Browsing by Subject "virtavedet"

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  • Lakso, Esko (National Board of Waters and Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1988)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 1
    Yhteenveto: Ilmastus ylisyöksypadoilla
  • Unknown author (Vesihallitus, 1973)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 45
  • Mykrä, Heikki; Kuoppala, Minna; Nykänen, Vesa; Tolonen, Katri; Turunen, Jarno; Vilmi, Annika; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Environmental Management 278, Part 2 (2021), 111532
    Mining has changed landscapes locally in northern Fennoscandia and there is an increasing pressure for exploitation of the remaining mineral deposits of the region. Mineral deposits, even if unmined, can strongly influence stream water chemistry, stream biological communities and the ability of organisms to tolerate stressors. Using data sampled from six mining areas with three active (gold and chrome), two closed (gold) and one planned mine (phosphate), we examined how mineral deposits and mining influence water chemistry and diatom and macroinvertebrate communities in subarctic streams in Finnish Lapland. We supplemented the data by additional samples compiled from databases and further assessed how variation in background geological conditions influences bioassessments of the impacts arising from mining. We found that water specific conductivity was elevated in our study streams draining through catchments with a high mineral potential. Mining effects were mainly seen as increased concentration of nitrogen. Influence of mineral deposits was detected in composition of diatom and macroinvertebrate communities, but communities in streams in areas with a high mineral potential were as diverse as those in streams in areas with a low mineral potential. Mining impacts were better detected for diatoms using a reference condition based on sites with a high than low mineral potential, while for macroinvertebrates, the responses were generally less evident, likely because of only minor effects of mining on water chemistry. Community composition and frequencies of occurrence of macroinvertebrate taxa were, however, highly similar between mine-influenced streams and reference streams with a high potential for minerals indicating that the communities are strongly structured by the natural influence of mineral deposits. Incorporating geochemistry into the reference condition would likely improve bioassessments of both taxonomic groups. Replicated monitoring in potentially impacted sites and reference sites would be the most efficient framework for detecting environmental impacts in streams draining through mineral-rich catchments.
  • Rajakallio, Maria; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Muotka, Timo; Aroviita, Jukka (Blackwell, 2021)
    Journal of Applied Ecology 58: 7, 1523-1532
    1. Growing bioeconomy is increasing the pressure to clear-cut drained peatland forests. Yet, the cumulative effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on the biodiversity of recipient freshwater ecosystems are largely unknown. 2. We studied the isolated and combined effects of peatland drainage and clear-cutting on stream macroinvertebrate communities. We further explored whether the impact of these forestry-driven catchment alterations to benthic invertebrates is related to stream size. We quantified the impact on invertebrate biodiversity by comparing communities in forestry-impacted streams to expected communities modelled with a multi-taxon niche model. 3. The impact of clear-cutting of drained peatland forests exceeded the sum of the independent effects of drainage and clear-cutting, indicating a synergistic interaction between the two disturbances in small streams. Peatland drainage reduced benthic biodiversity in both small and large streams, whereas clear-cutting did the same only in small streams. Small headwater streams were more sensitive to forestry impacts than the larger downstream sites. 4. We found 11 taxa (out of 25 modelled) to respond to forestry disturbances. These taxa were mainly different from those previously reported as sensitive to forestry-driven alterations, indicating the context dependence of taxonomic responses to forestry. In contrast, most of the functional traits previously identified as responsive to agricultural sedimentation also responded to forestry pressures. In particular, taxa that live temporarily in hyporheic habitats, move by crawling, disperse actively in water, live longer than 1 year, use eggs as resistance form and obtain their food by scraping became less abundant than expected, particularly in streams impacted by both drainage and clear-cutting. 5. Synthesis and applications. Drained peatland forests in boreal areas are reaching maturity and will soon be harvested. Clear-cutting of these forests incurs multiple environmental hazards but previous studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystems. Our results show that the combined impacts of peatland drainage and clear-cutting may extend across ecosystem boundaries and cause significant biodiversity loss in recipient freshwater ecosystems. This information supports a paradigm shift in boreal forest management, whereby continuous-cover forestry based on partial harvest may provide the most sustainable approach to peatland forestry.
