Browsing by Subject "vesi"

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  • Marttunen, Mika; Mustajoki, Jyri; Sojamo, Suvi; Ahopelto, Lauri; Keskinen, Marko (MDPI, 2019)
    Sustainability 2019, 11, 2900
    Water security demands guaranteeing economic, social and environmental sustainability and simultaneously addressing the diversity of risks and threats related to water. Various frameworks have been suggested to support water security assessment. They are typically based on indexes enabling national comparisons; these may, however, oversimplify complex and often contested water issues. We developed a structured and systemic way to assess water security and its future trends via a participatory process. The framework establishes a criteria hierarchy for water security, consisting of four main themes: the state of the water environment; human health and well-being; the sustainability of livelihoods; and the stability, functions and responsibility of society. The framework further enables the analysis of relationships between the water security criteria as well as between water, energy and food security. The framework was applied to a national water security assessment of Finland in 2018 and 2030. Our experience indicates that using the framework collaboratively with stakeholders provides a meaningful way to improve understanding and to facilitate discussion about the state of water security and the actions needed for its improvement.
  • Teurlincx, Sven; van Wijk, Dianneke; Mooij, Wolf M.; Kuiper, Jan J.; Huttunen, Inese; Brederveld, Robert J.; Chang, Manqi; Janse, Jan H.; Woodward, Ben; Hu, Fenjuan; Janssen, Annette BG (Elsevier, 2019)
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019), pages 21-29
    Food production for a growing world population relies on application of fertilisers and pesticides on agricultural lands. However, these substances threaten surface water quality and thereby endanger valued ecosystem services such as drinking water supply, food production and recreational water use. Such deleterious effects do not merely arise on the local scale, but also on the regional scale through transport of substances as well as energy and biota across the catchment. Here we argue that aquatic ecosystem models can provide a process-based understanding of how these transports by water and organisms as vectors affect – and are affected by – ecosystem state and functioning in networks of connected lakes. Such a catchment scale approach is key to setting critical limits for the release of substances by agricultural practices and other human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Thereby, water and food production and the trade-offs between them may be managed more sustainably.
  • Bhattacharjee, Joy; Rabbil, Mehedi; Fazel, Nasim; Darabi, Hamid; Choubin, Bahram; Khan, Md. Motiur Rahman; Marttila, Hannu; Haghighi, Ali Torabi (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of the Total Environment 797 (2021), 149034
    Lake water level fluctuation is a function of hydro-meteorological components, namely input, and output to the system. The combination of these components from in-situ and remote sensing sources has been used in this study to define multiple scenarios, which are the major explanatory pathways to assess lake water levels. The goal is to analyze each scenario through the application of the water balance equation to simulate lake water levels. The largest lake in Iran, Lake Urmia, has been selected in this study as it needs a great deal of attention in terms of water management issues. We ran a monthly water balance simulation of nineteen scenarios for Lake Urmia from 2003 to 2007 by applying different combinations of data, including observed and remotely sensed water level, flow, evaporation, and rainfall. We used readily available water level data from Hydrosat, Hydroweb, and DAHITI platforms; evapotranspiration from MODIS and rainfall from TRMM. The analysis suggests that the consideration of field data in the algorithm as the initial water level can reproduce the fluctuation of Lake Urmia water level in the best way. The scenario that combines in-situ meteorological components is the closest match to the observed water level of Lake Urmia. Almost all scenarios showed good dynamics with the field water level, but we found that nine out of nineteen scenarios did not vary significantly in terms of dynamics. The results also reveal that, even without any field data, the proposed scenario, which consists entirely of remote sensing components, is capable of estimating water level fluctuation in a lake. The analysis also explains the necessity of using proper data sources to act on water regulations and managerial decisions to understand the temporal phenomenon not only for Lake Urmia but also for other lakes in semi-arid regions.
