Browsing by Subject "vesikasvit"

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  • Pieterse, Arnold; Rytkönen, Mari; Hellsten, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 15/2009
  • Unknown author (Miljöministeriet, 30.1)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 9sv/2006
    Syftet med anvisningen är att framhäva betydelsen av förhandsplanering och förebyggande arbetarskydd samt lämplig utrustning och tillräckliga kunskaper om hur man rör sig till sjöss vid användningen av båtar i uppgifter inom miljöförvaltningen. I anvisningen behandlas också övriga uppgifter inom miljöförvaltningen som utförs till sjöss, såsom selektivt fiske, dykning och slåtter av vattenväxter.
  • Heino, Jani; García Girón, Jorge; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Hellsten, Seppo; Ilmonen, Jari; Karjalainen, Juha; Mäkinen, Teemu; Nyholm, Kristiina; Ropponen, Janne; Takolander, Antti; Tolonen, Kimmo T. (Wiley, 2022)
    Diversity and Distributions
    Aim We propose a novel approach that considers taxonomic uniqueness, functional uniqueness and environmental uniqueness and show how it can be used in guiding conservation planning. We illustrate the approach using data for lake biota and environment. Location Lake Puruvesi, Finland. Methods We sampled macrophytes and macroinvertebrates from the same 18 littoral sites. By adapting the original “ecological uniqueness” approach, we used distance-based methods to calculate measures of taxonomic (LCBD–t), functional (LCBD–f) and environmental (LCEH) uniqueness for each site. We also considered the numbers and locations of the sites needed to protect up to 70% of total variation in taxonomic, functional or environmental features in the studied part of the lake. Results Relationships between taxonomic (LCBD–t), functional (LCBD–f) and environmental (LCEH) uniqueness were generally weak, and only the relationship between macrophyte LCBD–t and LCBD–f was statistically significant. Overall, however, if the whole biotic dataset was considered, macroinvertebrate LCBD–f values showed a consistent positive relationship with macrophyte LCBD–f. Depending on the measure of site uniqueness, between one-third to one half of the sites could help protect up to 70% of the ecological uniqueness of the studied part of Lake Puruvesi. Main conclusions Although the dataset examined originated from a large lake system, the approach we proposed here can be applied in different ecosystems and at various spatial scales. An important consideration is that a set of sites has been sampled using the same methods, resulting in species and environmental matrices that can be analysed using the methodological approach proposed here. This framework can be easily applied to grid-based data, sets of islands or sets of forest fragments. We suggest that the approach based on taxonomic, functional and environmental uniqueness will be a useful tool in guiding nature conservation and ecosystem management, especially if associated with meta-system ideas or network thinking.
  • Lindholm, Marja; Alahuhta, Janne; Heino, Jani; Hjort, Jan; Toivonen, Heikki (Springer Link, 2020)
    Hydrobiologia 847 (2020)
    Functional homogenisation occurs across many areas and organism groups, thereby seriously affecting biodiversity loss and ecosystem functioning. In this study, we examined how functional features of aquatic macrophytes have changed during a 70-year period at community and species levels in a boreal lake district. At the community level, we examined if aquatic macrophyte communities showed different spatial patterns in functional composition and functional richness in relation to main environmental drivers between the time periods. We also observed each species in functional space to assess if species with certain sets of traits have become more common or rare in the 70-year study period. We found changes in the relationship between functional community composition and the environment. The aquatic macrophyte communities showed different patterns in functional composition between the two time periods, and the main environmental drivers for these changes were partly different. Temporal changes in functional richness were only partially linked to concomitant changes in the environment, while stable factors were more important. Species’ functional traits were not associated with commonness or rarity patterns. Our findings revealed that functional homogenisation has not occurred across these boreal lakes, ranging from small oligotrophic forest lakes to larger lakes affected by human impacts.
