Browsing by Subject "voice"

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  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2018)
    This paper argues for an embodied approach to the scientist’s persona, using ‘experience’ as its focal point. Rather than noting that embodied experiences influenced scientists’ practices and identities amidst (or despite) ideals of objectivity, I want to draw attention to the ways in which personal, embodied experiences were celebrated in nineteenth century science, and presented as primordial for the practice of competent research. I am focusing on those scientists involved in the study of the voice in order to do so. Because the physical workings of the voice are largely hidden inside the body, fields such as laryngology and phoniatry developed a number of touch-based, experiential scientific practices before and alongside tools of visual observation. These non-visual practices were very closely connected to researchers’ sensations of their own bodies, and connected to their identity (as a middle-class amateur singer, a hoarse professor, a stammerer, e.g). As scientific disciplines studying the voice developed over the century, personal ‘experience’ (understood both as particular practices and notions of personal background and identity) was increasingly brought forward as a unique source of understanding and expertise. This resulted in a highly diverse field of experts on the voice, in which otherwise non-elite researchers could participate and even rise to fame. They did so because, and not despite, their physical and social impediments. Studying the experiential practices and memories brought forward by this network of experts allows me to look at the construction of their scientific personae from an intersectional perspective. A focus on the nineteenth century notion of ‘experience’ and its inclusion in scientific discourse allows us an insight into the various constituent elements of a ‘persona’ built within the context of a particular field, and drawing liberally on aspects of identification that do not always fit the classic categories of gender, class, age, health, etc.
  • Brandt, Tatjana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This article-based dissertation is an investigation of the early poetry of Agneta Enckell and Ann Jäderlund. The guiding hypothesis is that Enckell and Jäderlund enact and probe some of the central post-modern ideas about language and the subject dominating the intellectual context of the time. In particular, both poets are heavily influenced by Julia Kristeva s theories. The basic figure of thought functioning as a backdrop for their poetry is that we live in a male-dominated language, which determines our possibilities of expression. Hence, it becomes a crucial poetic task to resist the power of tradition and to carve out a free space in which new forms of personal female expression become possible. The five articles of the thesis investigate, through detailed close readings, how this constellation manifests itself in Enckell s and Jäderlund s poems. In the first article I read Jäderlund s poetry book Som en gång varit äng (1988) as centrally occupied with metapoetical issues that are played in a Narcissus scenario. The second article focuses on Jäderlund s poetry book Snart går jag i sommaren ut (1990). I employ Mikhail Bakhtin s theory of the carnival to shed light on Jäderlund s poetic effort to unsettle and transform traditional symbolic and linguistic structures. Moreover, I use of Kristeva s concept of the chora to elucidate Jäderlund s frequent use of words signifying empty spaces and hollow objects. The third article offers an analysis of the first three poetry books by Enckell: Förvandlingar mot morgonen (1983), rum; berättelser (1987), and Falla (Eurydike) (1991). Arguing that Enckell is guided by a vision of the emancipatory possibilities of poetry similar to that of Kristeva, I focus on Enckell s consistent use of spacings and caesuras in the text as signs of the privations of language that poetry hopes to articulate. The fourth article is an extended reading of Enckell s forth poetry book åter (1994). Here I employ Kristeva s theory of the abject to clarify the book s continuous effort to articulate experiences both appalling and sublime of the unsayable void, which simultaneously transcends and constitutes our language. The fifth article focuses on Jäderlund s first poetry book Vimpelstaden (1985). Drawing on Kristeva and Slavoj i ek, I analyze the disgust and horror that the I expresses in relation to language in general and especially in relation to its own voice.
