Browsing by Subject "vesikemia"

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  • Forsius, Martin (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1992)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 10
    Yhteenveto: Järvien happamoituminen Suomessa: Alueellinen vedenlaatu ja kriittinen kuormitus
  • Mykrä, Heikki; Kuoppala, Minna; Nykänen, Vesa; Tolonen, Katri; Turunen, Jarno; Vilmi, Annika; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Environmental Management 278, Part 2 (2021), 111532
    Mining has changed landscapes locally in northern Fennoscandia and there is an increasing pressure for exploitation of the remaining mineral deposits of the region. Mineral deposits, even if unmined, can strongly influence stream water chemistry, stream biological communities and the ability of organisms to tolerate stressors. Using data sampled from six mining areas with three active (gold and chrome), two closed (gold) and one planned mine (phosphate), we examined how mineral deposits and mining influence water chemistry and diatom and macroinvertebrate communities in subarctic streams in Finnish Lapland. We supplemented the data by additional samples compiled from databases and further assessed how variation in background geological conditions influences bioassessments of the impacts arising from mining. We found that water specific conductivity was elevated in our study streams draining through catchments with a high mineral potential. Mining effects were mainly seen as increased concentration of nitrogen. Influence of mineral deposits was detected in composition of diatom and macroinvertebrate communities, but communities in streams in areas with a high mineral potential were as diverse as those in streams in areas with a low mineral potential. Mining impacts were better detected for diatoms using a reference condition based on sites with a high than low mineral potential, while for macroinvertebrates, the responses were generally less evident, likely because of only minor effects of mining on water chemistry. Community composition and frequencies of occurrence of macroinvertebrate taxa were, however, highly similar between mine-influenced streams and reference streams with a high potential for minerals indicating that the communities are strongly structured by the natural influence of mineral deposits. Incorporating geochemistry into the reference condition would likely improve bioassessments of both taxonomic groups. Replicated monitoring in potentially impacted sites and reference sites would be the most efficient framework for detecting environmental impacts in streams draining through mineral-rich catchments.
  • Kuprijanov, Ivan; Väli, Germo; Sharov, Andrey; Berezina, Nadezhda; Liblik, Taav; Lips, Urmas; Kolesova, Natalja; Mannio, Jaakko; Lips, Inga; Junttila, Ville (Macmillan, 2021)
    Marine Pollution Bulletin, 170 (2021), 112642
    Contamination by hazardous substances is one of the main environmental problems in the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. A trilateral effort to sample and analyse heavy metals (HMs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organotins from bottom sediments in 2019–2020 were conducted along with harvesting historical data in Russian, Estonian and Finnish waters. We suggest that the input of organotins still occurs along the ship traffic routes. The tributyltin content exceeded the established quality criteria up to more than 300 times. High contamination by PAHs found near the ports, most likely originate from incomplete fuel incineration processes. The Neva River Estuary and Luga Bay might potentially suffer from severe cadmium contamination. The high ecological risk attributed to the HMs was detected at deep offshore areas. The simulated accumulation pattern qualitatively agrees with field observations of HMs in sediments, demonstrating the potential of numerical tools to tackle the hazardous substances problems.
  • Lahtinen, Tatu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In 2011, Anglo American Sakatti Mining Oy published an ore discovery in Sodankylä, Finnish Lapland. The rich Ni-Cu-PGE orebody, named Sakatti ore, is partially underlying Viiankiaapa-mire’s Natura 2000 protection area. This sets additional challenges for the utilization of the resource without compromising the fragile nature of the area. To estimate the impacts of possible future mining operations, the complex hydrochemical and hydrogeochemical conditions at Viiankiaapa must be well understood. Most water samples from the research area show a chemical composition close to the natural Finnish groundwater composition Ca–HCO3. However, in four groundwater observation wells, located south from Kiimakuusikko, Na–HCO3 type waters were detected. These sites were GA300 (8.26 ppm of Na), GA202 (17.34 ppm of Na), GA202 deep (15.23 ppm of Na) and GA201 (7.92 ppm of Na). Source for the anomaly is likely lithological due to lack of chloride in the samples. One possible source could be weathering of albite to kaolinite. Albite is hosted in the breccia unit, located close to the site. Albite-kaolinite weathering could release Na+ ions into the surrounding soil solution, which would provide a source for the high sodium concentrations. Kitinen river shows slightly higher Al, Li and Cu contents compared to other waters from the research area. This could possibly be used to distinguish river water from groundwater at sites where river water infiltrates the groundwater system. On the other side, Na, K and DSi have higher concentrations in groundwaters compared to surface waters. This could make them useful groundwater indicators. Sakattioja and the other smaller streams draining the mire, are characterized by very high isotope values, low amounts of DSi and low EC. These characteristics likely reflect the hydrogeochemistry of the water on the surface of the mire. The hydrogeochemical similarity of these streams is also highlighted by the hierarchical cluster analysis, where the samples from these sites form a clear cluster of their own. Stable isotope results are mixed and difficult to interpret. The most striking features are the low values observed at the mire near Kiimakuusikko and the high values observed in Sakattioja. Many groundwater samples show signs of evaporated source water component or re-infiltration of surface waters. This could be due to water from the mire infiltrating the groundwater system and then re-emerging in the observation wells and springs close to Kitinen. Overall, based on the results, the hydrogeochemistry at the research area can be considered to be very complex. The samples represent multiple different water compositions residing in poorly connected groundwater and surface water systems. This makes interpreting the results particularly difficult and is also reflected in the statistical analyzes which produce somewhat mixed results.
