Browsing by Subject "water protection"

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  • Kuglerová, Lenka; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ruffing, Claire; Muotka, Timo; Jonsson, Anna; Andersson, Elisabet; Richardson, John S. (American Geophysical Union, 2020)
    Water Resources Research 56 9 (2020)
    Forested riparian buffers are recommended to mitigate negative effects of forest harvesting on recipient freshwater ecosystems. Most of the current best practices of riparian buffer retention aim at larger streams. Riparian protection along small streams is thought to be lacking; however, it is not well documented. We surveyed 286 small streams flowing through recent clearcuts in three timber-producing jurisdictions—British Columbia, Canada (BC), Finland, and Sweden. The three jurisdictions differed in riparian buffer implementation. In BC, forested buffers are not required on the smallest streams, and 45% of the sites in BC had no buffer. The average (±SE) width of voluntarily retained buffers was 15.9 m (±2.1) on each side of the stream. An operation-free zone is mandatory around the smallest streams in BC, and 90% of the sites fulfilled these criteria. Finland and Sweden had buffers allocated to most of the surveyed streams, with average buffer width of 15.3 m (±1.4) in Finland and 4 m (±0.4) in Sweden. Most of the streams in the two Nordic countries had additional forestry-associated impairments such as machine tracks, or soil preparation within the riparian zone. Riparian buffer width somewhat increased with stream size and slope of the riparian area, however, not in all investigated regions. We concluded that the majority of the streams surveyed in this study are insufficiently protected. We suggest that a monitoring of forestry practices and revising present forestry guidelines is needed in order to increase the protection of our smallest water courses.
  • Waylen, Kerry; Blackstock, Kirsty; van Hulst, Freddy; Damian, Carmen; Horváth, Ferenc; Johnson, Richard; Kanka, Robert; Külvik, Mart; Macleod, Christopher J.A.; Meissner, Kristian; Oprina-Pavelescu, Mihaela M.; Pino, Joan; Primmer, Eeva; Rîșnoveanu, Geta; Šatalová, Barbora; Silander, Jari; Špulerová, Jana; Suškevičs, Monika; van Uytvanck, Jan (Elsevier, 2019)
    Data in Brief 23 (2019), 103785
    The data presented in this DiB article provide an overview of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) carried out for 3 European environmental policies (the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, and Agri-Environment Schemes implemented under the Common Agricultural Policy), as implemented in 9 cases (Catalonia (Spain), Estonia, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Scotland (UK), Sweden). These data are derived from reports and documents about monitoring programs that were publicly-available online in 2017. The literature on M&E to support adaptive management structured the issues that have been extracted and summarized. The data is related to the research article entitled “Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?” [Stem et al., 2005]. The information provides a first overview of monitoring and evaluation that has been implemented in response to key European environmental policies. It provides a structured overview that permits a comparison of cases and policies and can assist other scholars and practitioners working on monitoring and evaluation.
  • Poikane, Sandra; Kelly, Martyn G.; Várbíró, Gábor; Borics, Gábor; Erős, Tibor; Hellsten, Seppo; Kolada, Agnieszka; Lukács, Balázs András; Lyche Solheim, Anne; Pahissa López, José; Willby, Nigel J.; Wolfram, Georg; Phillips, Geoff (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Science of The Total Environment
    Nutrient targets based on pressure-response models are essential for defining ambitions and managing eutrophication. However, the scale of biogeographical variation in these pressure-response relationships is poorly understood, which may hinder eutrophication management in regions where lake ecology is less intensively studied. In this study, we derive ecology-based nutrient targets for five major ecoregions of Europe: Northern, Central-Baltic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Eastern Continental. As a first step, we developed regressions between nutrient concentrations and ecological quality ratios (EQR) based on phytoplankton and macrophyte communities. Significant relationships were established for 13 major lake types; in most cases, these relationships were stronger for phosphorus than for nitrogen, and stronger for phytoplankton than for macrophytes. Using these regressions, we estimated the total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations at which lakes of different types are likely to achieve good ecological status. However, in the very shallow lakes of the Eastern Continental region, relations between nutrient and biological communities were weak or non-significant. This can be attributed to high nutrient concentrations (in the asymptotic zone of phosphorus-phytoplankton models) suggesting other factors (light, grazing) limit primary production. However, we also show that fish stocking is a major pressure on Eastern Continental lakes, negatively affecting ecological status: lakes with low fish stocking show low chlorophyll-a concentrations and good ecological status despite high nutrient levels, while the lakes with high fish stocking show high chlorophyll-a and low ecological status. This study highlights the need to better understand lakes in biogeographic regions that have been, for historical reasons, less studied. This, in turn, helps reveal factors that challenge the dominant paradigms of lake assessment and management.