  • Alahuhta, Janne; Rosbakh, Sergey; Chepinoga, Victor; Heino, Jani (Springer Link, 2020)
    Aquatic Sciences 82 2 (2020)
    We investigated whether environmental filtering or dispersal-related factors mostly drive helophyte and hydrophyte species richness and community composition in 93 lakes situated in Baikal Siberia. Using partial linear regression and partial redundancy analysis, we studied (1) what are the relative roles of environmental variables, dispersal variables, spatial processes and region identity (i.e., river basins) in explaining variation in the species richness and species composition of helophytes and hydrophytes across 93 Siberian lakes, and (2) what are the differences in the most important explanatory variables driving community variation in helophytes versus hydrophytes? We found that, for both species richness and species composition, environmental variables clearly explained most variation for both plant groups, followed by region identity and dispersal-related variables. Spatial variables were significant only for the species composition of hydrophytes. Nutrient-salinity index, a proxy for habitat trophic-salinity status, was by far the most significant environmental determinant of helophytes and hydrophytes. Our results indicate that environmental factors explained the most variation in both species richness and species composition of helophytes and hydrophytes. Nevertheless, dispersal-related variables (i.e. spatial and dispersal) were also influential but less important than environmental factors. Furthermore, the dispersal-related variables were more important for hydrophytes than for helophytes. Most brackish permanent lakes were mostly located in the steppe biomes of southern Transbaikalia. This characteristic along with the oldest age, the largest distances to both river and settlements and the lowest temperatures in the study region distinguished them from freshwater, drained and more nutrient-rich floodplain lakes.
  • Poikane, Sandra; Kelly, Martyn G.; Várbíró, Gábor; Borics, Gábor; Erős, Tibor; Hellsten, Seppo; Kolada, Agnieszka; Lukács, Balázs András; Lyche Solheim, Anne; Pahissa López, José; Willby, Nigel J.; Wolfram, Georg; Phillips, Geoff (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Nutrient targets based on pressure-response models are essential for defining ambitions and managing eutrophication. However, the scale of biogeographical variation in these pressure-response relationships is poorly understood, which may hinder eutrophication management in regions where lake ecology is less intensively studied. In this study, we derive ecology-based nutrient targets for five major ecoregions of Europe: Northern, Central-Baltic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Eastern Continental. As a first step, we developed regressions between nutrient concentrations and ecological quality ratios (EQR) based on phytoplankton and macrophyte communities. Significant relationships were established for 13 major lake types; in most cases, these relationships were stronger for phosphorus than for nitrogen, and stronger for phytoplankton than for macrophytes. Using these regressions, we estimated the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at which lakes of different types are likely to achieve good ecological status. However, in the very shallow lakes of the Eastern Continental region, relations between nutrient and biological communities were weak or non-significant. This can be attributed to high nutrient concentrations (in the asymptotic zone of phosphorus-phytoplankton models) suggesting other factors (light, grazing) limit primary production. However, we also show that fish stocking is a major pressure on Eastern Continental lakes, negatively affecting ecological status: lakes with low fish stocking show low chlorophyll-a concentrations and good ecological status despite high nutrient levels, while the lakes with high fish stocking show high chlorophyll-a and low ecological status. This study highlights the need to better understand lakes in biogeographic regions that have been, for historical reasons, less studied. This, in turn, helps reveal factors that challenge the dominant paradigms of lake assessment and management.
  • Issakainen, Jouni; Kemppainen, Eija; Mäkelä, Katariina; Hakalisto, Sirkka; Koistinen, Marja (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2011)
    Suomen ympäristö 13/2011