  • Blackman, Rosetta C.; Mächler, Elvira; Altermatt, Florian; Arnold, Amanda; Beja, Pedro; Boets, Pieter; Egeter, Bastian; Elbrecht, Vasco; Filipe, Ana Filipa; Jones, J. Iwan; Macher, Jan; Majaneva, Markus; Martins, Filipa M. S.; Múrria, Cesc; Meissner, Kris (Pensoft, 2019)
    Metabarcoding and Metagenomics 3: e34735
    Over the last decade, steady advancements have been made in the use of DNA-based methods for detection of species in a wide range of ecosystems. This progress has culminated in molecular monitoring methods being employed for the detection of several species for enforceable management purposes of endangered, invasive, and illegally harvested species worldwide. However, the routine application of DNA-based methods to monitor whole communities (typically a metabarcoding approach) in order to assess the status of ecosystems continues to be limited. In aquatic ecosystems, the limited use is particularly true for macroinvertebrate communities. As part of the DNAqua-Net consortium, a structured discussion was initiated with the aim to identify potential molecular methods for freshwater macroinvertebrate community assessment and identify important knowledge gaps for their routine application. We focus on three complementary DNA sources that can be metabarcoded: 1) DNA from homogenised samples (bulk DNA), 2) DNA extracted from sample preservative (fixative DNA), and 3) environmental DNA (eDNA) from water or sediment. We provide a brief overview of metabarcoding macroinvertebrate communities from each DNA source and identify challenges for their application to routine monitoring. To advance the utilisation of DNA-based monitoring for macroinvertebrates, we propose an experimental design template for a series of methodological calibration tests. The template compares sources of DNA with the goal of identifying the effects of molecular processing steps on precision and accuracy. Furthermore, the same samples will be morphologically analysed, which will enable the benchmarking of molecular to traditional processing approaches. In doing so we hope to highlight pathways for the development of DNA-based methods for the monitoring of freshwater macroinvertebrates.
  • Kareinen, Timo; Nissinen, Ari; Ilvesniemi, Hannu (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1998)
    In this study we analyze how the ion concentrations in forest soil solution are determined by hydrological and biogeochemical processes. A dynamic model ACIDIC was developed, including processes common to dynamic soil acidification models. The model treats up to eight interacting layers and simulates soil hydrology, transpiration, root water and nutrient uptake, cation exchange, dissolution and reactions of Al hydroxides in solution, and the formation of carbonic acid and its dissociation products. It includes also a possibility to a simultaneous use of preferential and matrix flow paths, enabling the throughfall water to enter the deeper soil layers in macropores without first reacting with the upper layers. Three different combinations of routing the throughfall water via macro- and micropores through the soil profile is presented. The large vertical gradient in the observed total charge was simulated succesfully. According to the simulations, gradient is mostly caused by differences in the intensity of water uptake, sulfate adsorption and organic anion retention at the various depths. The temporal variations in Ca and Mg concentrations were simulated fairly well in all soil layers. For H+, Al and K there were much more variation in the observed than in the simulated concentrations. Flow in macropores is a possible explanation for the apparent disequilibrium of the cation exchange for H+ and K, as the solution H+ and K concentrations have great vertical gradients in soil. The amount of exchangeable H+ increased in the O and E horizons and decreased in the Bs1 and Bs2 horizons, the net change in whole soil profile being a decrease. A large part of the decrease of the exchangeable H+ in the illuvial B horizon was caused by sulfate adsorption. The model produces soil water amounts and solution ion concentrations which are comparable to the measured values, and it can be used in both hydrological and chemical studies of soils.