  • Rolls, Robert J.; Chessman, Bruce C.; Heino, Jani; Wolfenden, Ben; Thurtell, Lisa A.; Cheshire, Katherine J. M.; Ryan, David; Butler, Gavin; Growns, Ivor; Curwen, Graeme (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Landscape Ecology
    Context A core theme in ecohydrology is understanding how hydrology affects spatial variation in the composition of species assemblages (i.e., beta diversity). However, most empirical evidence is from research in upland rivers spanning small spatial extents. Relatively little is known of the consequences of hydrological variation for beta diversity across multiple spatial scales in lowland rivers. Objectives We sought to examine how spatial variation in hydrology and fish beta diversity within and among rivers changed over time in response to intensification and cessation of hydrological drought. Methods We used monitoring data of fish assemblages, coupled with hydrological and biophysical data, to test how spatial variation in hydrology and multiple components of fish beta diversity in lowland rivers of the Murray—Darling Basin (Australia) varied across spatial scales during contrasting hydrological phases. Results Spatial variation in hydrology among rivers declined with increasing duration of drought before increasing during a return to above-average flows. Spatial variation in hydrology within rivers did not show consistent changes between hydrological phases. Beta diversity among and within rivers showed variable, river-specific changes among hydrological phases for both incidence- and abundance-based components of assemblage composition. Conclusions Inconsistent hydrology—beta diversity patterns found here suggest that mechanisms and outcomes of drought and flooding impacts to beta diversity are context-dependent and not broadly generalisable. Our findings indicate that hydrological fluctuations occurring in the Murray—Darling Basin in the period analysed here did not cause significant or consistent homogenisation or differentiation of freshwater fish assemblages.
  • Li, Zhengfei; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zhenyuan; Meng, Xingliang; Heino, Jani; Jiang, Xuankong; Xiong, Xiong; Jiang, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhicai (2019)
    Science of the Total Environment 655:1288-1300
    Examining the relative contribution of local environmental stressors and regional factors in structuring biological communities is essential for biodiversity conservation and environmental assessment, yet their relative roles for different community characterizations remain elusive. Here, we examined the responses of taxonomic and functional structures of stream macroinvertebrate communities to local and regional factors across a human-induced environmental gradient in the Han River Basin, one subtropical biodiversity hotspot in China. Our objectives were: 1) to examine the responses of traditional taxonomic measures and functional traits to anthropogenic disturbances; 2) to compare the relative importance of environmental versus spatial variables and catchment-scale versus reach-scale variables for the two community characterizations. We found that both species and trait compositions performed well in differentiating anthropogenic disturbances, indicating that both taxonomic and functional structures of macroinvertebrate communities were strongly altered by human activities. Particularly, some traits related to life history (e.g., voltinism), resilience and resistance (e.g., adult flying ability) are well suited for predicting changes of communities towards anthropogenic disturbances owing to their mechanistic relationship with environmental gradients. We found that environmental variables played more important roles than spatial effects in structuring both taxonomic and functional facets of macroinvertebrate communities. Environmental filtering was more important in determining functional than taxonomic structure, and the opposite was true for spatial effects. In terms of environmental variables, catchment land-uses played the primary role in determining taxonomic composition, whereas reach-scale variables related to local habitat heterogeneity were more influential for functional structure. Our study highlights the importance of employing metacommunity perspectives and different community characterizations in both theoretical and applied research. For stream bioassessment and management, we argue that the combination of taxonomic and functional characterizations of community should be implemented, as different facets of biological communities responded to different types of anthropogenic disturbances.
  • Li, Zhengfei; Wang, Jun; Meng, Xingliang; Heino, Jani; Sun, Meiqin; Jiang, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhicai (2019)
    Freshwater Science 38 (1): 170-182
    Disentangling the effects of dispersal mode on the environmental and spatial processes structuring biological assemblages is essential to understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence and maintenance. Here, we use field investigations to link dispersal mode with environmental and spatial processes that control stream macroinvertebrate assemblage structure across the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon of Tibet (Tibetan Plateau). We sampled macroinvertebrates in streams that occur in 4 distinct regions. Each of these regions has a steep elevational gradient but different altitude ranges, climate types, and water replenishment sources. We classified macroinvertebrate taxa into passive and active dispersal mode groups to test whether macroinvertebrates with different dispersal modes responded differently to environmental and spatial processes. Our results showed that the assemblage structure of active dispersal groups was more strongly determined by environmental variables (habitat filtering/species sorting) than spatial factors both within and across regions. In contrast, the structure of passive dispersers was more strongly associated with spatial factors than environmental filtering in the entire study area and within lower canyon regions. However, spatial effects were not important for either type of dispersal group in the upper canyon regions, especially in the region with glacier-fed streams, indicating the predominance of species sorting processes in these harsh environments. Furthermore, the spatial structuring of assemblages became stronger as habitat filtering declined, which indicates a reduction in species sorting processes in less harsh environments. Our findings demonstrate diverse responses of macroinvertebrate assemblages to environmental and spatial processes across this poorly-known highland river system, and imply that dispersal mode influences the underlying mechanisms of community variation.
