Browsing by Subject "vertaissuhteet"

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  • Mattila, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to describe the factors that influence junior high age young people as they connect with friends and peer groups, especially from the view of a student who is somehow distinct from the group. The term somehow distinct is used to encompass the wide variety of factors that may influence an adolescent who is left to the fringes or totally outside of a peer group. As inclusion and multiculturalism increases in schools it is important to understand adolescent belief and value systems in order to create an atmosphere that is open to diversity and strengthens peer relationships at school. This study examines short essays by young people on the subject of being an outsider to their peer groups and the preconditions and terms of friendships. In addition, what circumstances support or prevent the ability to join a group and form friendships. In past years this topic has been researched from the point of view of the experiences of special needs students and of general adolescent peer relations. (Ellonen, 2008; Hoikkala & Paju 2013; Korkiamäki, 2014; Koster, Nakken , Pijl & van Houten 2009; Saarinen 2012). In this work the angle of approach is the thoughts and feelings that the somehow distinct adolescent brings out in the peers representing the majority of the group and how to support him/her in order to get to join the group and how to strengthen his/her social competence. Methods. For this study, data was collected from two secondary schools. The students were selected from one class at each school and a total of 49 students returned write-ups. Essays were prompted by four questions about what it means to be an outsider, what factors lead to being outside of the group and the conditions for the process of forming peer relations. Student essays were transcribed and sorted by theme. Themes that emerged were then interpreted by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The research highlighted the challenges that diversity poses in adolescent groups. Young people looked for direction from adults and guidance in situations where someone was outside of the group. They also brought forth ideas how the social competence of a young person distinct from the group could be supported. Group dynamics and general social climate in the classroom seemed to influence how diversity was handled. There were subtle differences between boys and girls as far as what components supported and what prevented the forming of peer relations. Girls were especially influenced by outward appearances and favored the opinions of girls high up in the class social hierarchy as to who should be accepted in the group. Boys' ability to form peer relations were supported more by social skills and mutual conversation topics and hobbies.
  • Kaasalainen, Reetta (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    A large body of experimental research indicates that from an early age children are able to engage in compassionate behaviour. However, less focus has been paid on how children's compassionate behaviour is constituted in naturalistic settings. The aim of this study was to investigate what are children's compassionate acts in a natural kindergarten setting and how do children's peer relationships interrelate with these acts. The study is part of the research project "Constituting Cultures of Compassion in Early Childhood Education (CoCuCo)". The theoretical framework of the study is based on the complex concept of compassion and the constitution of children's compassionate behaviour in social contexts. Although human's have a natural tendency to empathy and compassion, the sociocultural context in which people interact has a great influence on whether compassion is nurtured or suppressed. Previous research suggests that as children age their compassionate behaviour changes, which might be due to the increase in children's social understanding. The current study was conducted by observing 30 5-7-year-olds children's interaction in a kindergarten setting. Children's compassionate acts and contextual factors were recorded by using a semi-structured observation form. The data was analysed using qualitative analysis methods. Sociograms compiled by child group's staff were used to define children's peer relationships. The findings of the study showed a wide variation in children's compassionate acts. Acts such as helping and defending a friend were more frequent among children than acts of caring, comforting and inclusion. There was no clear correlation between children's compassionate acts and peer relationships. Children exhibited more compassion towards other peers than close friends but also failed to respond to the need of a non-friend peer more frequently. In addition, children with more reciprocal friendships seemed to engage more in compassionate behavior while at the same time failing to react compassionately to peers' needs more frequently than children with less reciprocal friendships. The findings strengthen the idea of compassion's complex nature and call for broader research on how children's acts of compassion are constituted in naturalistic settings in children's everyday life.