  • Kahiluoto, Joonas; Hirvonen, Jukka; Näykki, Teemu (Springer, 2019)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191, 259 (2019)
    Continuous sensor measurements are becoming an important tool in environmental monitoring. However, the reliability of field measurements is still too often unknown, evaluated only through comparisons with laboratory methods or based on sometimes unrealistic information from the measuring device manufacturers. A water turbidity measurement system with automatic reference sample measurement and measurement uncertainty estimation was constructed and operated in laboratory conditions to test an approach that utilizes validation and quality control data for automatic measurement uncertainty estimation. Using validation and quality control data for measurement uncertainty estimation is a common practice in laboratories and, if applied to field measurements, could be a way to enhance the usability of field sensor measurements. The measurement system investigated performed replicate measurements of turbidity in river water and measured synthetic turbidity reference solutions at given intervals during the testing period. Measurement uncertainties were calculated for the results using AutoMUkit software and uncertainties were attached to appropriate results. The measurement results correlated well (R2 = 0.99) with laboratory results and the calculated measurement uncertainties were 0.8–2.1 formazin nephelometric units (FNU) (k = 2) for 1.2–5 FNU range and 11–27% (k = 2) for 5–40 FNU range. The measurement uncertainty estimation settings (such as measurement range selected and a number of replicates) provided by the user have a significant effect on the calculated measurement uncertainties. More research is needed especially on finding suitable measurement uncertainty estimation intervals for different field conditions. The approach presented is also applicable for other online measurements besides turbidity within limits set by available measurement devices and stable reference solutions. Potentially interesting areas of application could be the measurement of conductivity, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total organic carbon (TOC), or metals.
  • Kahru, Mati; Bittig, Henry; Elmgren, Ragnar; Fleming, Vivi; Lee, Zhongping; Rehder, Gregor (Inter-Research Science Center, 2022)
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Water transparency can be measured with optical instruments and estimated with satellite sensors, but such measurements have been widely available for only a few decades. Estimates of water transparency using a white disk called a Secchi disk have been made for over a century and can be used to estimate long-term trends. However, historic in situ measurements of the Secchi depth (ZSd) were irregular in space and time and are difficult to interpret in regular time series due to biases introduced by changing locations and the timing of measurements. Satellite data time series, on the other hand, have consistent resolution in both space and time but cover too short a time to resolve climate-scale trends. We normalized historic ZSd measurements in the Baltic Sea with a satellite-derived mean climatology at 5 d temporal and 4 km spatial resolutions and created a merged time series of ZSd for the last century. The mean ZSd in the Baltic Sea from 1927-2020 decreased by 4.2 +/- 0.6 m at a rate of 0.045 +/- 0.06 m yr-1. Most of the change happened before 1987, and a further decrease was evident primarily in the satellite data during the 1998-2008 period. After 2008, no significant trend in ZSd and or the coefficient of diffuse light attenuation was detected in the Baltic Sea. However, in some sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the decrease in ZSd continued even after that. The decrease in spectral water transparency in recent decades was highest in the 412 nm band, indicating an increase in the concentration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter.
  • Mori, Tatsuhiro; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Kondo, Yutaka; Ogawa-Tsukagawa, Yoshimi; Miura, Kazuhiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Oshima, Naga; Koike, Makoto; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Ohata, Sho; Sinha, P.R.; Sugiura, Konosuke; Aoki, Teruo; Schneebeli, Martin; Steffen, Konrad; Sato, Atsushi; Tsushima, Akane; Makarov, Vladimir; Omiya, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Takano, Shinya; Nagatsuka, Naoko (Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Journal of Geophysical Research : Atmospheres
    Black carbon (BC) deposited on snow lowers its albedo, potentially contributing to warming in the Arctic. Atmospheric distributions of BC and inorganic aerosols, which contribute directly and indirectly to radiative forcing, are also greatly influenced by depositions. To quantify these effects, accurate measurement of the spatial distributions of BC and ionic species representative of inorganic aerosols (ionic species hereafter) in snowpack in various regions of the Arctic is needed, but few such measurements are available. We measured mass concentrations of size-resolved BC (CMBC) and ionic species in snowpack by using a single-particle soot photometer and ion chromatography, respectively, over Finland, Alaska, Siberia, Greenland, and Spitsbergen during early spring in 2012–2016. Total BC mass deposited per unit area (DEPMBC) during snow accumulation periods was derived from CMBC and snow water equivalent (SWE). Our analyses showed that the spatial distributions of anthropogenic BC emission flux, total precipitable water, and topography strongly influenced latitudinal variations of CMBC, BC size distributions, SWE, and DEPMBC. The average size distributions of BC in Arctic snowpack shifted to smaller sizes with decreasing CMBC due to an increase in the removal efficiency of larger BC particles during transport from major sources. Our measurements of CMBC were lower by a factor of ~13 than previous measurements made with an Integrating Sphere/Integrating Sandwich spectrophotometer due mainly to interference from coexisting non-BC particles such as mineral dust. The SP2 data presented here will be useful for constraining climate models that estimate the effects of BC on the Arctic climate.
