlands, as an example. Culling animals on farms within a 20 km radius of detected farms appears as the most effective measure to control RVF spread, although too many animals should be culled. Alternative measures are vaccination in a 50 km radius around detection, ring vaccination between 20 and 50 km and culling of detected farms. The assessment of zoning showed that, following RVFV introduction and considering an R-0 = 2, a mean vector dispersal of 10 km and 10 farms initially detected, RVFV would spread beyond a radius of up to 100 km or 50 km from the infected area with 10% or 55% probability, respectively. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.