  • Haltsonen, Tytti (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The emotional instability and the risk of being socially excluded are growing all the time among the children and young people. The chances of physical activities improving the quality of life is an interesting and current study, as for a human being the physical activities play a big role in one's psychological well-being, and there is a good chance to prevent children's and young people's social exclusion with sports. This study was purposed to find out what kind of children take part to Helsinki's EasySport -easy access sport clubs. The study is supposed to find out if the EasySport -action is reaching the right children, which are in threat of being socially excluded or are the participating children mainly already having experience in sport clubs and sport as a hobby. I am also analyzing if participating a sport club is improving child's social interaction or if it's bringing more friendships. I also think it's very important to know the children's opinion about how this easy access action differs from a traditional sport club action and physical education at school. The study's theoretical frame of reference forms from the social exclusion and it's prevention as well as the affection of sports in psychological and social development of a person. The sport club action and physical education in relation to easy access sports are also handled in the theory part. The research questions were: What kind of children are participating the EasySport-clubs? Is the EasySport-action reaching the right children to support the prevention of the social exclusion? How do the EasySport-clubs differ from the traditional sport club action? What makes the EasySport an easy access action? Are the EasySport-clubs encouraging children's social development? The target of the research was, therefore, the children participating the Easy Sport -ball clubs. The study was carried out in form interview by visiting eight Easy Sport -ball clubs. A total of 71 children from age 7 to 13 responded to the survey. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study and the data was analyzed using content analysis. Based on the study it became clear that the children participating the EasySport-clubs are mainly boys with immigrant background. The activity supports the integration of immigrants, which is part of the prevention of the exclusion. Ball clubs also develops children's communication skills and the regular participation in the club can improve the children's quality of life and ignite the enthusiasm of exercise. The results of the operation can also be seen as contributing to children's social development and friendships. The children participating the Easy Sport -ball clubs experience the activity meaningful and different from the school sports or sport club activity, because the children have the opportunity to decide what the program includes and the activities are considered more free.
  • Niska, Inka (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of the study was looking into the free playtime of children with special needs in a daycare setting. Children were filmed during a free playtime in a one integrated daycare group. Videos were analyzed by transana by using a BOR-form that observes the interactions between children. There were five main themes that cape up: the meaningfulness of actions, ways of communicating, role of the adult, role of the child with special needs in the group and the effect of the playmates. The play and actions of children with special needs seemed to be meaningful most of the times. There were group play as well as playing alone. The children with special need were divided in to two groups: children who spoke and those who didn't. It was easier for speakers to get in to a group play and maintain the play with others. The play was more complex when played with a friend or a child without special needs. Adults reinforced the actions and worked as an interpreter of children with special needs. It was hard for the children who needed constant help from the adult, to have an influential part in a play. The children with special need were more of the followers than the influencers in a play. Over all the actions and behavior of the children without the special needs seemed to have important influence to the actions and behavior of the children with special needs. The role of the adult were to inforce the communication between the children.