  • Rainio, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan roomalaisen kirjailijan, Gaius Plinius Secunduksen (Plinius vanhempi), kirjoittamaa 37-osaista ensyklopediaa nimeltä Naturalis Historia. Tutkielman materiaalina on käytetty teoksen toista kirjaa, joka käsittelee kosmologiaa ja maailmankaikkeutta, ja sieltä on poimittu runsaasti esimerkkitekstejä. Tekstit käsittelevät maailmaa yleisesti, auringon- ja kuunpimennyksiä, tuulia, maanjäristyksiä, tuliperäisiä alueita, tulia ja niihin liittyviä välillisiä ilmiöitä. Jokaisen luonnonilmiön kohdalla on myös selvitetty, minkälaisia antiikin ajan enteitä ja uskomuksia niihin liittyy. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää Plinius vanhemman käsityksiä maasta, maapallosta, sen muodosta ja sijainnista universumissa. Tavoitteena on myös analysoida, minkälaisina tapahtumina Plinius vanhempi tulkitsee erilaiset luonnonilmiöt ja millä argumenteilla hän kuvailee näiden ilmiöitten syntymistä. Tutkielmassa sivutaan myös käsitteitä “jumaluus” ja “äitimaa”, ja näiden ihmisille tarjoamia hyötyjä ja haittoja. Moraalifilosifan kannalta on otettu mukaan käsitteet avaritia ja luxuria, joiden osalta Plinius arvioi kriittisesti ihmiskuntaa ja sen toimintaa. Pliniukselta valitun tutkimusmateriaalin perusteella on tehty joitain yleistyksiä. Auringon ja kuun toiminnat maapallon eri ilmiöitä ohjaavina voimina on kiistatonta Pliniuksen antamien esimerkkien perusteella. Naturalis Historian kansantajuinen esittämistapansa vähentää luonnonilmiöihin liittyvää taikauskoa, ja syntyvien enteiden tulkinta ei aina pääty siihen, että enteet olisivat pahoja. Käsitteiden avaritia ja luxuria pohdinta luovat terveen moraalisen käsityksen ihmiskunnan omasta toiminnasta luontoäidin ihmisille tarjoamista lahjoista. Plinius tulkitsee maailman koostuvan kahdesta päätekijästä, jotka ovat terra ja caelum. Näihin sisältyvät käsitteet luonto ja jumala. Kyse on näiden keskinäisestä vuorovaikutuksesta ja tasapainosta. Vuorovedet ovat kuun aikaansaamia ilmiöitä, jotka yhdessä auringon ja kuun kanssa luovat maailmaan aikasidonnaisen ja säännöllisen kiertokulun. Käsitys maailmasta suljettuna tilana tulee esiin maanjäristysten ja tuulien kohdalla, mutta Pliniuksen tietämättömyys luonnonilmiöiden todellisista syntymekanismeista on silmiinpistävää. Tuliperäisyyden ja tulet Plinius liittää antiikin ajan uskonnollisen mailman kanssa ja tulkitsee oman aikansa tietämyksen perusteella kyse olevan kyseessä joko jumalan vihan tai ihmisen ahneudellaan luonnolle aiheuttaman epätasapainon.
