Browsing by Subject "war"

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  • Raitasalo, Jyri (2005)
    Based on a constructivist theoretical framework, the research problem that animated this study asks how and through what mechanisms has the meaning of military power changed after the Cold War. In order to focus upon military power, a paradigm of war-framework is elaborated. Thus, in order to analyse shared western understandings of military power - what constitutes military power in the post-Cold War era - a framework for analysing the institution of war is developed. Concerning the changing nature of shared western understandings of war in the post-Cold War era, the Cold War institution of war is analysed. In addition, seven discourses of war that have challenged this institution are analysed. These discourses - the end of the Cold War, the Revolution in Military Affairs, asymmetric warfare, new wars, humanitarian interventions, War on Terror, and the privatisation of war - have transformed the sedimented Cold War era western understandings of war. This particularly so concerning the character of faced threats to be countered with military force, shared understandings about the legitimate objectives and means of war, and the constitutive elements of military power. Concerning the changing ‘nature" of military power in the west after the demise of the Cold War, the American-originated discourse of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) has gradually spread within the west - first with the defence establishment of the United States, and later also in Europe. The 1991 Gulf War raised the discourse of RMA into the American academic debate concerning the role and nature of military forces in the post-Cold War era. Relying on advanced technological capabilities and changes in operational concepts and military organisations, the discourse of RMA became part of the US DoD"s official agenda by the mid-1990s, and by 1997 the policy of exploiting the RMA in order to transform the US Armed Forces was promulgated. The RMA-discourse has also spread to characterise the European understandings of effective post-Cold War era military power, the European RMA-exploitation strategy has not been promulgated.
  • Poczai, Péter; Santiago-Blay, Jorge; Sekerák, Jiří; T. Szabó, Attila (2021)
    The nineteenth century was a time of great economic, social, and political change. The population of a modernizing Europe began demanding more freedom, which in turn propelled the ongoing discussion on the philosophy of nature. This spurred on Central European sheep breeders to debate the deepest secrets of nature: the transmission of traits from one generation to another. Scholarly questions of heredity were profoundly entwined with philosophy and politics when particular awareness of "the genetic laws of nature" claimed natural equality. The realization that the same rules of inheritance may apply to all living beings frightened both the absolutist political power and the divided society of the day. Many were not prepared to separate religious questions from novel natural phenomena. Open-minded breeders put their knowledge into practice right away to create sheep with better wool traits through inbreeding and artificial selection. This was viewed, however, as the artificial modification of nature operating against the cultural and religious norms of the day. Liberal attempts caught the attention of the secret police and, consequently, the aspirations of scholars were suppressed by political will during approximately 1820-1850.
  • PAX 
    Hartama-Heinonen, Ritva; Kukkonen, Pirjo (University of Helsinki, Nordica/Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies, Swedish Translation Studies, 2015)
    Volume 3
    The questions which this volume addresses are the following: How do we, as researchers in the arts, see the language of peace? How do we conceive of peace as a concept, as modalities, and as metaphors? What types of interdisciplinary approaches can we create, what types of borders can we transcend, and what types of bridges can we construct in the context of peace? How do we cherish our humanism and all that is good from the perspective of all humankind? How do we speak and write about peace within our disciplines in order to also promote it?
  • Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (Oxford University Press, 2017)
    The Anarchical Society outlines various possible world orders, such as New Medievalism and world state, as alternatives to the anarchic order of the modern states-system. In this chapter, I evaluate critically the factual and normative premises of his arguments concerning possible, likely and desirable future world orders (factual and normative are intertwined but not inseparable). A key point is that Bull somewhat underestimated the sway of globalizing forces, including the gradual emergence of elements of world statehood. My main argument, however, is that because of his omission of political economy, Bull would have been puzzled about the causes of the re-emergence of great power conflicts. For the same reason, he also misjudged the importance of building better common institutions.
  • Suviranta, Br. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1954)
  • Suominen, Xana (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Religion is increasingly a part of public discussion. This study investigated the theme in the context of the Finnish armed forces, by researching the attitudes towards religion of a young group of officers. The objective was to uncover if they opined that they would professionally benefit from added knowledge on the on religions and cultures. The study was conducted by first analyzing a variety of religious texts from the Bible and the Qur’an, using the method of reception. After this, analysis of a course designed to improve the officers’ action competence was conducted, by researching its content as it applied to religious material. Finally, a reception exercise was conducted with the students, who also answered additional questions on their values and their opinions on necessary education on the matter. Material from a US document was also analyzed in increase context. The results were that almost all of students did find religious and cultural education useful in their profession. Religion was not personally important to them, and while most exhibited an unattached attitude towards the texts, some were in part even hostile towards them. In their opinion religion should have no part in any decision making which involved the running of a state, but Christianity had value as part of the Finnish cultural heritage and value system. The core values explicated by the students were love of home and family, love of country, wanting to belong to a community, uprightness, honesty, justice and appreciation of professionalism. Ethical considerations were discussed greatly and contradictory expectations of them weight on many of them, i.e. the expectations for officers to be both gentlemen (and women) and killers. They were also worried of having to take a life, showing no trigger-happy attitude, as far as the author observed. As a further study it is suggested that similar experiences from soldiers on international missions and from other governmental agencies are collected, in order to create a system of education in this area.