  • Finér, Leena; Lepistö, Ahti; Karlsson, Kristian; Räike, Antti; Härkönen, Laura; Huttunen, Markus; Joensuu, Samuli; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sallantaus, Tapani; Sarkkola, Sakari; Tattari, Sirkka; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 762 (2021), 144098
    More reliable assessments of nutrient export to surface waters and the Baltic Sea are required to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. Previous nutrient export estimates have recently been questioned since they did not include the long-term impacts of drainage for forestry. We made new estimates of the total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and total organic carbon (TOC) export from forests to surface waters at different spatial scales in Finland. This was done by formulating statistical equations between streamwater concentrations and climate, soil, forest management and runoff variables and spatial data on catchment characteristics. The equations were based on a large, long-term runoff and streamwater quality dataset, which was collected from 28 pristine and 61 managed boreal forest catchments located around Finland. We found that the concentrations increased with temperature sum (TS), i.e. from north to south. Nitrogen, P and TOC concentrations increased with the proportion of drained areas in the catchment; those of N and TOC also increased with the proportion of peatlands. In contrast, with the increasing concentrations of N and TOC with time, P concentrations showed a decreasing trend over the last few decades. According to our estimates, altogether 47,300 Mg of N, 1780 Mg of P and 1814 Gg of TOC is transported from forest areas to surface waters in Finland. Forest management contributes 17% of the N export, 35% of the P export and 12% of the TOC export. Our new forest management export estimates for N and P are more than two times higher than the old estimates used by the environment authorities. The differences may be explained by the long-term impact of forest drainage. The spatial results indicate that peatland forests are hotspots for N, P and TOC export, especially in the river basins draining to the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Brittain, John E.; Heino, Jani; Friberg, Nikolai; Aroviita, Jukka; Kahlert, Maria; Karjalainen, Satu‐Maaria; Keck, François; Lento, Jennifer; Liljaniemi, Petri; Mykrä, Heikki; Schneider, Susanne C.; Ylikörkkö, Jukka (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater Biology
    1. Arctic freshwaters support biota adapted to the harsh conditions at these latitudes, but the climate is changing rapidly and so are the underlying environmental filters. Currently, we have limited understanding of broad-scale patterns of Arctic riverine biodiversity and the correlates of α- and β-diversity. 2. Using information from a database set up within the scope of the Arctic Council's Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Plan, we analysed patterns and correlates of α- and β-diversity in benthic diatom and macroinvertebrate communities across northern Norway, Sweden, and Finland. We analysed variation in total β-diversity and its replacement and richness difference components in relation to location of the river reach and its drainage basin (Baltic Sea in the south, the Barents Sea in the east and the north, and the Norwegian Sea in the west), in addition to climate and environmental variables. 3. In both macroinvertebrates and diatoms, the replacement and richness difference components showed wide variation. For macroinvertebrates, the richness difference component was the more important, whereas for diatoms, the replacement component was the more important in contributing to variation in β-diversity. There was no significant difference in β-diversity between the three main drainage basins, but species composition differed among the drainage basins. 4. Based on the richness difference component of β-diversity, climate variables were most strongly associated with community variation in macroinvertebrates. In diatoms, both environmental and climate variables were strongly correlated with community compositional variation. In both groups, there were also significant differences in α-diversity among the three main drainage basins, and several taxa were significant indicators of one of these drainage basins. Alpha diversity was greater in areas with a continental climate, while the oceanic areas in the west harboured greatly reduced flora and fauna. 5. The correlates of biodiversity were relatively similar in macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Climate variables, in particular temperature, were the most strongly associated with biodiversity patterns in the Arctic rivers of Fennoscandia. Sedimentary geology may be associated with increased productivity and, to a lesser extent, with sensitivity to acidification. There was considerable variation in community composition across Arctic Fennoscandia, indicating the necessity of protecting several stream reaches or even whole catchments within each region to conserve total riverine biodiversity. Furthermore, it is likely that the predicted changes in temperature in Arctic areas will influence riverine diversity patterns across Fennoscandia.
  • Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Aroviita, Jukka; Turunen, Jarno; Rajakallio, Maria; Marttila, Hannu; Tolkkinen, Mikko; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 121 (2021), 106986
    Degradation of freshwater ecosystems requires efficient tools for assessing the ecological status of freshwater biota and identifying potential cause(s) for their biological degradation. While diatoms and macroinvertebrates are widely used in stream bioassessment, the potential utility of microbial communities has not been fully harnessed. Using data from 113 Finnish streams, we assessed the performance of aquatic leaf-associated fungal decomposers, relative to benthic macroinvertebrates and diatoms, in modelling-based bioassessment. We built multi-taxon niche -type predictive models for fungal assemblages by using genus-based and sequence-based identification levels. We then compared the models’ precision and accuracy in the prediction of reference conditions (number of native taxa) to corresponding models for macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Genus-based fungal model nearly equalled the accuracy and precision of our best model (macroinvertebrates), whereas the sequence-based model was less accurate and tended to overestimate the number of taxa. However, when the models were applied to streams disturbed by anthropogenic stressors (nutrient enrichment, sedimentation and acidification), alone or in combination, the sequence-based fungal assemblages were more sensitive than other taxonomic groups, especially when multiple stressors were present. Microbial leaf decomposition rates were elevated in sediment-stressed streams whereas decomposition attributable to leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates was accelerated by nutrients and decelerated by sedimentation. Comparison of leaf decomposition results to model output suggested that leaf decomposition rates do not detect effectively the presence of multiple simultaneous disturbances. The rapid development of global microbial database may soon enable species-level identification of leaf-associated fungi, facilitating a more precise and accurate modelling of reference conditions in streams using fungal communities. This development, combined with the sensitivity of aquatic fungi in detecting the presence of multiple human disturbances, makes leaf-associated fungal assemblages an indispensable addition in a stream ecologist’s toolbox.
