Browsing by Subject "violence"

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  • Ruohio, Ilona (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani aiheena on ’toiseuden’ ilmenemismuodot (‘othering’) englantilaisen The Economist -viikkolehden nekrologeissa. Tarkastelen ’normiin’ ja ’toiseuteen’ liittyvää henkilökuvausta kriittisen diskurssianalyysin viitekehyksessä. Valitsin lehden tutkimus-kohteekseni, koska sillä on suuri vaikutusvalta maailmanlaajuiseen lukijakuntaan ja sen arvoihin ja asenteisiin. Vuosina 2010 – 2014 The Economist -lehdessä julkaistiin 255 nekrologia. Näiden joukosta valitsin henkilökuvauksen yleisvaikutelman perusteella 10 nekrologia tarkemman kielellisen analyysin kohteiksi. Viisi tekstiä vaikutti kunnioittavaan sävyyn kirjoitetuilta ja toiset viisi negatiivisesti värittyneiltä. Analyysimenetelmänä käytän Fowlerin luokittelua, joka pohjautuu Hallidayn systeemis-funktionaaliseen kielioppiin ja keskittyy transitiivisuuden tarkasteluun. Analysoin verbi-, adjektiivi- ja substantiivirakenteita, verbien konnotaatioita sekä semanttisia rooleja. Nämä rakennevalinnat liittyvät laajaan sosiokulttuuriseen kontekstiin, kielen interpersonaaliseen ja ideationaaliseen funktioon ja saavat merkityksensä niiden kautta. Tekemäni analyysi osoittaa, että ’normia’ edustavat henkilöt ovat aineistossa enemmistönä ja saavat osakseen positiivisia ja arvostavia verbejä, adjektiiveja ja substantiiveja, kun taas ’toiseksi’ luokiteltavia henkilöitä on merkittävästi vähemmän ja heitä kuvataan negatiivisin verbein, adjektiivein ja substantiivein. Lisäksi ’normin’ edustajat kuvataan ’toisia’ useammin toimijan (Agent) semanttisessa roolissa ja ’toiset’ saavat ’normin’ edustajia enemmän kokijan (Experiencer) ja kohteen (Affected) rooleja. Tutkimukseni tulos vastaa van Dijkin representaatiostrategiaa ‘ideological square’, jonka mukaan ’normi’ esitetään positiivisessa ja ’toiset’ negatiivisessa valossa. Tarkasteltavassa aineistossa ’normia’ (Us) edustavat valkoihoiset heteromiehet, ja ’toiseutta’ (Them) taas naiset ja värilliset.
  • Virkki, Tuija; Venäläinen, Satu (2020)
    Online discussions are rife with fear-evoking images and meaning making that highlight a perceived threat to the security of European nations and their inhabitants posed by migrants’ violence in the wake of increased immigration. This paper examines the role of emotions in shaping anti-immigration views as a response to the threat of violence attached to migrants in online conversations. Using a dataset of Finnish online discussion threads from 2015 to 2017 that were prompted by extensive media attention paid to various cases of violent crime in which migrants were suspects, we particularly analyse the affective dynamics of interpellation processes wherein discussants are invited to adopt anti-immigration orientations. This analysis demonstrates how emotions such as fear, hate, and love function together in complex ways to constitute and shift meanings constructed during these discussions. These processes afford the construction and adoption of affectively appealing identities that are based on the re-signification of anti-immigration orientations as morally and socially acceptable, such as ‘normal citizen’ and ‘caring parent’. The analysis thus provides insight into processes in which ‘ordinary’ citizens hear, and respond to the call for xenophobic positions, thereby illustrating how a sense of community and caring for a community is built within these affective processes.
  • Cowie, Ian (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The purpose of this study was to examine how media representations of masculinity, patriotism and militarism in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) relate to other corporate and political interests, and, in what ways (if any) does the UFC act to legitimize violence within the sport of mixed-martial-arts (MMA). This research was carried out within the theoretical framework of the “New American Militarism” (Bacevich, 2013) , as well as hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1995). Through a critical content analysis of 13 “UFC Fight for the Troops” videos, it was argued that UFC has a symbiotic relationship with the U.S. military. The goal of this research was to contribute to a further understanding of the how political ideologies found in sports shape our daily lives. The paper examined ways U.S. military uses the UFC as a means to build morale for its troops before they are sent to war, and how the UFC benefits from the U.S. military through financial support and an increased fan base. Moreover, the UFC promotes nationalism and patriotism by making competition between individuals appear as competition between nations. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study was provided by showing how the UFC legitimizes violence within the sport of MMA. We can see obvious consequences of this for the athletes, but more research is needed to understand how this relationship has evolved over time, and how it shapes the worldview of millions of viewers.
