Browsing by Subject "verisuonikirurgia"

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  • Laurila, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    A lack of suitable venous graft material or poor outflow is an increasingly encountered situation in peripheral vascular surgery. Prosthetic grafts have clearly worse patency than vein grafts in femorodistal bypass surgery. The use of an adjuvant arteriovenous fistula (av-fistula) at the distal anastomosis has been postulated to improve the flow and thus increase prosthetic graft patency. In theory the adjuvant fistula might have the same effect in a compromised outflow venous bypass. A free flap transfer also augments graft flow and may have a positive effect on an ischaemic limb. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefit of an adjuvant av-fistula and an internal av-fistula within a free flap transfer on the patency and outcome of an infrapopliteal bypass. The effect of the av-fistula on bypass haemodynamics was also assessed along with possible adverse effects. Patients and methods: 1. A prospective randomised multicentre trial comprised 59 patients with critical leg ischaemia and no suitable veins for grafting. Femorocrural polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bypasses with a distal vein cuff, with or without an adjuvant av-fistula, were performed. The outcome was assessed according to graft patency and leg salvage. 2. Haemodynamic measurements were performed to a total of 50 patients from Study I with a prolonged follow-up. 3. Nine critically ischaemic limbs were treated with a modified radial forearm flap transfer in combination with a femorodistal bypass operation. An internal av-fistula was created within the free flap transfer to increase flap artery and bypass graft flow. 4. The effect of a previous free flap transfer on bypass haemodynamics was studied in a case report. 5. In a retrospective multicentre case-control study, 77 infrapopliteal vein bypasses with an adjuvant av-fistula were compared with matched controls without a fistula. The outcome and haemodynamics of the bypasses were recorded. Main results: 1. The groups with and without the av-fistula did not differ as regards prosthetic graft patency or leg salvage. 2. The intra- and postoperative prosthetic graft flow was significantly increased in the patients with the av-fistula. However, this increase did not improve patency. There was no difference in patency between the groups, even in the extended follow-up. 3. The vein graft flow increased significantly after the anastomosis of the radial forearm flap with an internal av-fistula. 4. A previously performed free flap transfer significantly augmented the flow of a poor outflow femoropedal bypass graft. 5. The adjuvant av-fistula increased the venous infrapopliteal bypass flow significantly. The increased flow did not, however, lead to improved graft patency or leg salvage. Conclusion: An adjuvant av-fistula does not improve the patency of a femorocrural PTFE bypass with a distal vein cuff despite the fact that the flow values increased both in the intraoperative measurements and during the immediate postoperative surveillance. The adjuvant av-fistula increased graft flow significantly also in a poor outflow venous bypass, but regardless of this the outcome was no improved. The adjuvant av-fistula rarely caused adverse effects. In a group of diabetic patients, the flow in a vascular bypass graft was augmented by an internal av-fistula within a radial forearm flap and similarly in a patient with a previous free flap transfer, a high intraoperative graft flow was achieved due to the free flap shunt effect.
  • Noronen, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The obvious goals in vascular surgery are to operate patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis before stroke, to revascularise patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) before amputation is required and to operate patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) before aneurysm rupture. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the timing of treatment and the concurrent impact on the outcome in these three patient cohorts in Helsinki University Hospital (HUH). For symptomatic carotid stenosis the risk of ischemic stroke is the highest in the following weeks after ischemic symptoms, hence carotid surgery is recommended within two weeks. This goal was reached for only 11% of the patients in HUH during 2007-2008, which led to organisational changes in 2009. In 2010 37% of the symptomatic patients were operated on within two weeks and the median time from symptom to surgery had shortened from 47 to 19 days. Therefore, reaching the two-week target time is an achievable goal provided that in addition to the institutional changes, efforts are also made to improve the public awareness. No studies exist on the optimal timing of revascularization in patients with DFU. The whole treatment process from referral to revascularisation was analysed for patients with DFU referred to vascular surgeon in 2010-2011. Significant discovery was that in the treatment of DFUs delay more than two weeks from referral to revascularization was associated with inferior limb salvage. DFU always need prompt diagnostics of the possible underlying ischemia and rapid revascularization once detected. Also, the acceptable delay of elective AAA repair has not been determined, and conclusive evidence on the rupture risk of large aneurysms has been lacking. In HUH during the elective treatment process of AAAs in 2005 2010 21 (5.8%) emergency operations and 11 (3.0%) aneurysm ruptures occurred. In order to minimize aneurysm ruptures and emergency operations while waiting for surgery, guidelines for the timing of elective AAA treatment process are required and the fulfilment of these guidelines need to be followed up. Of the 154 patients excluded from operative treatment 33% died of an aneurysm rupture and 5 patients out of 12 undergoing emergency operation survived. Exclusion from elective aortic repair is a decision requiring careful consideration and collaboration between different specialities.