  • Mykrä, Heikki; Annala, Mari; Hilli, Anu; Hotanen, Juha-Pekka; Hokajärvi, Raili; Jokikokko, Pauli; Karttunen, Krister; Kesälä, Mikko; Kuoppala, Minna; Leinonen, Antti; Marttila, Hannu; Meriö, Leo-Juhani; Piirainen, Sirpa; Porvari, Petri; Salmivaara, Aura; Vaso, Asta (Elsevier BV, 2023)
    Forest Ecology and Management
    Forested buffer zones with varying width have been suggested as the most promising approach for protecting boreal riparian biodiversity, reducing erosion, and minimizing nutrient leaching from managed forestry areas. Yet, less optimal fixed-width approach is still largely used, likely because of its simple design and implementation. We examined the efficiency of varying-width buffer zones based on depth-to-water (DTW) index in protecting stream riparian plant communities. We further compared the economic costs of DTW-based buffer to commonly used 5, 10 and 15 m fixed-width buffers. We also included an additional buffer based on a combination of DTW and erosion risk (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, RUSLE) into these comparisons to see the extent and cost of a buffer that should maximize the protection of the linked aquatic environment. Plant species richness increased with increasing soil moisture and species preferring moist conditions, nutrient-rich soils and high pH were clearly more abundant adjacent to stream in areas with high predicted soil moisture than in dry areas. Differences in species richness were paralleled by differences in community composition and higher beta diversity of plant communities in wet than in dry riparian areas. There were also several indicator species typical for moist and nutrient-rich soils for wet riparian areas. Riparian buffer zones based on DTW were on average larger than 15 m wide fixed-width buffers. However, the cost for DTW-based buffer was lower than for fixed-width buffer zones when the cost was normalized by area. Simulated selective cutting decreased the costs, but cutting possibilities were variable among streams and depended on the characteristics of forest stands. Our results thus suggest a high potential of DTW in predicting wet areas and variable-width buffer zones based on these areas in the protection of riparian biodiversity and stream ecosystems.
  • Virkki, Vili; Alanärä, Elina; Porkka, Miina; Ahopelto, Lauri; Gleeson, Tom; Mohan, Chinchu; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Flörke, Martina; Gerten, Dieter; Gosling, Simon N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Wanders, Niko; Kummu, Matti (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
    Human actions and climate change have drastically altered river flows across the world, resulting in adverse effects on riverine ecosystems. Environmental flows (EFs) have emerged as a prominent tool for safeguarding the riverine ecosystems, but at the global scale, the assessment of EFs is associated with high uncertainty related to the hydrological data and EF methods employed. Here, we present a novel, in-depth global EF assessment using environmental flow envelopes (EFEs). Sub-basin-specific EFEs are determined for approximately 4400 sub-basins at a monthly time resolution, and their derivation considers the methodological uncertainties related to global-scale EF studies. In addition to a lower bound of discharge based on existing EF methods, we introduce an upper bound of discharge in the EFE. This upper bound enables areas to be identified where streamflow has substantially increased above natural levels. Further, instead of only showing whether EFs are violated over a time period, we quantify, for the first time, the frequency, severity, and trends of EFE violations during the recent historical period. Discharge was derived from global hydrological model outputs from the ISIMIP 2b ensemble. We use pre-industrial (1801–1860) quasi-natural discharge together with a suite of hydrological EF methods to estimate the EFEs. We then compare the EFEs with recent historical (1976–2005) discharge to assess the violations of the EFE. These violations most commonly manifest as insufficient streamflow during the low-flow season, with fewer violations during the intermediate-flow season, and only a few violations during the high-flow season. The EFE violations are widespread and occur in half of the sub-basins of the world during more Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 3316 V. Virkki et al.: Globally widespread and increasing violations of environmental flow envelopes than 5 % of the months between 1976 and 2005, which is double compared with the pre-industrial period. The trends in EFE violations have mainly been increasing, which will likely continue in the future with the projected hydroclimatic changes and increases in anthropogenic water use. Indications of increased upper extreme streamflow through EFE upper bound violations are relatively scarce and dispersed. Although local fine-tuning is necessary for practical applications, and further research on the coupling between quantita tive discharge and riverine ecosystem responses at the global scale is required, the EFEs provide a quick and globally robust way of determining environmental flow allocations at the sub-basin scale to inform global research and policies on water resources management.