  • Ahopelto, Lauri; Veijalainen, Noora; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Keskinen, Marko; Marttunen, Mika; Varis, Olli (MDPI, 2019)
    Sustainability 2019, 11, 1548
    Severe droughts can affect water security even in countries with ample water resources. In addition, droughts are estimated to become more frequent in several regions due to changing climate. Drought affects many socio-economic sectors (e.g., agriculture, water supply, and industry), as it did in 2018 in Finland. Understanding the basin-wide picture is crucial in drought management planning. To identify vulnerable and water stressed areas in Finland, a water use-to-availability analysis was executed with a reference drought. Water stress was analyzed with the Water Depletion Index WDI. The analysis was executed using national water permits and databases. To represent a severe but realistic drought event, we modelled discharges and runoffs from the worst drought of the last century in Finland (1939–1942). The potential for performing similar analyses in data scarce contexts was also tested using estimates from global models as a screening tool. The results show that the South and Southwest of Finland would have problems with water availability during a severe drought. The most vulnerable areas would benefit from drought mitigation measures and management plans. These measures could be incorporated into the EU River Basin Management Plans.
  • Iversen, L.L.; Winkel, A.; Baastrup-Spohr, L.; Hinke, A.B.; Alahuhta, J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Birk, S.; Brodersen, P.; Chambers, P. A.; Ecke, F; Feldmann, T.; Gebler, D.; Heino, J.; Jespersen, T. S.; Moe, S. J.; Riis, T.; Sass, L.; Vestergaard, O.; Maberly, S. C.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, O. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2019)
    Science Vol. 366, Issue 6467, pp. 878-881
    Unlike in land plants, photosynthesis in many aquatic plants relies on bicarbonate in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) to compensate for the low diffusivity and potential depletion of CO2 in water. Concentrations of bicarbonate and CO2 vary greatly with catchment geology. In this study, we investigate whether there is a link between these concentrations and the frequency of freshwater plants possessing the bicarbonate use trait. We show, globally, that the frequency of plant species with this trait increases with bicarbonate concentration. Regionally, however, the frequency of bicarbonate use is reduced at sites where the CO2 concentration is substantially above the air equilibrium, consistent with this trait being an adaptation to carbon limitation. Future anthropogenic changes of bicarbonate and CO2 concentrations may alter the species compositions of freshwater plant communities.
  • Savunen, Tarja; Kivi, Rigel; Poikonen, Antti; Kangas, Markku; Säntti, Kristiina; Hyvönen, Reijo; Mammarella, Ivan; Gregow, Erik; Tammelin, Bengt (Ilmatieteen laitos, 2015)
    Raportteja - Rapporter - Reports 2014:9
  • Laaksonen, Reino; Malin, Väinö (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1984)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 57, 59-60
    lonikoostumuksen muutoksista järvissä v. 1968—1983
  • Assmuth, Timo; Lyytimäki, Jari (Elsevier, 2015)
    Environmental Science and Policy 51 (2015), pages 338-350
    Ongoing complex global ecological and societal transitions pose challenges of including actors with different knowledge. We focus on approaches to gaining shared understanding and acting on it in the converging fields of environment, health care and environmental health. Starting from similarities between these fields with regard to knowledge and actor inclusion, we rethink ‘knowledge’, ‘brokering’ and ‘science–policy interfaces’. Using conceptual models, we structure and characterize the multi-dimensional and interactive co-production and application of types of knowledge (scientific and other) in governance contexts shaped by institutions, political agency and policies (sectorial and integrative). We investigate cases of knowledge brokering, representing different types from formal to informal, international to national, and research-centered to action-oriented. We find both shared and isolated problems and solutions in the studied sectors and settings regarding knowledge brokering, for instance with respect to precaution, reflecting the dynamics in environmental and health care and their contexts. Methodologically, our analyses show the importance of heuristic and participatory approaches to explicating interpretations and dealing with disagreements about knowledge, values and premises for actions.
  • Marttila, H.; Tammela, S.; Mustonen, K.-R.; Louhi, P.; Muotka, Timo; Mykrä, Heikki; Klove, B. (IWA Publishing, 2019)
    Hydrology Research 1 June 2019; 50 (3): 878–885
    We conducted a series of tracer test experiments in 12 outdoor semi-natural flumes to assess the effects of variable flow conditions and sand addition on hyporheic zone conditions in gravel beds, mimicking conditions in headwater streams under sediment pressure. Two tracer methods were applied in each experiment: 2–5 tracer-pulse tests were conducted in all flumes and pulses were monitored at three distances downstream of the flume inlet (0 m, 5 m and 10 m, at bed surface), and in pipes installed into the gravel bed at 5 m and 10 m distances. The tracer breakthrough curves (total of 120 tracer injections) were then analysed with a one-dimensional solute transport model (OTIS) and compared with data from the gravel pipes in point-dilution pulse tests. Sand addition had a strong negative effect on horizontal fluxes (qh), whereas the fraction of the median travel time due to transient storage (F200) was determined more by flow conditions. These results suggest that even small additions of sand can modify the hyporheic zone exchange in gravel beds, thus making headwater streams with low sediment transport capacity particularly vulnerable to sediments transported into the stream from catchment land use activities.