  • Venäläinen, Satu Maarit (2017)
    Widely circulated cultural conceptions about women who have committed violence recurrently place them in positions of otherness in relation to what is considered as being normal, valuable womanhood. This article explores ways in which Finnish women imprisoned for violent crimes grapple with this troubled relation between womanhood and violence in their enactments of gendered identities. The analysis is based on a novel, discursive-affective approach to positioning that can accommodate complexity and context-specific variability in enactments of identities. Four different, recurring modes of positioning are discussed in the analysis: aligning with forcefulness, aligning with vulnerability, (dis)-aligning with demonization and aligning with motherhood. By shedding light not only on the complexity and fluidity of these gendered identity enactments but also on their affectively ambivalent dimensions, the analysis contributes to attempts at countering reductionist views about women who have committed violence and the gendered dichotomizations that they work to reproduce.
  • Raunio, Sonja (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    In my research I examined violence in secondary school from the point of view of the students. I asked, how the students themselves defined violence. I focused on who was considered to be someone who has information on the phenomenon or power to define it. In previous research it has been reported that mundane, everyday violence has been studied less than extreme acts of violence. In my research, I drew attention to the mundane aspects of the phenomenon and what it is at its limits. I tried to determine why some things were named violence, when others were not. In my research I regarded violence as gendered, since I wanted to study the phenomenon as a structure rather than as attached to specific individuals. In my understanding, violence and power are inseparably linked. Therefore I chose to approach the phenomenon from the perspective of a feminist theory. Key concepts in my research were violence, gender, school and agency. I used feminist ethnography as a method to both produce and analyze the data. In feminist ethnography it is essential to interact as respectfully as as possible with the people who are being studied as well as to maintain a critical attitude toward knowing and the hierarchies related to knowledge. The ethnographer tries to understand the world of the people she studies by participating in it. In feminist ethnography attention is drawn to power relations as well as in the intertwining differences. The data consist of field notes and interviews. For two weeks I observed the school days of the students of one seventh grade in one school located in the Helsinki metropolitan area. My observation covered classes, breaks and meal times, but I did not follow the students if they left the school grounds unless the classes were held there. I interviewed 17 of the 18 students in the class, in pairs or individually. Half of the interviews were done individually and the other half in pairs. There were 12 interviews in total. According to my research, the student's status in the social hierarchy, their position regarding the norms in the society and the discourses related to violence or bullying in society were some of the factors that influenced the way the students defined violence or were affected by it. Violence in school appeared to be so normal that often it was not even noticed or regarded as such. An atmosphere was maintained actively where the possibility of violence was always present. The teachers used the threat of violence as a resource to emphasize their message. Gendered structures were also entwined with the normalization of violence. Violence or the threat of it was linked in particular with the correct representations of masculinity. In addition to gender other differences affected how it was possible to be present in school and how violence could be defined or used as a resource. According to my research, racism, homophobia and gendered structures limit the students' agency. The students seemed to be struggling to understand situations from other person's points of view and to understand the consequences of their actions. On the other hand, the teachers did not seem to understand the students' perspective. I too shared the difficulties with identifying and naming violence. My conclusion is that even though no one is able to distinctly define violence, it is not to be accepted. Based on my research, violence should always be intervened, despite the difficulties of defining it.
  • Koirikivi, Pia; Benjamin, Saija; Hietajarvi, Lauri; Kuusisto, Arniika; Gearon, Liam (2021)
    Resilience has been highlighted in educational policies internationally as one of the key elements that may prevent negative developmental trajectories, such as radicalization into violent extremism. To examine the factors that contribute to resilience at adolescence and to understand how resilience relates to wellbeing this study investigates the resilience resources of Finnish youth (n=2837). Furthermore, we examined the relationship between resilience and the youth's self-reported levels of empathy and beneficence (pro-social orientation), life satisfaction and meaning in life (contentment with life), and their intention for non-violent action (activism), and intention for violent actions (radicalism). The results of the latent profile analysis suggest that high resilience resources are related to higher levels of pro-social orientation and contentment with life, while the opposite is true for low resilience resources. However, the findings do not indicate any significant connection between low resilience resources and an increased intent for activism or radicalism.