  • Reinsaari, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aikaisempien tutkimusten mukaan lasten vertaissuhdekokemuksilla on vaikutusta heidän psykososiaaliseen hyvinvointiin kauaskantoisesti. Tutkielman tavoitteena oli kartoittaa niitä merkityksiä, joita esikoululaiset itse antavat vertaissuhteille päiväkodissa, lisäksi haluttiin selvittää, millaisia diskursiivisia selontekoja esikoululaisen haastattelussa on tunnistettavissa. Tavoitteena oli tuoda esiin aiemmin tutkimatonta lapsinäkökulmaista diskurssianalyyttistä tutkimusta puheviestinnän tieteenalalle. Tutkielmaan haastateltiin 20 esikoululaista päiväkodissa. Pääanalyysimenetelmänä käytettiin diskurssianalyysiä ja merkitysten tunnistamiseen käytettiin aineistolähtöistä sisällönanalyysiä. Tutkielman teoreettisena viitekehyksenä oli sosiaalinen konstruktionismi. Analyysissä esikoululaisten vertaissuhteissa toimimista jäsentävät merkitykset, liittyminen, oleminen ja säätely, jaettiin kolmeen merkityksenantopariin: Osallistuminen–ulkopuolisuus tarkasteli vertaissuhteisiin liittymistä, sitoutuminen–vetäytyminen kuvasi vertaissuhteissa olemisen intensiteettiä ja institutionaalisuus–itsesäätely tarkasteli vertaissuhteiden leikkitoiminnassa tapahtuvaa säätelyä. Tulosten perusteella voidaan todeta, että esikoululaiset arvostavat vertaissuhteissa eniten leikkitoiminnan rakentumiseen ja jatkuvuuteen liittyvää ymmärrystä osana joustavia leikkitaitoja. Tilallisuudella on merkitystä vertaissuhteisiin liittymisessä ja niiden toimintaan sitoutumisessa. Liittymisen ja olemisen säätelyllä jäsennetään vertaissuhteissa toimijuutta, suojelua ja kontrollia. Tutkimukset osoittavat, että esikoululaisen haastattelussa vallitsee kaksi jännitteistä diskursiivista selontekoa, välttely ja asiantuntijuus, jotka haastatteluvuorovaikutuksessa rakentavat esikoululaisen tutkimustietoa peitellen, sulkien ja aukaisten. Haastattelussa käydään myös jatkuvaa eettistä neuvottelua vuorovaikutukseen suostumisesta haastattelun konventioissa. Tuloksia voidaan hyödyntää esiopetusryhmien leikkitoiminnan suunnitteluun ja kehittämiseen sekä lasten tiedon tuottamisen ja kohtaamisen konteksteihin. Tuloksia sovellettaessa on huomioitava esitettyjen tutkimustulosten jaettu yhteinen tulkinta sosiaalisessa todellisuudessa. Jatkotutkimuksiin ehdotetaan tutkimusaiheiden eriyttämistä toisistaan.
  • Ahlberg, Anssi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Nuoruus on henkisen ja fyysisen kehityksen kannalta hektistä aikaa. Ulkoiset paineet sekä persoonallisuuden ja ajattelun kehitys yhdessä ruumiillisten muutosten kanssa aiheuttavat hämmennystä ja epätietoisuutta. Siksi turvallinen, sosiaalisen kiinnittymisen mahdollistava kasvuympäristö toimivine vertaissuhteineen on tärkeä selkänoja, josta nuori saa tukea myllerrysten keskellä. Valitettavan monilla kasvuympäristö häiriintyy ja tuen sijaan nuori voi joutua kiusatuksi. Pitkään jatkuva kiusaaminen tukahduttaa sosiaalisen kasvuympäristön positiiviset elementit ja aiheuttaa vakavan kehityksellisen riskin, joka voi jättää jälkensä pitkälle aikuisuuteen. Koulukiusaaminen ei ole vain marginaalinen ilmiö. Vuoden 2019 kouluterveyskyselyn mukaan 5,5 prosenttia peruskoulun 8.- ja 9.-luokkalaisista kokee joutuvan viikoittaisen kiusaamisen kohteeksi. Vuoden 2018 oppilasmäärien perusteella osuus tarkoittaa lähes 6 600 oppilasta. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on tuottaa lisätietoa koulukiusaamisen ja nuorten harrastusten yhteydestä. Tarkemmin tutkielmassa selvitetään kiusaamisen vaikutusta eri harrastusvalintoihin sekä kiusaamista suhteessa muihin harrastamiseen vaikuttavia tekijöihin. Tuloksista toivotaan olevan hyötyä lasten ja nuorten hyvinvointia, terveyttä ja palvelujen saantia kokonaisvaltaisesti edistävissä kehityshankkeissa ja niihin liittyvässä päätöksenteossa. Tämän tutkielman aineistona on käytetty Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitoksen keräämää vuoden 2017 kouluterveyskyselyn 8. ja 9. luokkien oppilaiden Helsingin otosta (N=5125). Kiusattujen sijoittumista sukupuolittain eri harrastusryhmiin tarkasteltiin ristiintaulukoimalla. Kiusatuksi joutumisen lisäämää riskiä sijoittua eri harrastusryhmiin sekä suhdetta muihin harrastuksiin vaikuttaviin tekijöihin tarkasteltiin binäärisellä logistisella regressioanalyysilla. Tehdyt analyysit osoittivat kiusatuksi tulemisen vaikutusten harrastuksiin olevan sukupuolittuneita. Kiusatuilla pojilla viikoittaisen harrastuksen puuttuminen oli yleisempää kuin muilla pojilla. Kiusatuilla tytöillä viikoittainen harrastaminen sen sijaan oli yleisempää kuin muilla tytöillä. Kiusaamisen vaikutus harrastuksiin vaihteli harrastusryhmittäin. Kiusatuksi tulleilla oli muita isompi riski viikoittaiseen kuvataide- tai käsityöharrastukseen, seura- tai järjestötoimintaan osallistumiseen tai ilmaisutaidolliseen harrastukseen. Sen sijaan kiusatuksi joutuminen lisäsi riskiä jäädä viikoittaisen liikuntaharrastuksen ulkopuolelle. Kiusatuksi joutuminen vähensi kokonaisuudessa harrastamista melko vähän. Jatkotutkimuksen kannalta olisi tärkeää pohtia syitä sille, miksi kiusatuilla on muita suurempi riski jäädä juuri liikuntaharrastuksen ulkopuolelle. Aikaisemmasta tutkimuksesta huomattiin, että kiusaamisen vaikutukset jatkuvat pitkälle aikuisuuteen. Tästä syystä on erittäin tärkeää, että kiusatulle on tarjolla riittävästi tukea ja että kiusaamisen uhrien jälkihoidon jatkuvuus on turvattu riittävän pitkäksi aikaa. Oppilaitosten opiskeluhuoltotyön ja sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon palveluiden yhteistyöllä on suuri rooli välitöntä apua tarjotessa sekä varmistettaessa, että tuki tarvittaessa jatkuu kiusatun oppivelvollisuuden päätyttyä perusopetuksen jälkeen.
  • Zukale, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The underlying and starting point of this thesis is the idea of the importance, appreciation and self-esteem of girls. The study's research task is to make the girls' perception of themselves visible in the contexts of the school, Icehearts afternoon activities and art projects. The focus is on girls' own selves, but also on the girls' perception of themselves as girls, what is it like to be a girl in everyday social communities. The theoretical background of the study deals with peer relationships, gender and peer relationships, self, self-esteem, art-based working methods in research and in work with children and young people. The study also includes girls and girls' history, as well as gender roles, especially in school. Methods. Six fifth-grade girls from the Icehearts girls' team, founded in Vantaa, participated in the study. The study went together with the art project with the girls. The research material was collected through observations, survey forms and group interviews. The written material has been interpreted as narratives. Some of the answers are also shown in the graphs, and the results of the group interviews in the form of a mind map. Results and Conclusions. Narrative research does not aim at objective or generalizable knowledge, but it aims to produce local, subjective and personal information. Girls' evaluations of themselves are presented separately for each girl in their own chapters. Based on girls' replies, friends and Icehearts appeared to be important to them. The way the contexts of this research, school, Icehearts and art project, effect on the girls' selfs cannot be precisely specified. According to studies, the self is still changing during adolescence. This can be seen also in this study: selfs turned out to be variable and contextual.Girls' perceptions of themselves as girls are put together in mind maps. The girls in this study made a clear distinction between girls' and boys' behavior, "being". The traditional roles of a boy and a girl were present at least on one level. Being a girl was, however, seen very positively. The girls didn't think being a girl would cause limitations in their future lives.