    Hentonäkinruoho (Najas tenuissima) ja notkeanäkinruoho (Najas flexilis) ovat Suomessa erittäin uhanalaisia ja luonnonsuojeluasetuksen mukaan erityisesti suojeltavia ja rauhoitettuja lajeja. Ne kuuluvat Euroopan Unionin luontodirektiivin liitteisiin II ja IV. Näkinruohot ovat uhanalaisia koko maailmassa, ja Suomella on merkittävä kansainvälinen vastuu niiden säilymisestä. Tässä suojeluohjelmassa esitellään tunnetut näkinruohojen kasvujärvet sekä annetaan suosituksia kannan suojelusta, kasvupaikkojen hoidosta, seurannasta ja jatkoselvityksistä. Näkinruohot ovat yksivuotisia uposkasveja, joiden biologiaa ja esiintymistä ei tunneta kunnolla. Lajien nykytilaa selvitettiin vuosina 2008–2010 useimmilla kasvujärvillä sukeltamalla. Tunnettuja nykyesiintymiä on Suomen kaakkoisosassa seitsemän elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskuksen (ELY-keskus) alueella. Lajit suosivat Salpausselkien liepeillä olevia luontaisesti kirkkaita, mutta rehevähköjä, pohjavesivaikutteisia järviä. Hentonäkinruohoa kasvaa edelleen 16 järvessä ja yhdessä Suomenlahden jokisuistossa, notkeanäkinruoho tunnetaan enää vain neljästä järvestä. Viidessä järvessä olevat näkinruohojen populaatiot arvioitiin tässä työssä elinvoimaisiksi. Vesien rehevöityminen ja siitä seuraava veden samentuminen, pohjien liettyminen ja muun vesikasvillisuuden runsastuminen ovat muuttaneet kasvupaikkoja näkinruohoille sopimattomiksi. Näkinruohojen populaatiot ovat supistuneet monin paikoin yksittäisiksi versoiksi tai ohuiksi nauhamaisiksi kasvustoiksi. Alle puolet näkinruohoesiintymistä sijaitsee Natura 2000 -alueilla, joista osaan on perustettu luonnonsuojelualueita. Näkinruohojen kantojen ylläpitäminen ja elvyttäminen edellyttävät kasvujärvien ja niiden valuma-alueiden vesiensuojelun tehostamista ja ravinnekuorman rajoittamista. Joillakin kasvujärvillä tarvitaan myös hoitotoimia. Näkinruohojen seuranta tulee toteuttaa luontodirektiivin edellyttämässä laajuudessa. Lajien ja niiden elinympäristöjen seurantaan tulee liittää tehostettu vedenlaadun seuranta.
  • García‐Girón, Jorge; Lindholm, Marja; Heino, Jani; Toivonen, Heikki; Alahuhta, Janne (Wiley, 2022)
    Limnology and Oceanography
    Community ecology has had a strong focus on single snapshots of species compositional variation in time. However, environmental change often occurs slowly at relatively broad spatio-temporal scales, which requires historically explicit assessments of long-term metacommunity dynamics, such as the order of species arrival during community assembly (i.e., priority effects), a theme that merits further empirical quantification. In this study, we applied the Bayesian inference scheme of Hierarchical Modeling of Species Communities together with information on functional traits and evolutionary dependencies to efficiently explore the question of how ecological communities are organized in space and time. To do this, we used a comprehensive time-series dataset from boreal lake plants and adopted the perspective that more sound conclusions on metacommunity dynamics can be gained from studies that consider a historically integrative approach over long timeframes. Our findings revealed that historical contingency via priority effects can profoundly shape community assembly under the influence of environmental change across decades (here, from the 1940s to the 2010s). Similarly, our results supported the existence of both positive and negative species-to-species associations in lake plants, suggesting that functional divergence can switch the inhibition–facilitation balance at the metacommunity level. Perhaps more importantly, this proof-of-concept study supports the notion that community ecology should include a historical perspective and suggests that ignoring priority effects may risk our ability to identify the true magnitude of change in present-day biotic communities.
  • Hynynen, Juhani; Aalto, Aira; Harju, Tuija (Pohjois-Karjalan ympäristökeskus, 2007)
    PKAra 7/2007
    Pohjois-Karjalan vesistöjen tilan parantaminen -hankkeen vesikasviosiossa arvioitiin kymmenen hajakuormituksen rasittaman metsäjärven ekologista tilaa vesikasvien perusteella. Kohdejärvistä osa oli veden ravinteisuuden perusteella lähellä luonnontilaa, osa lievästi rehevöityneitä ja osa rehevöityneitä. Järvistä osa oli latvajärviä ja osa alempana vesistöalueilla sijaitsevia. Tutkittujen järvien todettiin pääsääntöisesti olevan vesikasvillisuuden lajistokoostumuksen ja runsauden perusteella ekologiselta tilaltaan erinomaisia tai hyviä. Kolme järvistä ei saavuttanut vähintään hyvä tilaa. Luokitusta tulee kuitenkin pitää suuntaa antavana, koska pohjoiskarjalaiset järvet erosivat vesikasvilajistoltaan ja kasvillisuuden runsaudeltaan vertailujärvinä käytetyistä pohjois- ja eteläsavolaisista sekä kainuulaisista järvistä. Luotettavampi luokittelu vaatisi vertailujärvien sijoittumista maantieteellisesti lähelle kohdejärviä. Vertailujärvien tulisi myös olla valuma-alueiden maankäytöltään ja morfologialtaan samantyyppisiä kohdejärvien kanssa.