  • Gronow, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis is a theoretical analysis of Johan Galtung’s conceptualization of violence. Although his conceptualization is analysed as a whole, there is a particular focus on analysing his concept of structural violence in the context of his theory of social structures. This choice of theoretical framework is justified by the fact that although Galtung’s conceptualization of violence has been criticized from numerous angles before, when surveying that literature, it became apparent that not enough attention has been given to analysing it in the framework of his theory of social structures. The explicit underlying assumption guiding this analysis is thus that one cannot properly evaluate a concept of structural violence detached from a conception of structure. This thesis has two main goals. First, in the abovementioned framework, the aim is to locate and analyse some previously overlooked and problematic theoretical and practical implications of Galtung’s conceptualization. The second goal is to evaluate the analytical usefulness of the concept, based on those findings. An extensive analysis of Galtung’s conceptualization of violence, particularly in relation to his theory of social structures, reveals some important problematic theoretical and practical implications, notably regarding his conceptualization of violence resting on the notion of the actual vs. the potential. In effect, this definition renders the concept so wide so as to render it rather meaningless, calling into question its analytical usefulness. Moreover, the analysis shows some damaging inconsistencies in the conceptualization, particularly when it comes to the proposition of structural violence necessarily lacking an active and identifiable subject. This relates to another problem highlighted throughout the analysis, namely that of a lack of an account of agency and intentionality, particularly regarding indirect violence. Most importantly, one of the main conclusions of this analysis is that the possibilities for the creation of peaceful social structures, if adhering to Galtung’s own conceptualization, is both in theory and practice virtually impossible, since some type or degree of violence will always be present in a structure. Positive peace, as envisaged by Galtung, in practice becomes a logical impossibility, if one adheres to Galtung’s own conceptualization of violence. The thesis concludes that Galtung’s conceptualization has a number of problematic implications, some of which have not been adequately noted before. Thus, his conceptualization of violence is rejected as a useful analytical framework, as well as a basis for structural reform, and by extension, Peace research. Support is given to a restricted understanding of the concept of violence.
  • Venäläinen, Satu; Virkki, Tuija (2019)
    The article examines online discussions in Finland that focus on violence committed by Finnish women, on one hand, and non-white migrant men, on the other. Drawing on the perspective of sociology of value, the article illustrates how these discussions function as sites of struggles over moral worth in a contemporary context characterised by crises of both male and white hegemony. The authors suggest that, through the discussions, these current crises are projected on migrant men and certain groups of women, who thereby become construed as morally reprehensible. The analysis sheds light on processes of (re-)legitimating the moral virtue historically attached to both masculinity and whiteness, and thereby shows how gendered and racialised hierarchies are reproduced in the context of meaning-making around the issue of violence. Also discussed is how these dynamics and the process of reproduction via discourse draw upon historically recurring meanings and evaluations while simultaneously tailored to contemporary circumstances. The tailoring is performed via explicit reference to the value of gender equality, which serves a dual function: re-inscribing moral value in white masculinity while excluding from the circuits of value both racialised masculinities and Finnish women portrayed as doing gender and whiteness in the 'wrong' way. These processes give the discussants room for justifying hate and violent exclusion of such women and migrant men while also muting any dissenting voices attempting to resist circulation of the derogatory meanings.
  • Korhonen, Liisa M.; Taskinen, Mervi; Rantanen, Matti; Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Bautz, Andrea; Feychting, Maria; Mogensen, Hanna; Talback, Mats; Malila, Nea; Ryynänen, Heidi; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura (2019)
    Background Childhood cancer survivors have been reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric morbidities and risky health behavior. Suicides, substance abuse, accidents, and violence as causes of death can be regarded as an extreme manifestation of risky health behavior. In the current study, the authors studied the risk of suicide and other risky health behavior-related deaths among childhood cancer patients in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden. Methods Using linkage between national cancer, population, and cause-of-death registries, the authors investigated the causes of death in 29,285 patients diagnosed with cancer before age 20 years between 1971 and 2009 compared with a cohort of 146,282 age-matched, sex-matched, and country-matched population comparisons. Rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated using Poisson regression models, adjusting for demographic factors. Results The overall risk of dying of a risky health behavior was found to be increased among childhood cancer patients (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.47) when compared with population comparisons. The elevated risk was statistically significant among patients with central nervous system tumors (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.05) and patients diagnosed at ages 5 to 9 years and 15 to 19 years (RR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.01-2.24] and RR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.03-1.67], respectively). The overall risk of suicide was found to be increased (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.02-1.83), and statistically significantly so when patients were diagnosed between ages 15 and 19 years (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.09-2.39). Conclusions Childhood cancer patients appear to have an increased risk of risky health behavior-related causes of death compared with the general population. The results of the current study suggest the importance of integrating psychosocial support into the follow-up care of these individuals.