  • Sneck, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Attachment theory is a theory of social development and personality, known around the world. According to the theory, children have an innate tendency to develop a biologically based and central nervous system-regulated attachment bond to their primary caregivers in order to ensure safety, care, and survival. Early attachment experiences contribute to the way one sees oneself and others and lead to secure, insecure, or disorganized attachment styles, which affect rest of one’s life. Previous research has confirmed the universal nature of attachment, different attachment categories and styles, and early attachment’s links with future relationships and various internal and external problems. Attachment research has traditionally concentrated on early childhood and early childhood environments, whereas middle childhood, adolescence, and school context have been studied less. The objectives of the present study were to find out what kinds of links there are between attachment and the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, what kinds of attachment-related challenges teachers encounter at school, and how teachers could support their students with those attachment-related challenges. The aim is to explore attachment in the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including at school, to gain a better understanding and to create a valuable foundation for future research. Methodology. The present study was conducted as a systematic literature review, which allowed the gathering of diverse and comprehensive, yet relevant research material, while also supporting objectivity and reproducibility aspects of the study. The material, available through electronic databases, was comprised of research articles from around the world, published in peer-reviewed international research journals. The material was analyzed thematically by research questions and topics, which were then used as a framework in the Results section. Results and conclusions. Early attachment and attachment styles were directly and indirectly linked to the lives of school-aged children and youngsters, including teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, family relationships, and academic achievement, as well as internal and external problems. Various attachment-related challenges and problems were visible at school, but teachers had many ways to buffer them. Current attachment research has not affected or changed school environments enough. Much more attention should be given to attachment within schools, teacher education, and in-service training programs in order to give students better support for their attachment-related problems and challenges.
  • Sallamaa, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to examine sixth graders’ perceptions of economic inequality and its different forms in children’s everyday life. Furthermore, the aim is to gain an understanding of children’s agency in relation to economic inequality. Only a few Finnish studies consider the issue from a child’s viewpoint, namely the studies of Hakovirta and Rantalaiho (2011, 2012), Hakovirta and Kallio (2014) and reports conducted by the organizations Mannerheim League for Child Welfare (2010) and Save the Children (2015). More research has been done in Sweden (e.g. Olsson, 2007; Harju, 2008), Great Britain (e.g. Ridge, 2002) and the United States (e.g. Pugh, 2009). Economic inequality has increased in Finland over the past three decades and since it can affect the population in several ways, for instance through unequal distribution of health and education, children’s points of view in relation to the issue should not be disregarded. Methods. The material for this thesis was obtained through 29 empathy-based stories and 9 focused interviews conducted in two sixth grades in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. The study was conducted in the frameworks of childhood studies and phenomenography. Both narrative and thematic strategies were applied in the process of analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the sixth graders, economic inequality is connected to children’s everyday life through consumption and peer relationships. Challenges in consumption caused by deprivation could have a negative effect on peer relationships and result in discrimination and feelings of shame. Children understood economic inequality mainly through outward appearances, like clothing and other materia. It was more challenging for the participants to consider the effects on inward characteristics, such as mood and behavior followed by it. The sixth graders believed that children can endeavor to better situations of economic inequality by saving money, helping a friend economically and showing support to people who suffer of deprivation. In the end, however, relationships with friends and family were seen as the most important buffer against economic inequality. Children’s conceptions of inequality as a social issue varied: some believed it is an unfair phenomenon which divides people, while others saw it as a normal part of society. As economic inequality seems to appear and have a profound effect in children’s lives, awareness of the issue should be raised. Adults working with children should also be able to recognize the issue, the complexities behind it and discuss it with children.