  • Vieira, Denner S.; García‐Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; Toivanen, Maija; Helm, Aveliina; Alahuhta, Janne (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2021)
    Journal of Biogeography 48: 5
    Aim: Range size conservatism suggests that closely-related species maintain geographic ranges of similar extent. However, consensus regarding this suggestion has not been reached. To shed more light on this phenomenon, we studied freshwater plant range size conservatism, range overlap and environmental niche conservatism using congeneric species comparison in two continents. In addition, we investigated whether a phylogenetic signal is found in the range sizes of aquatic plants. Location: Europe and North America. Taxon: Freshwater plants. Methods: Across spatial resolutions (50 km2, 100 km2 and 200 km2), we applied Spearman correlations among 347 and 730 pairs of congeneric species in Europe and North America, respectively, and 63 pairs shared between them. In addition, Spearman correlations were used to evaluate how the degree of spatial overlap influences range sizes and which environmental variables explain variation in range sizes. Brownian evolutionary model was used to assess the phylogenetic signal in species range sizes. Results: We found no evidence of range size conservatism across spatial resolutions for any species and species shared between the continents. In addition, range sizes of more closely related species did not overlap geographically more than those of distantly related ones and no support for environmental niche conservatism was evidenced. Main conclusions: We found that aquatic plants show no range size conservatism in the Northern Hemisphere. This means that it is challenging to define different range sizes of freshwater plants through species traits. Furthermore, we are unable to predict unknown distributions of extant aquatic plant species based on known distributional attributes of closely related species. However, our findings suggest that the interpretations of previous investigations on the range sizes of aquatic plants remain valid due to lack of range size conservatism. These practical implications encourage studying range size conservatism across realms and regions, especially for understudied organismal groups.
  • Alahuhta, Janne; Lindholm, Marja; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; García-Girón, Jorge; Toivanen, Maija; Heino, Jani; Murphy, Kevin (Elsevier, 2021)
    Aquatic Botany 168: 103325
    Broad-scale studies of species distributions and diversity have contributed to the emergence of general macroecological rules. These rules are typically founded on research using well-known terrestrial taxa as models and it is thus uncertain whether aquatic macrophytes follow these macroecological rules. Our purpose is to draw together available information from broad-scale research on aquatic macrophytes growing in lakes, ponds, wetlands, rivers and streams. We summarize how different macroecological rules fit the patterns shown by freshwater plants at various spatial scales. Finally, we outline future actions which should be taken to advance macroecological research on freshwater plants. Our review suggested that some macroecological patterns are relatively well-evidenced for aquatic macrophytes, whereas little information exists for others. We found, for example, that the species richness-latitude relationship follows a unimodal pattern, and species turnover prevails over species nestedness, whereas higher nestedness-related richness differences are found in low beta diversity regions. Contrary to terrestrial plants, climate or history seem not to be dominant determinants explaining these broad-scale patterns; instead local explanatory variables (e.g., water quality, such as alkalinity and nutrients, and hydromorphology) are often important for freshwater plants. We identified several knowledge gaps related, for example, to a smaller number of studies in lotic habitats, compared with lentic habitats, lack of spatially-adequate aquatic plant studies, deficiency of comprehensive species traits databases for aquatic macrophytes, and absence of a true phylogeny comprising most freshwater plant lineages. We hope this review will encourage the undertaking of additional macroecological investigations on freshwater plants across broad spatial and temporal scales.