  • Aroviita, Jukka; Hellsten, Seppo; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Järvenpää, Lasse; Järvinen, Marko; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Kauppila, Pirkko; Keto, Antton; Kuoppala, Minna; Manni, Kati; Mannio, Jaakko; Mitikka, Sari; Olin, Mikko; Perus, Jens; Pilke, Ansa; Rask, Martti; Riihimäki, Juha; Ruuskanen, Ari; Siimes, Katri; Sutela, Tapio; Vehanen, Teppo; Vuori, Kari-Matti (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita 7/2012
    Suomen ensimmäinen pintavesien ekologisen ja kemiallisen tilan luokittelu laadittiin vuonna 2008 vesienhoidon ensimmäisen suunnittelukauden ohjeistuksen (Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita OH 3/2009) mukaisesti. Tässä oppaassa esitetään päivitetyt arviointiperusteet pintavesien ekologisen ja kemiallisen tilan arviointiin ja luokitteluun vesienhoidon toista suunnittelukautta varten. Ohje on ensisijaisesti tarkoitettu ELY-keskuksille vesienhoidon suunnittelussa käytettäväksi vesien tilan luokitteluun. ELY-keskusten on tärkeää huomioida ja ottaa systemaattisesti käyttöön ohjeessa esitetyt päivitetyt arviointiperusteet. Vesien tilan luokittelussa käytettäviä parametreja on tapauskohtaisesti sisällytettävä toiminnanharjoittajien velvoitetarkkailuihin ja YVA-selvityksiin. Ohjeessa esitetään ne muutokset ja lisäykset, jotka vuosien 2012–2013 aikana toteutettavassa luokittelussa tulee huomioida verrattuna ensimmäisen suunnittelukauden ohjeistukseen. Muilta osin noudatetaan ensimmäisen luokittelukierroksen ohjeistusta (Ympäristöhallinnon ohjeita OH 3/2009). Kaikki luokittelutekijöiden arviointiperusteet (vertailuarvot ja luokkarajat) ovat tässä ohjeessa liitteinä, eikä ohjeen OH 3/2009 liitetaulukoita tule käyttää.
  • Lakka, Hanna-Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Lepidurus arcticus (Pallas, 1793) is a keystone species in High Arctic ponds, which are exposed to a wide range of environmental stressors. This thesis provides information on the ecology of this little studied species by paying particular focus on the sensitivity of L. arcticus to acidification and climate change. Respiration, reproduction, olfaction, morphology, salinity and pH tolerance of the species were studied in the laboratory and several environmental parameters were measured in its natural habitats in Arctic ponds. Current global circulation models predict 2–2.4 °C increase in summer temperatures on Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway. The L. arcticus respiration activity was tested at different temperatures (3.5, 10, 16.5, 20, 25 and 30 °C). The results show that L. arcticus is clearly adapted to live in cold water and have a temperature optimum at +10 °C. This species should be considered as stenothermal, because it seems to be able to live only within a narrow temperature range. L. arcticus populations seem to have the capacity to respond to the ongoing climate change on Spitsbergen. Changes can be seen in the species' reproductive capacity and in the individuals' body size when comparing results with previous studies on Spitsbergen and in other Arctic areas. Effective reproduction capacity was a unique feature of the L. arcticus populations on Spitsbergen. L. arcticus females reached sexual maturity at a smaller body size and sexual dimorphism appeared in smaller animals on Spitsbergen than anywhere else in the subarctic or Arctic regions. L. arcticus females were able to carry more eggs (up to 12 eggs per female) than has been observed in previous studies. Another interesting feature of L. arcticus on Spitsbergen was their potential to grow large, up to 39.4 mm in total length. Also cannibalistic behaviour seemed to be common on Spitsbergen L. arcticus populations. The existence of different colour morphs and the population-level differences in morphology of L. arcticus were unknown, but fascinating characteristic of this species. Spitsbergen populations consisted of two major (i.e. monochrome and marbled) and several combined colour morphs. Third interesting finding was a new disease for science which activated when the water temperature rose. I named this disease to Red Carapace Disease (RCD). This High Arctic crustacean lives in ponds between the Arctic Ocean and glaciers, where the marine environment has a strong impact on the terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The tolerance of L. arcticius to increased water salinity was determined by a LC50 -test. No mortality occurred during the 23 day exposure at low 1–2 ‰ water salinity. A slight increase in water salinity (to 1 ‰) speeded up the L. arcticus shell replacement. The observations from natural populations supported the hypothesis that the size of the animals increases considerably in low 1.5 ‰ salt concentrations. Thus, a small increase in water salinity seems to have a positive impact on the growth of this short-lived species. Acidification has been a big problem for many crustaceans, invertebrates and fishes for several decades. L. arcricus does not make an exception. Strong acid stress in pH 4 caused a high mortality of mature L. arcticus females. The critical lower limit of pH was 6.1 for the survival of this acid sensitive species. Thus, L. arcticus populations are probably in danger of extinction due to acidification of three ponds on Spitsbergen. A slight drop (0.1–1.0) in pH values can wipe out these L. arcticus populations. The survival of L. arcticus was strongly related to: (1) the water pH, (2) total organic carbon (TOC) and pH interaction, (3) the water temperature and (4) the water salinity. Water pH and TOC values should be monitored in these ponds and the input of acidifying substances in ponds should be prevented.