  • Männistö, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to describe difficulties in kids self-regulation and define multiple things that cause it in day care interaction situations. The research questions are 1. How difficulties in self-regulation appear in interaction, 2. What are the causes that effect to self-regulation, and 3. What pedagogical methods are applied concerning self-regulation in day care groups in this research. Stress is closely related with self-regulation. When faced with a stimulus, people become alerted. That elevates stress level and calls for self regulation. Self-regulation is considered as dependent on circumstances and interaction. Difficulties in self-regulation often coexist with difficulties in peer relations. People have inborn abilities to regulate emotions and behavior, but self-regulation skills are also learned in interaction with others. Human is considered to be pro-social by birth, and to be favoring helping others. Interventions concerning self-regulation has been developed, to enhance pedagogical sensitivity among day care teachers. Pedagogical sensitivity reduces stress and helps children to self-regulate. Two day care groups from Helsinki participated in this research. Research groups had children with special needs integrated. The data was collected by videotaping and observing the interaction in normal daily activities in spring 2015, two days in a row. Interesting clips were chosen from the videotapes to be shown to day care teachers together with the interviews. In interviews, the teachers commented about the situations from the videoclips and answered open questions about self-regulation. Observations from the videotapes and transcribed interviews were analyzed according to methods of qualitative content analysis. According to research findings, difficulties in self-regulation appear in interaction with unique ways. Children seem to have their own individual ways to react in face of a stress and in need of self-regulation. Difficulties in self-regulation appeared in behavior merely described with three concepts: ”fight, flee or freeze”. Difficulties were either active and extraverted, or passive and introverted. The causes that effect self-regulation in this research were distinctive and dependent on the situation. Children had very different abilities to face day care interaction situations. Self-regulation was effected with multiple, also random causes, and because of that self-regulation cannot be seen linear from its causes and effects. Causes were classified as 1. abilities to regulate, 2. causes that strain and challenging interaction situations. These three causes can be found in all research situations that had self-regulation difficulties. Adult support, well-planned, structured day care environment and customs, that have been formed together, were the main causes that supported self-regulation in this research. In research day care groups self-regulation difficulties were prevented in many ways. Teachers had good knowledge and know-how about self-regulation. To support development of self-regulation in wider perspective knowledge should be increased. Children should have opportunities to train their self-regulation skills in their natural interaction situations, for example, with adult supported play, and interventions that enhance emotion-regulation and interaction skills.
  • Terho, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of this thesis is illustrate, analyse and construe how children think about their own actions when their strive for playing together with peer have been rejected. This thesis find out associations between action strategies both age and gender. The associations between action strategies and child-specific evaluation made by kindergarten teachers are also subject of the review. There are only few previous research of children's own thoughts about their actions in rejection situations altough injurious impacts of rejection and signification of positive peer relationships is known a lot. The aim of this study is add knowledge about thoughts of rejection in equal peer relationships by children under school age and stimulate conversation of how to prevent rejection and what good peer relationships significance to every children. The data used in this thesis is part of the large and international "Orientaatio projekti" research project material. The data has been collected in 2010 from different kinds of day care centres and 8 Councils of Central Uusimaa. The material has been collected by interviewing children and having the teachers evaluate the children's different skills on a five point scale. There was total 411 answers by children the age of 1-7. This thesis was a mixed methods research where qualitative research was complemented by quantitative data and quantitative analysis methods. Research results were obtained by data-driven content analysis, cross tabulation, Chi-Square- and Cramer's V tests. The SPSS software was used resource of analysis. According to this thesis most popular action strategy was adaptive (48,8%). Other action strategies in rejection situations were retiring (15,8%), resourting to adults (7,1%), interactive (9%), emotional (2,6%), dominant (4,5%) and uncertain (5,6%). The eight category was composed of the non-respondents (4,1%). The impact of gender was slight. Only resourting to adults were considerably more common in girls. The association of age was statistically significant between adaptive, retiring, uncertain and non-respondents. Several claims in child-specific evaluation and action strategies based on children's answers has statistically significant association. However there was no association between categories and claims that directly descriptive them. According to this children's own estimates doesn't correspond to kindergarten teachers' evaluation of children's abilities. Based on the results children should be supported in the development of social skills whereupon interactive action strategy become more common. In this way experiences of continual rejection stay more likely occasional.