  • Lau, Danny C. P.; Christoffersen, Kirsten S.; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Hayden, Brian; Heino, Jani; Hellsten, Seppo; Holmgren, Kerstin; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kahlert, Maria; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Karlsson, Jan; Forsström, Laura; Lento, Jennifer; Mjelde, Marit; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Sandøy, Steinar; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Svenning, Martin‐A.; Vrede, Tobias; Goedkoop, Willem (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater Biology
    1. Arctic and sub-Arctic lakes in northern Europe are increasingly threatened by climate change, which can affect their biodiversity directly by shifting thermal and hydrological regimes, and indirectly by altering landscape processes and catchment vegetation. Most previous studies of northern lake biodiversity responses to environmental changes have focused on only a single organismal group. Investigations at whole-lake scales that integrate different habitats and trophic levels are currently rare, but highly necessary for future lake monitoring and management. 2. We analysed spatial biodiversity patterns of 74 sub-Arctic lakes in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Faroe Islands with monitoring data for at least three biological focal ecosystem components (FECs)—benthic diatoms, macrophytes, phytoplankton, littoral benthic macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, and fish—that covered both pelagic and benthic habitats and multiple trophic levels. 3. We calculated the richnessrelative (i.e. taxon richness of a FEC in the lake divided by the total richness of that FEC in all 74 lakes) and the biodiversity metrics (i.e. taxon richness, inverse Simpson index (diversity), and taxon evenness) of individual FECs using presence–absence and abundance data, respectively. We then investigated whether the FEC richnessrelative and biodiversity metrics were correlated with lake abiotic and geospatial variables. We hypothesised that (1) individual FECs would be more diverse in a warmer and wetter climate (e.g. at lower latitudes and/or elevations), and in hydrobasins with greater forest cover that could enhance the supply of terrestrial organic matter and nutrients that stimulated lake productivity; and (2) patterns in FEC responses would be coupled among trophic levels. 4. Results from redundancy analyses showed that the richnessrelative of phytoplankton, macrophytes, and fish decreased, but those of the intermediate trophic levels (i.e. macroinvertebrates and zooplankton) increased with decreasing latitude and/or elevation. Fish richnessrelative and diversity increased with increasing temporal variation in climate (temperature and/or precipitation), ambient nutrient concentrations (e.g. total nitrogen) in lakes, and woody vegetation (e.g. taiga forest) cover in hydrobasins, whereas taxon richness of macroinvertebrates and zooplankton decreased with increasing temporal variation in climate. 5. The similar patterns detected for richnessrelative of fish, macrophytes, and phytoplankton could be caused by similar responses to the environmental descriptors, and/or the beneficial effects of macrophytes as habitat structure. By creating habitat, macrophytes may increase fish diversity and production, which in turn may promote higher densities and probably more diverse assemblages of phytoplankton through trophic cascades. Lakes with greater fish richnessrelative tended to have greater average richnessrelative among FECs, suggesting that fish are a potential indicator for overall lake biodiversity. 6. Overall, the biodiversity patterns observed along the environmental gradients were trophic-level specific, indicating that an integrated food-web perspective may lead to a more holistic understanding of ecosystem biodiversity in future monitoring and management of high-latitude lakes. In future, monitoring should also focus on collecting more abundance data for fish and lower trophic levels in both benthic and pelagic habitats. This may require more concentrated sampling effort on fewer lakes at smaller spatial scales, while continuing to sample lakes distributed along environmental gradients.
  • Lindholm, Marja; Alahuhta, Janne; Heino, Jani; Toivonen, Heikki (Wiley Online Library, 2020)
    Ecography 43 2 (2020)
    It has been predicted that spatial beta diversity shows a decreasing trend in the Anthropocene due to increasing human impact, causing biotic homogenisation. We aimed to discover if vascular aquatic macrophyte communities show different spatial patterns in beta diversity in relation to land use and environmental characteristics in different decades from 1940s to 2010s. We aimed to discover if spatial structures differ between species-, phylogeny- and functional-based beta diversity. We used presence–absence data of aquatic macrophytes from five decades from small boreal lakes. We utilized generalised dissimilarity modelling to analyse spatial patterns in beta diversity in relation to environmental gradients. We found that lake elevation and pH were the most important variables in each decade, while land use was not particularly important in shaping beta diversity patterns. We did not find signs of a decreasing trend in spatial beta diversity in our study area during the past 70 yr. We did not find signs of either biotic homogenisation or biotic differentiation (taxonomic, phylogenetic or functional). Vascular aquatic macrophyte communities showed only slightly different beta diversity patterns in relation to human impact across decades. The patterns of different facets of beta diversity diverged only slightly from each other. Lake position in the landscape, reflecting both natural connectivity and lake characteristics, explained the patterns found in beta diversity, probably because our study area has faced only modest changes in land use from 1940s to 2010s when compared globally. Our study highlights the fact that biotic homogenisation is not an unambiguous process acting similarly at all spatial and temporal scales or in different environments and different organism groups.