  • Wymore, Adam S.; Johnes, Penny J.; Bernal, Susana; Brookshire, E. N. Jack; Fazekas, Hannah M.; Helton, Ashley M.; Argerich, Alba; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Coble, Ashley A.; Dodds, Walter K.; Haq, Shahan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; López-Lloreda, Carla; Rodríguez-Cardona, Bianca M.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Yates, Christopher A.; McDowell, William H. (American Geophysical Union, 2021)
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 35(8), e2021GB006953
    A comprehensive cross-biome assessment of major nitrogen (N) species that includes dissolved organic N (DON) is central to understanding interactions between inorganic nutrients and organic matter in running waters. Here, we synthesize stream water N chemistry across biomes and find that the composition of the dissolved N pool shifts from highly heterogeneous to primarily comprised of inorganic N, in tandem with dissolved organic matter (DOM) becoming more N-rich, in response to nutrient enrichment from human disturbances. We identify two critical thresholds of total dissolved N (TDN) concentrations where the proportions of organic and inorganic N shift. With low TDN concentrations (0–1.3 mg/L N), the dominant form of N is highly variable, and DON ranges from 0% to 100% of TDN. At TDN concentrations above 2.8 mg/L, inorganic N dominates the N pool and DON rarely exceeds 25% of TDN. This transition to inorganic N dominance coincides with a shift in the stoichiometry of the DOM pool, where DOM becomes progressively enriched in N and DON concentrations are less tightly associated with concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This shift in DOM stoichiometry (defined as DOC:DON ratios) suggests that fundamental changes in the biogeochemical cycles of C and N in freshwater ecosystems are occurring across the globe as human activity alters inorganic N and DOM sources and availability. Alterations to DOM stoichiometry are likely to have important implications for both the fate of DOM and its role as a source of N as it is transported downstream to the coastal ocean.
  • Huhtala, Jarmo (Lapin ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristö 29/2008
    Käytännössä miltei kaikkia Lapin jokia ja puroja, joiden valuma-alueella on ollut hakkuita, on käytetty uittoväylänä. Lukuisat kosket muotoiltiin rännimäisiksi uomiksi uittotoiminnan helpottamiseksi. Uittoväyliä oli laajimmillaan Lapissa kaikkiaan noin 10 000 km. Uiton loputtua vesistöissä voimassa olleet uittosäännöt kumottiin lupaviranomaisen toimesta. Lapin läänin aluetta koskevia uittosääntöjen kumoamispäätöksiä, jotka sisälsivät virta-alueiden kalataloudellisia kunnostamisvelvoitteita, oli kaikkiaan 55 kappaletta. Kuinka näissä uiton jälkeisissä jokien koski- ja virta-alueiden kalataloudellisissa kunnostuksissa onnistuttiin saavuttamaan haluttuja kalataloudellisia vaikutuksia? Edellä mainittuun kysymykseen haetaan osaltaan vastausta arvioimalla seitsemän kalataloudellisesti kunnostetun joen  kunnostustöiden kalataloudellista vaikuttavuutta. Arvioinnin kohteena olevat joet on kunnostettu seuraavassa aikajärjestyksessä: Kuohunkijoki 1980-luvun alussa, Sattanen ja Raudanjoki 1990-luvun alkupuolella, Ounasjoki 1990-luvun puolivälissä, Värriöjoki 1990-luvun loppupuolella sekä Ylä-Kemijoki ja Viantiejoki 2000-luvun alussa. Kalataloudellisten kunnostamistöiden kalabiologisia vaikutuksia on arvioitu seurantakohteilla tehtyjen sähkökoekalastustulosten perusteella. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat erityisesti olleet kalataloudellisesti kunnostettujen jokien koski- ja virta-alueiden arvokalojen luontaisen lisääntymisen, kalabiomassan, kalatiheyden sekä kalalajisuhteiden kehittyminen koskien kunnostamistöiden jälkeen. Julkaisussa on esitetty havaintoja seurantakohteiden kunnostusten teknisestä toteuttamisesta ja jokikunnostustyömaan kalataloudellisen kunnostuksen asiantuntijaohjauksen järjestämisestä sekä edellä mainittujen tekijöiden vaikutuksista jokien kalataloudellisen kunnostusten kalabiologisten tavoitteiden saavuttamiseen. Ennakko-odotusten mukaisesti kalataloudellisesti kunnostettujen jokien koski- ja virta-alueiden keskimääräinen kalabiomassa olikin kasvanut useimmalla kohteella kunnostuksen jälkeen. Kunnostettujen virta-alueiden keskimääräinen kalabiomassa oli kasvanut useimmalla kohteella noin 40–100 %. Kunnostettujen jokien koski- ja virta-alueiden alueiden keskimääräinen lohikalojen biomassa kasvoi kaikilla kunnostetuilla kohteilla kalataloudellisen kunnostamisen jälkeen. Lohikalojen koski- ja virta-alueiden biomassan kasvu eri kohteilla vaihteli 19–2 400 % välillä. Kaikilla seurannassa olleilla kunnostetuilla jokialueilla on havaittu taimenen luontaista lisääntymistä kalataloudellisen kunnostamisen jälkeen. Kaikkien seurannassa olleiden jokien kalataloudellisen kunnostamisen todettiin tuottaneen kalataloudellista hyötyä. Ylivoimaisesti suurin kalataloudellinen hyöty (6 875 €/ha) koitui Ounasjoen yläosan kalataloudellisesta kunnostamisesta. Ounasjoen yläosan kunnostuksen vuonna 2003 tuottama kalataloudellinen hyöty arvioitiin alueelle istutettujen lohen poikasten tuottamien vaelluspoikasten määrän perusteella. Muiden seurannassa olleiden jokien kunnostuksesta koitunut kalataloudellinen hyöty vaihteli välillä 41–536 €/ha/a ollen keskimäärin noin 275 €/ha/a. Sattasjoen, Ounasjoen, Värriöjoen ja Ylä-Kemijoen osalta ei voitu kuitenkaan arvioida ko. jokien kalataloudellista kunnostamisesta harjuskannoille koitunutta hyötyä. Lapin kalataloudellisen kunnostustoiminnan tuottavuus kasvoi huomattavasti 1990-luvun alkupuolella. Huomattavasti pienemmillä kunnostuskustannuksilla (€/ha) saatiin merkittävästi suurempi kalataloudellinen hyöty. Kunnostamistyön toteuttamisvaiheessa tulee varmistaa, että työmaalla on organisaation jokikunnostustietämys ja osaaminen tehokkaassa käytössä. Paraskaan kunnostussuunnitelma ei takaa hyvää ja laadukasta kunnostamisen toteutusta, ellei työmaalle ole järjestetty riittävästi kalataloudellisen kunnostamistyön asiantuntijaohjausta. Asianmukainen työnohjaus vähentää kunnostamistyön kustannuksia ja lisää hankkeen kalataloudellista vaikuttavuutta.  
  • Sarvilinna, Auri; Hjerppe, Turo; Arola, Maria; Hämäläinen, Liisa; Jormola, Jukka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Ympäristöopas
    Tavoiteltaessa vesien hyvää ekologista tilaa valuma-alueiden maankäytön ja pienvesien merkitys korostuu. Valuma-alueelta tuleva, rehevöittävä ravinnekuormitus kulkeutuu isompiin vesistöihin purojen, valtaojien ja norojen kautta. Pienet virtavedet tarjoavat ainutlaatuisia elinympäristöjä monille eliölajeille. Tarve purojen laajamittaiselle kunnostamiselle tunnustetaan, ja purojen suuri merkitys kaupunkiluonnon monimuotoisuudelle on tullut tutkimuksissa selkeästi esille. Samalla purojen arvostus on noussut, kun yleinen tietoisuus puroista on kasvanut ja niiden kunnostamisen hyödyt ymmärretty. Kaupunkialueilla valuma-alueen merkitys kuormituksessa korostuu. Maankäyttö on usein tehokasta, erilaisia toimijoita on paljon ja hulevesien aiheuttamat virtaamavaihtelut aiheuttavat ongelmia. Kunnostustarpeen selvittäminen ja kunnostuksen suunnittelu tarkastelemalla puroa ja sen valuma-aluetta kokonaisuutena on keskeistä kaupunkialueiden pienvesien kunnostus- ja suojelutoimia suunniteltaessa. Kaupunkialueilla tärkeitä pienvesien kunnostustavoitteita ovat esimerkiksi hulevesien käsittely, tulvasuojelu sekä uoman morfologisen ja ekologisen monimuotoisuuden lisääminen. Keinoja kunnostamiseen on useita ja oikeiden menetelmien valitseminen edellyttää valuma-alueen perusteellista tuntemusta. Kaupunkialueiden purokunnostuksiin liittyy keskeisenä osana myös yhteistyö eri toimijoiden ja kaupunkilaisten välillä. Kunnostushankkeen etenemistä tarkastellaan oppaassa yleisellä tasolla sekä Vantaanjoen alimman sivupuron Longinojan valuma-alueella Helsingissä. Opas tarjoaa monipuolisen tietopaketin taajama-alueiden pienvesien kunnostamisesta kaavoituksen, ympäristön tilan, viheralueiden ja rakentamisen parissa työskenteleville henkilöille, jotka tekevät taajama-alueiden pienvesiä koskevia suunnitelmia ja päätöksiä.