  • Viitikko, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In this thesis, I want to raise awareness, visibility and the importance of R & T play. About R & T play, I discuss in more detail in following aspects; R & T play or aggression, boys' and girls' R & T play and the benefits of R & T play. In addition, I deal briefly with peer relationships and a sense of community. My research questions have been formed on researchers' studies and based on my own experiences. My thesis theoretical framework is a socio-constructivist view of learning, including learning community, as well as building of knowledge sharing and processing it with others. The research questions are: what types of situations R & T play get started? What is the structure of R & T play in different situations? How R & T play, rampage and aggressiveness differ? The theoretical part is composed on the basis of written R & T play research articles. There is no research articles about R & T play in Finnish language. In my research I videotaped twelve, one integrated special group, 4 to 5 year old children's play situations. Research material consisted of video episodes that had a total of 38. Research material I collected in late autumn 2014 and spring 2015. Total video material was 253.91 minutes. About 10 Video-file episodes I did content logs. Content logs I described of molecular- and the molar level. Molar level I analyzed about the script point of view. It is important to allow children's play in different situations and locations. Fun mode has a big impact on what kind of play is chosen and how it is formed. State attracts a certain kind of play and thus the direction of children's ideas of play. Playing is vital and all forms of play, also R & T play, produces joy to children and strengthen their social skills. With the help of the video-episodes, I tried to show that also R & T play is important. However, R & T play is only a tiny part of the whole play-flame. I think adults need "RTP-eyeglasses", see R & T play first and second, allow it. Children with special needs, challenge and / or puzzles play skills, are unable mutual R & T play. There are needed a good playing skills to RTP.
  • Häkkinen, Piia (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out how Mind UpTM -curriculum effects to the children's development in the early childhood education. This study is the part of the Pieni Oppiva Mieli – research project in the University of Helsinki. Program executes Mind UpTM curriculum, which develops children's relaxing, concentration and emotional regulation in the Finnish early childhood education. The focus in this study was to find out how Pieni Oppiva Mieli –intervention (POM) effects to emotional control, social confidence and prosocial skills in the peer relations. According to former studies prosocial behaviour among each other is children's congenetial feature. The peer relations are formed in a quite early phase in the toddlerhood and the lack of social skills might lead to a risk of social rejection. Exercises where children relax and adjust their behaviour together in the peer group effects to the stress regulation, social emotional skills and school achievements in the school age. Methods: The study was conducted in autumn 2015. There were 463 children from three to seven years of age from 30 kindergarten groups taking part in the study in the Helsinki capital area. Children were divided into intervention groups (N=387) and to control groups (N=76). In the interventions groups the execution of the Mind UpTM curriculum was a daily routine for 30 weeks. Core in the curriculum were POM -exercises (brain brakes) three times per day where children were learning relaxation, concentration and recognition of their body sensations. The study data was gathered from KTA scale, which is based on the international Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale -method of evaluation of the strengths. The data was analyzed with repeated measures variance analysis and with non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test (SPSS version 23). Results and conclusions: The result of the study indicates that Pieni Oppiva Mieli –intervention has positive effects to the children's emotion regulation skills. Non-parametric analysis noted effects of intervention also in social confidence and prosocial development. Review of the background variable in the whole data demonstrates that teachers estimated more strengths to girls than the boys in the emotion control and behavioural skills. Children with special needs have fewer strengths in all parts of the evaluation than other peers. It is important in the early childhood education to support children's emotional regulation and prosocial development and via that way prevent negative group phenomenon like bullying and social exclusion in the peer group.
  • Rautakoski, Marjaana (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of the present study was to determine agency and practices of pre-school aged children in peer conflict situations. Furthermore, based on the children's experiences, adults' practice was studied in peer conflict situations of children as well as the relationship between children and the personnel of day care center. Thus this study is a qualitative research with child perspective and features of narrative research. Previous research shows that children solve conflicts in different ways, and interestingly, conflict situations do not necessarily appear especially negative to children. According to general understanding in the childhood studies, children are able to affect their environment as competent social actors. The agency involves both the activity and the opportunity to participate and influence. In the context of day care centers, pedagogical skills of the adults are essential and as previous studies confirm, such skills are required to guide children in conflict situations. The research data consists of the material collected from narrative interviews made with ten pre-school aged children (5 girls and 5 boys) and the observation diary of the researcher. All children were in the same pre-school group and the data was gathered in the spring of 2016. Narrative analysis methods and elements of the British discourse analysis were utilized in data analysis. The present study shows that children resolve their peer disputes in various ways. Moreover, children have an active role in play and conflict situations especially when adults are not present. Actually, in children's descriptions adults are far from children although the adults are of importance in resolving conflicts. Based on this research, pedagogical skills and adults' presence in the children's play activities should be in focus in early childhood education. The supporting of children's agency and skills is possible, if the adults of day care centers are more present to children, acknowledge the power relationship between children and adults and understand the importance of pedagogical competence. The results suggest that the quality of early childhood education is associated with the interaction between adults and children.