  • García-Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Helm, Aveliina; Alahuhta, Janne (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 786 (2021), 147491
    Patterns of species rarity have long fascinated ecologists, yet most of what we know about the natural world stems from studies of common species. A large proportion of freshwater plant species has small range sizes and are therefore considered rare. However, little is known about the mechanisms and geographical distribution of rarity in the aquatic realm and to what extent diversity of rare species in freshwater plants follows their terrestrial counterparts. Here, we present the first in–depth analysis of geographical patterns, potential deterministic ecogeographical factors and projected scenarios of freshwater vascular plant rarity using 50 × 50 km grid cells across Europe (41°N–71°N) and North America (25°N–78°N). Our results suggest that diversity of rare species shows different patterns in relation to latitude on the two continents, and that hotspots of rarity concentrate in a relatively small proportion of the European and North American land surface, especially in mountainous as well as in climatically rare and stable areas. Interestingly, we found no differences among alternative rarity definitions and measures when delineating areas with notably high diversity of rare species. Our findings also indicate that few variables, namely a combination of current climate, Late Quaternary climate–change velocity and human footprint, are able to accurately predict the location of continental centers of rare species diversity. However, these relationships are not geographically homogeneous, and the underlying factors likely act synergistically. Perhaps more importantly, we provide empirical evidence that current centers of rare species diversity are characterized by higher anthropogenic impacts and might shrink disproportionately within this century as the climate changes. Our reported distributional patterns of species rarity align with the known trends in species richness of other freshwater organisms and may help conservation planners make informed decisions mitigating the effects of climate change and other anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity.
  • Kuoppala, Minna; Hellsten, Seppo; Kanninen, Antti (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 36/2008
    Vesistöseurannat olivat ennen EY:n vesipolitiikan puitedirektiivin voimaantuloa painottuneet veden fysikaalis-kemialliseen laatuun, ja biologisten laatutekijöiden seuranta oli jäänyt kasviplanktonia lukuun ottamatta vähäiselle huomiolle. Etenkin vesikasvitutkimukset ovat olleet harvalukuisia ja menetelmiltään vaihtelevia. Tässä hankkeessa Eurooppalaisille tutkimuslaitoksille tehdyn kyselyn perusteella vesikasvillisuuden seurantamenetelmien kehitystoiminta on vilkasta. Laadunvarmistuksen menettelytavat ja ohjeisto puuttuvat kuitenkin miltei täysin lukuun ottamatta jokitutkimuksiin kehitettyä MTR-ohjeistoa. Kyselyn perusteella voidaan todeta CEN-standardeja tulkitun melko väljästi ja menetelmien olevan erittäin kirjavia. Käsillä olevassa kehityshankkeessa käydään läpi yksityiskohtaisesti vesikasvitutkimukseen liittyvät CEN-standardit ja niiden antamat suuntaviivat menetelmien kehittämiselle Suomessa. Suomessa järvien vesikasvitutkimusten menetelmäkehitys on ennen Life-Vuoksi (v. 2001-2004) projektia ollut vähäistä lukuun ottamatta biologitoimisto Jari Venetvaaran kehittämää Najas-ohjelmistoa ja siihen liittyvää linjamenetelmää. Life-Vuoksi hankkeessa suositeltu ns. päävyöhykelinjamenetelmä noudattaa hyvin CEN-standardia ja muodostaa siten perustan myös laadunvarmistuksen kehittämiselle. Jokien osalta ei vastaavaa menetelmäkehittelyä ole tehty eikä sen suhteen voida antaa suosituksia. Raportissa kuvataan yksityiskohtaisesti järvissä tehtävä vesikasvitutkimus vaiheineen ja laaditaan suuntaviivat laadunvarmistukselle. Kansallinen ohjeisto perustuu SYKEn toimimiseen vastuullisena koordinoijana, kun taas varsinainen kehitystoiminta voi keskittyä edelleen alueellisiin ympäristökeskuksiin. Laadunvarmistuksen kehittämisessä tarvitaan yhteistyötä eri toimijoiden ja viranomaisten kesken sekä selkeää työnjakoa ja resurssien yhteistä suuntaamista. Raportti on suurelta osin kirjoitettu viranomaisten tekemän perusseurannan tarpeita varten, mutta soveltuu suoraan myös toiminnallista seurantaa tekevien konsulttien käyttöön. Ehdotettu laadunvarmistuksen menettelytapa käy myös tutkinnallisen seurannan tarpeisiin.
  • Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Girón, Jorge García; Pan, Yingji (Elsevier, 2022)
    Aquatic Botany
    Functional biogeography has advanced the field of functional ecology into a more spatiallysingle bondpredictive science. However, freshwater plants are still underrepresented in these traitsingle bondbased advancements. Here, we argue that there is a need for developing a functional biogeographical framework for freshwater plants and initiate global mapping efforts focusing on the form and function of freshwater plants. Specific attention should be given to (1) the placement of freshwater plants in the global plant trait space and show how this placement links to global traitsingle bondenvironment relationships; (2) the theoretical framework for major structural traitsingle bondtrait correlations based on the physical constraints in aquatic ecosystems; (3) the evolutionary and environmental drivers underlying the global distribution of intersingle bond and intrasingle bondspecific variation in different life forms; and (4) the level of equilibrium between spatial and temporal traitsingle bondenvironment relationships in freshwater plants. By putting freshwater plants in the context of these spatial aspects, we could advance our understanding of freshwater plant adaptations and responses to environmental gradients, and thereby facilitate predicting the consequences of global changes for freshwater ecosystem functions and services.
  • Unknown author (Ympäristöministeriö, 30.1)
    Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita 9/2006
    Oppaan tarkoituksena korostaa ennakkosuunnittelun ja ennaltaehkäisevän työsuojelun sekä asiamukaisen kaluston ja riittävien vesilläkulkemistaitojen merkitystä käytettäessä veneitä ympäristöhallinnon tehtävissä. Oppaassa on käsitelty myös muita vesillä tapahtuvia ympäristöhallinnon tehtäviä, kuten hoitokalastusta, sukellustoimintaa ja vesikasvien niittoa.
  • Laita, Milla; Tarvainen, Anne; Mäkelä, Ari; Sammalkorpi, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Eija; Laitinen, Liisa (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2007)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 20/2007
  • Vuori, Kari-Matti; Hellsten, Seppo; Järvinen, Marko; Kangas, Pentti; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Kauppila, Pirkko; Meissner, Kristian; Mykrä, Heikki; Olin, Mikko; Rask, Martti; Rissanen, Jouko; Ruuhijärvi, Jukka; Sutela, Tapio; Vehanen, Teppo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 35/2008
  • Leka, Jarkko; Toivonen, Heikki; Leikola, Niko; Hellsten, Seppo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 18/2008
    Vesikasvillisuus on yksi järvien ekologisen tilan arvioinnissa käytettävistä eliöryhmistä. Vaikka Suomessa  on tehty lukuisia vesikasvitutkimuksia, niiden tuloksia ei ole aiemmin laajassa mitassa käytetty järvien ekologisen tilan luokittelussa. Työn tavoitteena on arvioida järvien vesikasvillisuuteen perustuvia ekologisen laadun muuttujia suhteessa vuoden 2002 järvityypittelyehdotukseen. Lisäksi työssä on tarkasteltu vertailujärvien lajimäärän vaihtelua Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomen välillä ja sen merkitystä ekologisen tilan luokittelussa sekä selvitetty järvityyppien erottumista toisistaan tyypeille luontaisten vesi- ja rantakasviyhteisöjen ominaisuuksien perusteella. Vertailujärvien keskimääräinen kokonaislajimäärä oli pienin tunturijärvissä ja suurin suurissa, kohtalaisen humuspitoisissa järvissä sekä luontaisesti runsasravinteisissa järvissä. Kuormitetuissa järvissä vesi- ja rantakasvien kokonaislajimäärä ja hydrofyyttien lajimäärä on yleensä suurempi kuin vertailujärvissä. Vesi- ja rantakasvien lajimäärä on alhaisempi Pohjois-Suomen vertailujärvissä kuin Etelä-Suomen vertailujärvissä. Näyttäisikin perustellulta käsitellä Pohjois-Suomen järviä erikseen ekologisen tilan arvioinnissa. Elomuotojen runsausosuudet poikkesivat toisistaan eri järvityyppien vertailuolojen välillä, mikä viittaa järvityyppien välisiin luontaisiin eroihin vesi- ja rantakasvillisuuden koostumuksessa. Kun tarkastellaan ekologisen tilan luokittelussa mukana olleita neljää järvityyppiä, lajimuuttujista sopivimpia ekologisten laatusuhteiden laskemiseen olivat tyyppilajien suhteellinen osuus, prosenttinen mallinkaltaisuus ja lajimäärä. Kasvillisuuden runsauteen perustuvista muuttujista soveltuvimpia ekologisten laatusuhteiden laskemiseen olivat meso-eutrofia -lajien ja oligotrofia -lajien runsausosuus sekä pohjalehtisten runsausosuus.