  • Belinskij, Antti; Iho, Antti; Paloniitty née Korvela, Tiina; Soininen, Niko (2019)
    Animal agriculture is shifting toward larger farms and regional agglomerations in many countries. In step with this development, manure nutrients have started accumulating regionally, and are leading to increasing eutrophication problems. Nevertheless, the same trend may also prompt innovations in manure treatment. For example, Valio Ltd (the largest dairy processer in Finland) is planning a network of facilities that would remove water from manure, fraction the nutrients in it, and produce biogas from the excess methane. One of the main hurdles in developing this technology is that the current regulatory framework does not support a shift from diffuse loading, which is seen in the traditional application of manure on fields, to point-source loading; the regulations may even prevent such a change. This article analyzes a governance framework that addresses this dilemma in EU–Finland, and discusses how the governance described could curtail the nutrient loading of agriculture to waters. The approach is based on adaptive governance theory. We argue that traditional top–down regulation, which emphasizes food security, contains serious shortcomings when it comes to managing agricultural nutrient loading to waters, and that the current regulatory framework does not necessarily have the adaptive capacity to facilitate new, bottom–up solutions for manure treatment. Interestingly, the strict water quality requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) open new windows of opportunity for such solutions, and thus for improving the overall sustainability of animal agriculture.
  • Janssen, Annette B. G.; Janse, Jan H.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Chang, Manqi; Harrison, John A.; Huttunen, Inese; Kong, Xiangzhen; Rost, Jasmijn; Teurlincx, Sven; Troost, Tineke A.; van Wijk, Dianneke; Mooij, Wolf M. (Elsevier, 2019)
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019), 1-10
    Algal blooms increasingly threaten lake and reservoir water quality at the global scale, caused by ongoing climate change and nutrient loading. To anticipate these algal blooms, models to project future algal blooms worldwide are required. Here we present the state-of-the-art in algal projection modelling and explore the requirements of an ideal algal projection model. Based on this, we identify current challenges and opportunities for such model development. Since most building blocks are present, we foresee that algal projection models for any lake on earth can be developed in the near future. Finally, we think that algal bloom projection models at a global scale will provide a valuable contribution to global policymaking, in particular with respect to SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation).
  • Knuuttila, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 38/2015
    The report describes the results of pilot project aimed at improving the quality of data on transboundary nutrient loads, in particular, in the rivers Daugava and Nemunas. Two sampling rounds (in May and November 2013) were organised and executed by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) in close cooperation with representatives from the participating countries, one laboratory from Latvia, two from Lithuania, three from Belarus and one from Finland. The results from the total nitrogen analyses of the different laboratories were in general comparable, while the total phosphorus results varied between the laboratories. One explanation might be that the analytical methods applied were not fully comparable; for example, the filtration of the samples before analysis of total phosphorus may have affected the results. Highest concentrations were observed at the Belarusian border. Both absolutely and relatively high concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in the rivers give an indication of a clear anthropogenic influence. A key finding of the project was that a reasonably good consensus and comparability has been reached on the phosphorus and nitrogen loads originating in the upstream catchment area and flowing into Latvia and Lithuania – even if the results were produced through separate data sets and by partly different methods. This is a good starting point for the efforts to further estimate the retention in the lower reaches in the Latvian and Lithuanian territories of the two rivers and the percentage of the transboundary nutrient loads which finally enter into the Baltic Sea. An equally important result of the project is the ability to now present – in connection with the data on the total riverine loads measured at the mouth of the rivers Daugava and Nemunas – complete data sets on nutrient loads at the border between Latvia or Lithuania and Belarus. This data also sup-ports the assessment of transboundary nutrient loads originating in the territory of Belarus (and Russia) in the catchment area of these two rivers.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sarkkola, Sakari; Hasselquist, Eliza Maher; Sallantaus, Tapani (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 232 (2021), 371
    Contradictory results for the long-term evolution of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in waters discharging from drained peatland forests need reconciliation. We gathered long-term (10–29 years) water quality data from 29 forested catchments, 18 forestry-drained and 11 undrained peatlands. Trend analysis of the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration data indicated variable trends from clearly decreasing to considerably increasing temporal trends. While the variations in phosphorus concentration trends over time did not correlate with any of our explanatory factors, trends in nitrogen concentrations correlated positively with tree stand volume in the catchments and temperature sum. A positive correlation of increasing nitrogen concentrations with temperature sum raises concerns of the future evolution of nitrogen dynamics under a warming climate. Furthermore, the correlation with tree stand volume is troublesome due to the generally accepted policy to tackle the climate crisis by enhancing tree growth. However, future research is still needed to assess which are the actual processes related to stand volume and temperature sum that contribute to increasing TN concentrations.