  • Heikkilä, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study has been started with my observation in the early childhood education where I have worked as a kindergarten teacher in a group of children aged 1-3 years. I have noticed often how different the toddlers are and how important it is for a toddler to be with other children. I have been amazed how good the toddlers are in their interaction even if they have smaller vocabulary than older children. The aim of the study is to explain and understand the interaction between toddlers in the context of the early childhood education. Additionally, the aim of the study is to find out how the temperament of toddlers is seen in the peer relationships. In this mixed methods case study, the source material consists of video and temperament material from ten toddlers. Parents evaluated the temperament of their toddler by using the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire. The material is collected from two groups of children aged 1 to 4 who represent two municipal kindergartens in the metropolitan area. The research material has been collected as part of the Toddler Research in LASSO research project at the University of Helsinki. 33 separate interaction episodes were identified in the video material and classified according to different play modes. 23 episodes included play. The statistical IBM SPSS Statistics 24 was used for quantitative temperament analysis. Various variables describing different temperament characteristics were generated from the matrix obtained from the temperament questionnaires, calculated from the child-specific and mean matrix mean values. In the kindergarten the interaction between toddlers appeared mostly as playful interaction during the free activities of the day. In addition to the play, the peer interaction of toddlers emerged in those situations where a child watched other children's play from a site or where he/she was interacting with another child, by gaze and / or by speech. Toddlers made a lot of initiatives for the each other to start an interaction. The initiatives were for example touch, transition beside a friend and start to run. The temperament of the toddler was seen in the interaction between toddlers. The emergence of different temperaments in peer interaction shows that children's peer interaction is influenced by the temperament of the child alongside linguistic and cognitive factors. Early education teachers would benefit from the study of temperamental knowledge in order to distinguish the child's temperament from her cognitive ability.
  • Salminen, Essi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The object of this study was to examine how children described being disturbed and how much it included bullying. Second, how much participation and unclear orientations were differing from each other when it comes to disturbing situations in day care. Third, they wanted to find associations between children's age and disturbing orientations in this study. The aim of this study is that day care educators could become more aware, understanding and responsive to disturbing behaviour and exercise of power between children. The study was based on a large and international Early Childhood Education research and development project, called Source of Orientation. The data was collected in spring 2010 from different kinds of day care centres and 8 Councils of Eastern-Uusimaa and Hämeenlinna. There were 816 children who took part the project. The data was collected in multi-methodical methods: children's interview, observation and learning environment assessment. The data was mainly used as quantitative data in the project in this study. The qualitative data was based on children's agentive perception created by Jyrki Reunamo (2007b) from Helsinki University. According to the results, most of the children orientated participate when they became disturbed. Also, they understood that disturbing behaviour included bullying. That showed that bullying and disturbing were the same thing for the children. In addition, the study showed individual and developmental differences between children in daily situations in day care. It seemed that the youngest children (2-3 years old) orientated more unclearly than the oldest ones. The oldest children (4-7 years old) orientated participate more often. On the other hand, different kind of disturbing orientations were found in every age group. That indicated that disturbing orientations were not only based on age, but also for example individual settings. In conclusion, strong educators are needed with pedagogical views for young children in peer groups dealing with deterrents, interferences, and disturbing situations. Children orientating in disturbing situations highlighted the importance of child observation, especially when it comes to withdrawn and unclear orientated children.