  • Urnberg, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims: Healthcare workers commonly suffer from workplace aggression, so it is important to understand factors that may increase its risk. Previous studies have shown that job demands increase the risk of inappropriate treatment at workplace. Furthermore, poorly functioning, and constantly changing information systems form a major work stressor for doctors. Therefore, the current study examines if physicians that re-port higher levels of stress related to information systems are also more likely to re-port experiencing workplace aggression. Methods: The sample for the study (n=3327) was collected in the cross-sectional Finnish Physicians’ Working Conditions and Health 2019 -study. Both physical and non-physical aggression were measured, and a combined variable for general aggression was also formed from them. For non-physical aggression, also the perpetrator of aggression was examined: patients or their relatives, and co-workers or superiors. For each type of aggression, logistic regression analysis was used with stress related to in-formation systems as the predictive variable. Results and conclusions: Higher levels of stress related to information systems were associated with higher likelihood of aggression in all types of aggression. The association was strongest with non-physical aggression. These results emphasize the importance of designing functional information systems to improve both the wellbeing of physicians and the quality of patient care in the future. However, the current findings warrant more research, especially regarding the possible mediating factors between stress related to information systems and workplace aggression.
  • Nieminen, Kati (2019)
    This article takes violence in the law seriously, scrutinizing three sites engaged in violent subject production and resistance: the Guantanamo Bay detention center, supermax prisons in the US, and European refugee camps. The concepts of martyring and torturing serve help to untangle the dynamics of the law’s violence. The violent subject production techniques used in these sites are discussed as torture practices that aim to reproduce the dominant subjectivity. As the law has often proved unable to fully address the situation of the detainee, the prisoner, and the refugee, hunger striking as martyring is discussed as a way to deconstruct hegemonic subjectivity and to force the law to face its own violence.
  • Jyrkinen, Marjut (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    During recent years the commercialisation of sex has increased and intensified both locally and globally. This thesis explores the commercialisation of bodies, sex and sexualities, particularly the sex trade, and the impact of rapidly evolving information and communication technologies on this globalising trade. The main focus of this work is on the policies, discourses and policy developments in the area especially in the Finnish context. The study is based on multidisciplinary theoretical sources through which the framework of multiple linkages relevant to the commercialisation of sex is conceptualised. The sex trade functions through a web of intersecting linkages of a substantive, economic, organisational, temporal, spatial, cultural, technological, as well as of legislative and policy nature. This framework of linkages forms the basis for the analysis of the main empirical data, namely qualitative interviews with thirty key managers and professionals, who are responsible for the preparation and implementation of policies on commercial sex. In addition, the thesis addresses the policies and policy practices on the sex trade through the analysis of national and international policy instruments. In addition to analysing the processes of the commercialisation of sex and its effects, the study also discusses their further implications for organisational policy-making, research, and society more generally. The thesis thus seeks to contribute to practice, research and theory on gender, management and organisations.
  • Lantta, Tella; Kontio, Raija; Daffern, Michael; Adams, Clive E.; Valimaki, Maritta (2016)
    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the acceptability of Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) from the perspective of patients, its actual use by mental health nurses, and the predictive validity of the DASA instrument. Methods: A feasibility study design incorporating quantitative and qualitative components was used. The study was conducted in three mental health inpatient units at three hospitals in southern Finland. Quantitative data were used to explore demand (nurses' actual use of the DASA), limited efficacy (predictive validity), and acceptability (measured through patients' participation in the project). Qualitative data were collected to enhance the understanding of acceptability by describing patients' perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of the DASA. Results: Nurses used the DASA for most patient assessments. The predictive validity of the DASA was outstanding or excellent, depending on the type of aggression predicted, although the patient recruitment ratio was low. Patients reported both strengths and weaknesses of the DASA, providing complementary information regarding the instrument's acceptability and clinical application. Conclusion: The DASA accurately predicts inpatient aggression. The patients' preferences and concerns regarding risk assessment have been noted. More patient involvement in risk assessment research and violence prevention efforts is required.