  • Arvela, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The main purpose of revascularization procedures for critical limb ischaemia (CLI) is to preserve the leg and sustain the patient s ambulatory status. Other goals are ischaemic pain relief and healing of ischaemic ulcers. Patients with CLI are usually old and have several comorbidities affecting the outcome. Revascularization for CLI is meaningless unless both life and limb are preserved. Therefore, the knowledge of both patient- and bypass-related risk factors is of paramount importance in clinical decision-making, patient selection and resource allocation. The aim of this study was to identify patient- and graft-related predictors of impaired outcome after infrainguinal bypass for CLI. The purpose was to assess the outcome of high-risk patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass and to evaluate the usefulness of specific risk scoring methods. The results of bypasses in the absence of optimal vein graft material were also evaluated, and the feasibility of the new method of scaffolding suboptimal vein grafts was assessed. The results of this study showed that renal insufficiency - not only renal failure but also moderate impairment in renal function - seems to be a significant risk factor for both limb loss and death after infrainguinal bypass in patients with CLI. Low estimated GFR (PIENEMPI KUIN 30 ml/min/1.73 m2) is a strong independent marker of poor prognosis. Furthermore, estimated GFR is a more accurate predictor of survival and leg salvage after infrainguinal bypass in CLI patients than serum creatinine level alone. We also found out that the life expectancy of octogenarians with CLI is short. In this patient group endovascular revascularization is associated with a better outcome than bypass in terms of survival, leg salvage and amputation-free survival especially in presence of coronary artery disease. This study was the first one to demonstrate that Finnvasc and modified Prevent III risk scoring methods both predict the long-term outcome of patients undergoing both surgical and endovascular infrainguinal revascularization for CLI. Both risk scoring methods are easy to use and might be helpful in clinical practice as an aid in preoperative patient selection and decision-making. Similarly than in previous studies, we found out that a single-segment great saphenous vein graft is superior to any other autologous vein graft in terms of mid-term patency and leg salvage. However, if optimal vein graft is lacking, arm vein conduits are superior to prosthetic grafts especially in infrapopliteal bypasses for CLI. We studied also the new method of scaffolding suboptimal quality vein grafts and found out that this method may enable the use of vein grafts of compromised quality otherwise unsuitable for bypass grafting. The remarkable finding was that patients with the combination of high operative risk due to severe comorbidities and risk graft have extremely poor survival, suggesting that only relatively fit patients should undergo complex bypasses with risk grafts. The results of this study can be used in clinical practice as an aid in preoperative patient selection and decision-making. In the future, the need of vascular surgery will increase significantly as the elderly and diabetic population increases, which emphasises the importance of focusing on those patients that will gain benefit from infrainguinal bypass. Therefore, the individual risk of the patient, ambulatory status, outcome expectations, the risk of bypass procedure as well as technical factors such as the suitability of outflow anatomy and the available vein material should all be assessed and taken into consideration when deciding on the best revascularization strategy.
  • Laukontaus, Sani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is a life-threatening event, and without operative treatment the patient will die. The overall mortality can be as high as 80-90%; thus repair of RAAA should be attempted whenever feasible. The quality of life (QoL) has become an increasingly important outcome measure in vascular surgery. Aim of the study was to evaluate outcomes of RAAA and to find out predictors of mortality. In Helsinki and Uusimaa district 626 patients were identified to have RAAA in 1996-2004. Altogether 352 of them were admitted to Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH). Based on Finnvasc Registry, 836 RAAA patients underwent repair of RAAA in 1991-1999. The 30-day operative mortality, hospital and population-based mortality were assessed, and the effect of regional centralisation and improving in-hospital quality on the outcome of RAAA. QoL was evaluated by a RAND-36 questionnaire of survivors of RAAA. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), which measure length and QoL, were calculated using the EQ-5D index and estimation of life expectancy. The predictors of outcome after RAAA were assessed at admission and 48 hours after repair of RAAA. The 30-day operative mortality rate was 38% in HUCH and 44% nationwide, whereas the hospital mortality was 45% in HUCH. Population-based mortality was 69% in 1996-2004 and 56% in 2003-2004. After organisational changes were undertaken, the mortality decreased significantly at all levels. Among the survivors, the QoL was almost equal when compared with norms of age- and sex-matched controls; only physical functioning was slightly impaired. Successful repair of RAAA gave a mean of 4.1 (0-30.9) QALYs for all RAAA patients, although non-survivors were included. The preoperative Glasgow Aneurysm Score was an independent predictor of 30-day operative mortality after RAAA, and it also predicted the outcome at 48- hours for initial survivors of repair of RAAA. A high Glasgow Aneurysm Score and high age were associated with low numbers of QALYs to be achieved. Organ dysfunction measured by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at 48 hours after repair of RAAA was the strongest predictor of death. In conclusion surgery of RAAA is a life-saving and cost-effective procedure. The centralisation of vascular emergencies improved the outcome of RAAA patients. The survivors had a good QoL after RAAA. Predictive models can be used on individual level only to provide supplementary information for clinical decision-making due to their moderate discriminatory value. These results support an active operation policy, as there is no reliable measure to predict the outcome after RAAA.