  • Turunen, Jarno; Marttila, Hannu; Kämäri, Maria; Saari, Markus; Heikkinen, Kaisa; Postila, Heini; Koljonen, Saija (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2019)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 46/2019
    Valuma-alueiden eroosio ja vedessä kulkeutuvan kiintoaineen sedimentaatio ovat luonnollisia prosesseja virtavesissä. Ne ylläpitävät virtavesien elinympäristöjen monimuotoisuutta. Ihmistoiminta, erityisesti maankäyttö, on kuitenkin merkittävästi lisännyt eroosiota ja hienon kiintoaineksen määrää virtavesissä, millä on lukuisia haitallisia vaikutuksia virtavesien ekosysteemeihin. Tässä kirjallisuuskatsauksessa kuvataan virtavesien luontaisen sekä ihmistoiminnan muuttaman kiintoaineen eroosion ja sedimentaation merkitystä virtavesissä. Katsauksessa käsitellään liiallisen kiintoainekuormituksen ja sedimentaation vaikutuksia virtavesien perustuotantoon ja vesikasvillisuuteen, pohjaeläimiin, kaloihin sekä mikrobeihin ja hajotusprosesseihin. Lisäksi käsitellään kiintoainekuormituksen ja sedimentaation arvioinnin ja vesienhoidon kannalta keskeisiä seuranta-, vesiensuojelu- ja kunnostusmenetelmiä sekä tutkimustarpeita.
  • (Vesihallitus, 1980)
    Vesihallitus. Tiedotus 188
  • Koljonen, Saija; Koski, Alisa; Leinonen, Kirsti; Haapala, Antti; Jormola, Jukka; Menna, Tomi; Tapaninen, Markus; Vähänäkki, Pekka; Syrjänen, Jukka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 19/2022
    Rakennettu luonnonmukainen elinympäristö voi edistää vaelluskalojen poikastuotantoa vesivoimalaitoksen tai muun patorakenteen yhteydessä. Elinympäristö toimii samalla kokonaisen ekosysteemin perustana. Tyypillisesti vesivoiman rakentamisessa on menetetty huomattavasti virtavesien eliöstölle soveltuvaa elinympäristöä, jota luonnonmukaiset ratkaisut voivat korvata osana ekologista kompensaatiota. Toimenpiteellä voidaan siis parantaa rakennetun vesistön ekologista arvoa ja tilaa. Tässä raportissa kuvataan Imatran kaupunkipuron suunnittelu- ja rakennusvaiheet sekä raportoidaan seurannan tulokset rakennusvaiheen jälkeen. Imatran kaupunkipuron suunnittelussa korostettiin puron soveltuvuutta taimenelle sopivana elinympäristönä. Vaikka kaupunkipuroa ei ole suunniteltu vaellusreitiksi, käytettyjä suunnitteluperiaatteita voi soveltaa suoraan myös luonnonmukaisiin ohitusuomiin. Imatran kaupunkipuro valmistui vuonna 2014 puistomaiselle alueelle ja joutomaalle Imatrankosken voimalaitoksen läheisyyteen. Puro on noin yhden kilometrin mittainen ja sen leveys vaihtelee 2–10 metrin välillä. Uoman suunnittelussa huomioitiin erilaisten elinympäristöjen ja taimenen kutu- ja poikasalueiden lisäksi myös maisemalliset tekijät ja soveltuvuus virkistyskäyttöön. Imatrankosken padon putouskorkeus, 24 m, ja käytettävissä oleva alue pyrittiin hyödyntämään mahdollisimman hyvin. Lisäksi mutkittelemalla uomaa sen pituus voitiin maksimoida. Uoman materiaalina käytettiin (vaihtelevan kokoista) soraa, isompia kiviä sekä puumateriaalia. Kaupunkipuron virtaama on kesäaikaan noin 250 l/s ja talvella noin 100 l/s. Tavoite purosta taimenen lisääntymisympäristönä näyttää toteutuneen, sillä taimen ja muutkin kala- ja eliölajit ovat ottaneet puron käyttöönsä. Imatran kaupunkipurossa taimenen lisääntyminen on onnistunut jopa odotuksia paremmin ja poikastiheys on korkeampi kuin vastaavissa luonnonpuroissa. Kaupunkipuron pinta-ala on huomattavan vähäinen verrattuna valtavaan määrään patoamisen seurauksena menetettyä koskipinta-alaa. Rakennettu luonnonmukainen elinympäristö kuitenkin tarjoaa uhanalaiselle taimenelle soveltuvaa elinympäristöä. Jokaista luonnossa syntynyttä yksilöä voidaan pitää lajin kannalta tärkeänä. Pohjaeläimistö on runsastunut lajirikkaudeltaan joka vuosi. Samalla pohjaeläinten lukumäärä on moninkertaistunut neljän tarkkailuvuoden aikana. Luonnolle, lajistolle ja ekosysteemeille aiheutettujen haittojen vähentäminen on tulossa myös olemassa olevan vesivoiman vastuulle. Pelkät kalataloudelliset kompensaatiot tai pelkkä kalatie eivät riitä ratkaisemaan ongelmia, jotka vesirakentaminen ja vesivoima ovat aiheuttaneet erityisesti soveltuvien elinympäristöjen määrälle ja laadulle. Imatran kaupunkipurolta saadut tulokset rohkaisevat jatkossa nostamaan erilaiset rakennetut luonnonmukaiset elinympäristöt ja kompensaatiohabitaatit toimivaksi vaihtoehdoksi virtavesien tilan parantamisessa.