  • Airola, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The subject of this thesis was to evaluate the capability of the FEMMA model in simulating the daily nitrogen load from a forested catchment. For that FEMMA was tested in a forest plot in Hyytiälä, Juupajoki. The modeling results of the concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen in the runoff water were compared to the measured values of those. This work presents the current state of knowledge concerning the most significant nitrogen processes in forest soil, as reported in the literature. It also lists some alternative models for simulating nitrogen and evaluates the uncertainties in the modelling critically. As a result FEMMA was found not to be suitable for simulating daily nitrogen load from this catchment. The simulated results didn’t correspond to the measured values. The most significant factors to develop in FEMMA found in this study were the parametrization of the gaseous nitrogen losses from the system, re-examining the nitrogen uptake by plants and developing the computing of the fractions of nitrogen released in decomposition. For future research it would be important to decide if it is meaningful to simulate the daily nitrogen leaching with process-based models at all. At least in the Hyytiälä site the amount of leached nitrogen is so small compared to the nitrogen in other processes that it’s quite challenging to simulate it accurately enough.
  • Nieminen, Mika; Sallantaus, Tapani (Suoseura, 2020)
    Suo 72(1) (2020)
  • Wolf, M. Mooij; Wijk, Diannekevan; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Brederveld, Robert J.; Chang, Manqi; Cobben, Marleen MP; DeAngelis, Don L; Downing, Andrea S; Green, Pamela; Gsell, Alena S; Huttunen, Inese; Janse, Jan H; Janssen, Annette BG; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kramer, Lilith; Kuiper, Jan J; Langan, Simon J; Nolet, Bart A; Nuijten, Rascha JM; Strokal, Maryna; Troost, Tineke A; van Dam, Anne A; Teurlincx, Sven (Elsevier, 2019)
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability
    “Everything changes and nothing stands still” (Heraclitus). Here we review three major improvements to freshwater aquatic ecosystem models — and ecological models in general — as water quality scenario analysis tools towards a sustainable future. To tackle the rapid and deeply connected dynamics characteristic of the Anthropocene, we argue for the inclusion of eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics. These dynamics arise from adaptive responses in organisms and ecosystems to global environmental change and act at different integration levels and different time scales. We provide reasons and means to incorporate each improvement into aquatic ecosystem models. Throughout this study we refer to Lake Victoria as a microcosm of the evolving novel social-ecological systems of the Anthropocene. The Lake Victoria case clearly shows how interlinked eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics are, and demonstrates the need for transdisciplinary research approaches towards global sustainability. Highlights • We present a research agenda to enhance water quality modeling in the Anthropocene. • We review adaptive responses in organisms and ecosystems to global environmental change. • We focus on eco-evolutionary, novel ecosystem and social-ecological dynamics. • These dynamics act at different integration levels and different time scales. • Lake Victoria is an iconic example of an evolving novel social-ecological system.
  • Lepistö, Ahti; Huttula, Timo; Bärlund, Ilona; Granlund, Kirsti; Härmä, Pekka; Kallio, Kari; Kiirikki, Mikko; Kirkkala, Teija; Koponen, Sampsa; Koskiaho, Jari; Kotamäki, Niina; Lindfors, Antti; Malve, Olli; Pyhälahti, Timo; Tattari, Sirkka; Törmä, Markus (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 15/2008
  • Ekholm, Petri; Ollikainen, Markku; Ala-Harja, Venla; Begum, Khaleda; Huttunen, Markus; Järvenranta, Kirsi; Kiirikki, Mikko; Kuosa, Harri; Lötjönen, Sanna; Riihimäki, Juha; Taskinen, Antti; Tikkanen, Tommi Petteri; Yli-Halla, Markku (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja
  • Ulvi, Teemu; Visuri, Mika; Hellsten, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 12/2007
  • Carvalho, Laurence; Mackay, Eleanor B.; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Birk, Sebastian; Blackstock, Kirsty L.; Borics, Gábor; Borja, Angel; Feld, Christian K.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Grizzetti, Bruna; Hendry, Sarah; Hering, Daniel; Kelly, Martyn; Langaas, Sindre; Meissner, Kristian; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Penning, Ellis; Rouillard, Josselin; Sabater, Sergi; Schmedtje, Ursula; Spears, Bryan M.; Venohr, Markus; van de Bund, Wouter; Solheim, Anne Lyche (Elsevier, 2019)
    Science of The Total Environment