  • Pilla, Rachel M.; Williamson, Graig E.; Adamovich, Boris V.; Adrian, Rita; Anneville, Orlane; Chandra, Sudeep; Colom-Montero, William; Devlin, Shawn P.; Dix, Margaret A; Dokulil, Martin T.; Gaiser, Evelyn E.; Girdner, Scott F.; Hambright, David K.; Hamilton, David P.; Havens, Karl; Hessen, Dag O.; Higgins, Scott N.; Huttula, Timo H.; Huuskonen, Hannu; Isles, Peter D. F.; Joehnk, Klaus D.; Jones, Ian D.; Keller, Wendel Bill; Knoll, Lesley B.; Korhonen, Johanna; Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Lepori, Fabio; Luger, Martin S.; Maberly, Stephen C.; Melack, John M.; Melles, Stephanie J.; Müller-Navarra, Dörthe C.; Pierson, Don C.; Pislegina, Helen V.; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Richardson, David C.; Rimmer, Alon; Rogora, Michela; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Salmaso, Nico; Saros, Jasmine E.; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Schindler, Daniel E.; Schmid, Martin; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Silow, Eugene A.; Sitoki, Lewis M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Strock, Kristin E.; Thiery, Wim; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Verburg, Piet; Vinebrooke, Rolf D.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Zadereev, Egor (Rebekah A. Canada, 2020)
    Scientific Reports 10, 1 (2020), 20514
    Globally, lake surface water temperatures have warmed rapidly relative to air temperatures, but changes in deepwater temperatures and vertical thermal structure are still largely unknown. We have compiled the most comprehensive data set to date of long-term (1970–2009) summertime vertical temperature profiles in lakes across the world to examine trends and drivers of whole-lake vertical thermal structure. We found significant increases in surface water temperatures across lakes at an average rate of + 0.37 °C decade−1, comparable to changes reported previously for other lakes, and similarly consistent trends of increasing water column stability (+ 0.08 kg m−3 decade−1). In contrast, however, deepwater temperature trends showed little change on average (+ 0.06 °C decade−1), but had high variability across lakes, with trends in individual lakes ranging from − 0.68 °C decade−1 to + 0.65 °C decade−1. The variability in deepwater temperature trends was not explained by trends in either surface water temperatures or thermal stability within lakes, and only 8.4% was explained by lake thermal region or local lake characteristics in a random forest analysis. These findings suggest that external drivers beyond our tested lake characteristics are important in explaining long-term trends in thermal structure, such as local to regional climate patterns or additional external anthropogenic influences.