  • Venäläinen, Satu Maarit (2019)
    This paper focuses on ways in which vulnerability is given meaning and related to in narratives of women serving a prison sentence for violent crimes. These women can be seen as inhabiting specifically vulnerable social positions in many respects, while at the same time their vulnerability is often denied. In my analysis I view the past, present, and future vulnerabilities of these women in a dialectical relation with the narratives they tell and the identities they enact through these tellings. In their narratives, vulnerability entwines with agentic orientations towards violence in complex ways. While often figuring as part of the context of doing violence, vulnerability is also refuted, combated, and distanced from the selves constituted in the narratives. In my reading, these ambivalent relations to vulnerability reflect the gendered trouble it poses for being seen as a worthy subject in the context of Western valorization of autonomy and individual agency.
  • Suonpää, Karoliina Eeva-Maria; Savolainen, Jukka (2019)
    This research revisited the claim that victim precipitation (VP) is especially prevalent in situations where women kill their male intimate partners. Using administrative data from the Finnish Homicide Monitor (N =1,494), we created a typology of homicide incidents to examine variation in VP across three factors: the gender of the offender, the gender of the victim, and the intimacy of the victim–offender relationship. The results from regression models demonstrated strong support for the assumption that killings by women of their male intimate partners are more likely to have been victim precipitated than other types of homicide. This homicide type stood out as having the strongest association with each measure of VP included in the analysis. We did not observe statistically significant differences in VP among other homicide types. For example, we did not observe gender differences in VP in homicides that did not involve intimate partners. This pattern of results contradicts prior evidence suggesting that VP is a general feature of female-perpetrated killings, independent of the gender of the victim and the intimacy of the victim–offender relationship. As such, the present study underscores the importance of replication in studies of interpersonal violence. Theoretically, the results support the gender–partner interaction hypothesis over gender differences hypothesis of VP.
  • Kronqvist, Otto (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce and analyze Michel Foucault’s (1926–1984) conceptions of power (pouvoir) and violence (violence). Foucault wrote extensively about power, but seldomly analyzed violence analytically. Nevertheless he argues that power and violence are connected. This thesis is an attempt to gain an understanding of the relation between power and violence and to open the field for questions on resistance. The questions of this thesis are approached through conceptual analysis and historical investigation. The main literature consists of Foucault’s mid-70s works; from Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality: Volume One to his lecture series at Collège de France, especially 'Society Must Be Defended' and Security, Territory, Population. Works on Foucault that are cited include Jeffrey Nealon’s Foucault Beyond Foucault (2008), Kai Alhanen’s Practices of Thought in Michel Foucault’s Philosophy (2012) and Johanna Oksala’s Foucault, Politics, and Violence (2012). Power is mainly approached through the concepts of cost and intensity, stressing Foucault’s famous claim that 'power produces', or that it is productive in itself. In contrast to power, violence is, according to Foucault, unproductive or even destructive in its effects. In order to understand how the concept of cost and the process of intensifying are interconnected with historical changes and the corresponding use of violence, Foucault’s accounts on different historical modes of power are introduced and examined. This examination shows that historically the use of violence has developed from being excessive and brutal (the sovereign’s 'Right of Death') to normative and life-preserving (the bio-political 'Power over Life'). The analysis shows that power and violence have a certain, historically contingent connection, which is perceived through the hegemonic political rationalities. According to Foucault, in order to resist violence, it is essential to understand the rationalities in question and to refuse to co-operate with the dominating practices they foster.
  • Minkkinen, Panu (2013)
    The essay explores the political theory of the so-called ‘early’ Walter Benjamin, especially in light of James Martel’s two recent books on the subject. The essay asks whether Max Weber would qualify as a ‘plotter’ in the ‘Benjaminian conspiracy’ that, for Martel, is at the heart of his anarchist politics. It does so by close-reading Benjamin’s posthumously published fragment ‘Capitalism as Religion’ from 1921 that specifically draws on Weber. A theoretical kinship is identified between Benjamin’s idea of pure means that Agamben also considers as a key element in the redefinition of politics and Weber’s notion of capital and violence as ‘ends in themselves’ in economic and political action respectively. Violence as the ‘end in itself’ or the Selbstzweck of politics represents the Nietzschean undercurrent of Weber’s politics that Benjamin may well have felt an affinity to.