    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a pioneering piece of legislation that aims to protect and enhance aquatic ecosystems and promote sustainable water use across Europe. There is growing concern that the objective of good status, or higher, in all EU waters by 2027 is a long way from being achieved in many countries. Through questionnaire analysis of almost 100 experts, we provide recommendations to enhance WFD monitoring and assessment systems, improve programmes of measures and further integrate with other sectoral policies. Our analysis highlights that there is great potential to enhance assessment schemes through strategic design of monitoring networks and innovation, such as earth observation. New diagnostic tools that use existing WFD monitoring data, but incorporate novel statistical and trait-based approaches could be used more widely to diagnose the cause of deterioration under conditions of multiple pressures and deliver a hierarchy of solutions for more evidence-driven decisions in river basin management. There is also a growing recognition that measures undertaken in river basin management should deliver multiple benefits across sectors, such as reduced flood risk, and there needs to be robust demonstration studies that evaluate these. Continued efforts in ‘mainstreaming’ water policy into other policy sectors is clearly needed to deliver wider success with WFD goals, particularly with agricultural policy. Other key policy areas where a need for stronger integration with water policy was recognised included urban planning (waste water treatment), flooding, climate and energy (hydropower). Having a deadline for attaining the policy objective of good status is important, but even more essential is to have a permanent framework for river basin management that addresses the delays in implementation of measures. This requires a long-term perspective, far beyond the current deadline of 2027. Highlights • Monitoring and assessment needs to better reflect improvement in ecological status • Management actions must account for the effects of multiple stressors • WFD management targets need to acknowledge long-term recovery time-scales • Water resource protection must be mainstreamed into other policy instruments • WFD implementation must acknowledge management needs beyond 2027
  • Turunen, Jarno; Elbrecht, Vasco; Steinke, Dirk; Aroviita, Jukka (Blackwell Scientific, 2021)
    Freshwater Biology 66: 4, 785-798
    1. Riparian forests are commonly advocated as a key management option to mitigate the effects of agriculture on headwater stream biodiversity and ecosystem func tions. However, the benefits of riparian forests might be reduced by uninterrupted catchment-scale pollution. 2. We studied the effects of riparian land use on multiple ecological endpoints in head water streams in an agricultural landscape. We studied stream habitat characteristics, water temperature and algal accrual, and macrophyte, benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in 11 paired forested and open agricultural headwater stream reaches that differed in their extent of riparian forest cover but had similar water quality. 3. Hydromorphological habitat quality was higher in forested reaches than in open reaches. Riparian forest had a strong effect on the summer water temperature regime, with maximum and mean water temperatures and temperature variation in forested reaches substantially lower than in open reaches. 4. Macrophyte communities differed between forested and open reaches. The mean abundance of bryophytes was higher in forested reaches but the difference to open reaches was only marginally significant, whereas graminoids were significantly more abundant in open reaches. Within-stream dissimilarity of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure was significantly related to the difference in riparian land use between reach pairs. The relative DNA sequence abundance of pollution-sensitive Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species tended to be higher in forested reaches than in open reaches. Finally, fish densities were not significantly different be tween forested and open reaches, although densities were higher in forested reaches. 5. This unequivocal evidence for the ecological benefits of forested riparian reaches in agricultural headwater streams suggests that riparian forest can partly mitigate the adverse impacts of agricultural diffuse pollution on biota. The strong effect of forests on stream water temperature suggest that riparian forest could also miti gate harmful effects on headwater stream biodiversity and ecosystem functions of the predicted more frequent high summer temperatures.
  • Valve, Helena; Lazarevic, David; Pitzén, Samuli (Pergamon, 2022)
    Geoforum
    Environmental policies often leave room for case- or region-specific discretion. In this paper, we focus on the transformation of socio-material settings into objects of policy discretion. This move calls for manipulation—ontological work—enabling settings to be connected to policy aspirations. The settings become configured in terms of their professed policy-relevant dimensions. The outcomes affect how environmental liabilities become defined in policy processes. The paper develops a conceptual toolkit to analyse ontological work as it is performed by policy documents. We use the toolkit to analyse three types of policy documents defining how agricultural nutrient loading is to be reduced in the Finnish region of North Savo. The findings show that regulatory decisions and policy recommendations are, to a significant extent, outcomes of ontological work. Environmental liabilities are shaped by the ways ‘unstable junctures’ are brought into being. By these junctures we refer to the points in the configured policy landscapes where choices influential for water protection are, according to the documents, to be made. The documents also generate exclusions that narrow down what liability implies in the unstable junctures. Without a focus on the ontological work and emerging ordering effects, it would have been difficult to show how environmental liabilities became (un)defined in the policy documents. The approach is needed to understand how power is practiced in policy processes and how policy instruments come to have consequences.