  • Kettunen, Ilkka Henrikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aim of this study is to develop biogeochemical exploration methods for cobalt. Several different samples were collected from study area, analyzed, and compared to each other. This study took place at Rautio village at North Ostrobothnia and more accurately over the Jouhineva mineralization. Jouhineva is well-known high-grade cobalt-copper-gold mineralization. Elements examined in this study are cobalt, copper, arsenic, zinc, selenium, and cadmium. Samples were collected from three different study profiles from the area. From these three profiles samples collected are: soil, pine, lingonberry, birch, rowan, and juniper. Water samples were collected around the study area from every location possible. Soil samples were analyzed with four different methods: Ionic leaching, aqua regia, weak leaching and pXRF. Ionic leaching and aqua regia had both elevated concentrations of cobalt, but in different locations depending on study profile. Ionic leaching detects rising ions from the ore and therefore elevated concentrations are found at different locations compared to aqua regia. Aqua regia results proved how different orientation of study profile, direction of the ore and glacial flow can affect to the anomalies of elemental concentration. Profile-2 was oriented differently to ore and glacial flow than Profile-1, and therefore elevated concentrations of cobalt and copper were not drifted away from the ore on Profile-2 like they were on Profile-1. Aqua regia and pXRF have very similar copper, arsenic and zinc results. Pine and lingonberry turn out to be the most promising plant species applied for cobalt exploration, and rowan appears to be most suitable for copper exploration. Lower detection limit could significantly improve pine analyses as exploration method and more extensive sampling could remove some of the uncertainties about the method. Lingonberry samples have elevated concentration of copper and arsenic. Birch and juniper produced somewhat unclear results. Despite this, cobalt and copper concentrations in birch leaves were elevated when compared to concentrations found in other studies. In addition to this birch is suitable for arsenic exploration. Juniper had elevated copper concentration in the study area compared to other studies. Water samples collected from the Jouhineva area yielded concentrations of cobalt, copper and arsenic that were above the average concentration in the Kalajoki area waters. Copper and arsenic were above the average concentration of the Kalajoki area in every sample collected from the study area. Cobalt was above the average concentration in all samples that were not collected directly from the pond formed in the old test mine. Zinc concentration was below the average limit in all samples collected from the area. Zinc concentration in the water samples collected from the pond is significantly lower compared to the other samples collected from the area.
  • Aaltonen, V. T. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1934)
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Assmuth, Timo (Springer Nature, 2015)
    GeoJournal 80, 113–127 (2015)
    Securing high-quality potable water is a key challenge for all societies. The question is not only about water availability and quality determined by hydrological, chemical, and biological factors, or technologies and monetary assets, but also about various cultural, social, and political factors that together constitute so-called hydro-social cycles. We focus on risk communication and management, in connection with the debates on planning and construction of an artificial groundwater recharge system in the Virttaankangas esker, aiming to provide potable water for the region of Turku, southwest Finland. Based on print media coverage, online debate, and comments on the environmental impact assessment report, we identify key themes and framings of risk debates and discuss which elements of the hydro-social cycle are prone to be highlighted or omitted. Our results show how different framings of risks and benefits are represented with regard to geography, time span, causative agents, impact types, those exposed, alternative management options, and uncertainties involved. Representations created both by traditional print media and new social media polarise the debate. The adoption of the concept of the hydro-social cycle in planning and communication processes may help in understanding and alleviating polarisation.
  • Luoma, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Plantation forestry has increased dramatically in Uruguay during the past 25 years. Thus, planted forests have an increasing importance in providing other ecosystem services in addition to wood provision in landscape scale. Forest sector company UPM owns more than 250 000 hectares of Eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. UPM seeks to enhance their systems to measure and monitor ecosystem services, to better understand sustainable provision of ecosystem services in their plantation landscapes, and to mitigate negative and maximize positive impacts. Benefits of monitoring and incorporating ecosystem services at management level include strengthened decision-making and communication, license to operate in long-term and better corporate image. Four ecosystem services were selected for analysis based on their relevance in UPM’s corporate strategy: wood provision, climate regulation, water provision and biodiversity maintenance. Provision of the ecosystem services were estimated quantitatively and compared to a pasture land baseline. Provision of ecosystem services was also linked to product level, tonne of pulp, when applicable. Data for the analysis was partly provided by UPM and partly by literature meta-analysis. Climate benefit of converting pasture to Eucalyptus is 8–31 MgC/ha or 29–115 MgCO2/ha depending on species and rotation number. Planting 40% of a micro water-shed with Eucalyptus reduces water streamflow approximately by 20–27%, while reducing streamflow of peak rainfall months by up to 40%, potentially alleviating floods. Pastures in UPM’s landscapes are well connected, but provided little core habitats. Native riparian forests are fragmented and maintain biodiversity poorly. Suggestions for future monitoring and measuring are presented. This thesis works as a waypoint for future studies of holistic ecosystem services provision in UPM assets.