  • Hjerppe, Turo; Hämäläinen, Liisa; Koljonen, Saija; Jormola, Jukka; Raitanen, Henna; Västilä, Kaisa (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2020)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 29/2020
    Joulukuussa 2018 julkaistussa valtakunnallisessa luontotyyppien uhanalaisuuden arvioinnissa Suomen purojen tila arvioitiin koko maan tasolla heikoksi. Huonoin tilanne on savimaiden uomilla, jotka sijaitsevat pitkään maatalouskäytössä olleilla alueilla ja kärsivät suuresta ravinnekuormituksesta. Maatalousuomien keskeisimpiä ongelmia ravinnekuormituksen lisäksi ovat maankuivatuksen tarpeisiin tehtyjen perkausten aiheuttama rakenteellinen yksipuolisuus. Maatalouden kuivatustavoitteiden toteutuminen ja uomien ekologisen tilan parantaminen eivät poissulje toisiaan, vaan ne voidaan toteuttaa toisiaan tukien ja osin samalla rahoituksella. Luonnonmukaisten peruskuivatusmenetelmien ja maatalousuomien kunnostamisen avulla voidaan paitsi parantaa maatalousympäristön monimuotoisuutta myös vähentää alapuolisten vesistöjen kiintoaines- ja ravinnekuormitusta. Luonnonmukaisessa peruskuivatuksessa keskeinen menetelmä on tulvatasanteen käyttö, jossa uoman vedenjohtokykyä parannetaan kaivamalla uoma poikkileikkaukseltaan kaksitasoiseksi ja jättämällä uoman pohja koskematta. Tulvatasanteita on kaivettu Suomessa 1990-luvun lopulta lähtien, mutta niiden hoitomenetelmistä on vain vähän kokemuksia. Raportissa tuodaan esille eri vaihtoehtoja tulvatasanteiden hoitoon osin kirjallisuuteen ja osin käytännön kokemuksiin perustuen. Purovesistöjen laaja-alaiseksi tilan parantamiseksi toimenpiteet tulisi suunnitella koko valuma-alue huomioon ottaen ja niiden vaikutuksia tulisi seurata nykyistä enemmän. Valuma-aluelähtöisyys ja seuranta voidaan sisällyttää kunnostuksiin hyödyntämällä Keski-Euroopassa ja Amerikassa kehitettyjä suunnitelmallisen tavoitteenasettelun menetelmiä, joiden on havaittu edistävän kunnostusten onnistumista. Raportissa kuvataan suunnitelmallisen tavoitteenasettelun toimintamalli, jossa kunnostuksen suunnitteluun sisällytetään valuma-aluetarkastelu ja seurantaohjelman laatiminen. Raportti perustuu Suomen ympäristökeskuksen ”Kuivatustoiminnassa muuttuneiden virtavesien kunnostus ja hoito (KURVI)” -hankkeen (2016–2018) tuloksiin. Päämääränä oli kehittää menetelmiä maatalouden kuivatustoiminnan heikentämien virtavesien tilan parantamiseksi vuonna 2015 julkaistun kansallisen pienvesien suojelu- ja kunnostusstrategian ja vuonna 2011 uudistuneen vesilain tavoitteiden mukaisesti. Hanketta rahoitti ympäristöministeriö.
  • Alahuhta, Janne; Lindholm, Marja; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; García-Girón, Jorge; Toivanen, Maija; Heino, Jani; Murphy, Kevin (Elsevier, 2021)
    Aquatic Botany 168: 103325
    Broad-scale studies of species distributions and diversity have contributed to the emergence of general macroecological rules. These rules are typically founded on research using well-known terrestrial taxa as models and it is thus uncertain whether aquatic macrophytes follow these macroecological rules. Our purpose is to draw together available information from broad-scale research on aquatic macrophytes growing in lakes, ponds, wetlands, rivers and streams. We summarize how different macroecological rules fit the patterns shown by freshwater plants at various spatial scales. Finally, we outline future actions which should be taken to advance macroecological research on freshwater plants. Our review suggested that some macroecological patterns are relatively well-evidenced for aquatic macrophytes, whereas little information exists for others. We found, for example, that the species richness-latitude relationship follows a unimodal pattern, and species turnover prevails over species nestedness, whereas higher nestedness-related richness differences are found in low beta diversity regions. Contrary to terrestrial plants, climate or history seem not to be dominant determinants explaining these broad-scale patterns; instead local explanatory variables (e.g., water quality, such as alkalinity and nutrients, and hydromorphology) are often important for freshwater plants. We identified several knowledge gaps related, for example, to a smaller number of studies in lotic habitats, compared with lentic habitats, lack of spatially-adequate aquatic plant studies, deficiency of comprehensive species traits databases for aquatic macrophytes, and absence of a true phylogeny comprising most freshwater plant lineages. We hope this review will encourage the undertaking of additional macroecological investigations on freshwater plants across broad spatial and temporal scales.