  • Hyyrynen (Isopoussu), Milla-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    In my Master's thesis I discuss a relatively new topic in the discussion on multiculturalism in political philosophy, the right of exit from a religious or a cultural group. Liberal theorists agree on the fact that everyone should be free to leave their group, to have a right to exit. However, they disagree on the content of the right. I present two schools on the topic: the formal right of exit strategy by Chandran Kukathas and the realistic right of exit strategy by Susan Moller Okin. I also view the importance of the individual's right to voice. I try to answer to a question which is twofold: whether the formal right of exit strategy is enough for protecting the freedom of individuals belonging to groups or whether the real abilities to exit should be considered as well, and whether everyone should also have a right to voice. In my work I compare the view of Kukathas with that of Okin. My main sources are Kukathas's book, The Liberal Archipelago. A Theory of Diversity and Freedom (2003) and Okin's article Mistresses of Their Own Destiny? Group Rights, Gender, and Realistic Right of Exit (2002). I also discuss what is often pictured as an alternative or supplement to exit, namely voice. By it is meant the right of the dissenters in the groups to express their views and try to reform their groups accordingly. Regarding to voice, my main source is a book Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (1970) by Albert O. Hirschman. I also cover minors and exit, as well as the so called costs of exit and voice. I show that whereas Okin thinks everyone should have certain capacities to exit, Kukathas objects it is irrelevant to consider them. Okin claims girls and women often lack these capacities. She argues they are for this reason not substantively free to leave their groups, nor in an equal position with men to exercise the right of exit. Therefore the formal right of exit strategy should be rejected. I claim that the debate between Kukathas and Okin comes back to a broader one in liberalism, namely on the question of which is the fundamental value in liberalism: toleration or autonomy. Kukathas stresses the former, Okin the latter. I come to the conclusion that in order to protect the freedom of all, the formal right of exit strategy should be abandoned in favor of the realistic right of exit strategy. Regarding to voice, along the right of exit, everyone should also have a right to voice.
  • Niemi, Reetta; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse (2018)
    In the new national core curriculum for Finnish preschool and basic education, rationales for supporting pupil participation are framed by the goal of developing school communities by listening to pupils’ perspectives, the social nature of teaching and learning and pupils’ participatory role in planning, implementing and evaluating their own learning. Also in educational literature, listening to pupils’ perspectives is seen as the first step of participation. Framed by these rationales, this article is based on a 6-week-long participatory learning project in one second-grade classroom in Finland. The research group of 8-year-olds included 11 girls and 10 boys. In this study, we used diamond ranking and peer interviews as mediating tools in listening to the pupils’ perspectives. In the article, we describe how a diamond ranking and a peer interview worked as a tool in capturing pupils’ perspectives. Two questions guided the research work: (1) How did diamond ranking and the peer interview work together as a method to improve teacher’s understanding from the pupils’ perspectives? and (2) How did diamond ranking and the peer interview work together as a method to promote pupils’ participation? In this study, the second graders were able to implement diamond ranking. This activity was used as a tool to stimulate pupils’ perspectives that were then captured in peer interviews. The methods provided important information about the pupils and helped the teacher to understand their perspectives. Diamond ranking and peer interviews also revealed information that was not related to pedagogical practices but indicated the sense of relatedness among pupils. In this study, the process of peer interviews was a child-led practice, while the process of diamond ranking activity was teacher-oriented. The method would have served pupils’ participation better if pupils had been more involved in the data collection.
  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2021)
    How do we thoroughly historicize the voice, or integrate it into our historical research, and how do we account for the mundane daily practices of voice ... the constant talking, humming, murmuring, whispering, and mumbling that went on offstage, in living rooms, debating clubs, business meetings, and on the streets? Work across the humanities has provided us with approaches to deal with aspects of voices, vocality, and their sounds. This article considers how we can mobilize and adapt such interdisciplinary methods for the study of history. It charts out a practical approach to attend to the history of voices-including unmusical ones-before recording, drawing on insights from the fields of sound studies, musicology, and performativity. It suggests ways to"listen anew"to familiar sources as well as less conventional source material. And it insists on a combination of analytical approaches focusing on vocabulary, bodily practice, and the questionable particularity of sound.