Browsing by Subject "water services"

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  • Salminen, Jani M.; Veiste, Pekka J.; Koskiaho, Jari T.; Tikkanen, Sarianne (2019)
    Water Resources and Economics
    This paper introduces a novel procedure for the compilation of highly disaggregated water accounts by using Finland as a case example. The procedure is based on combining the use of existing standard economic statistics and other registers and databases with a dataset on water supply and use collected in the present study. As an outcome, water supply and use accounts are presented for 195 industries in the Finnish economy in 2010. The water accounts presented are based primarily on actual water supply and use rates and distinguish between various raw water sources and uses: groundwater, fresh surface, brackish water self-abstracted for own use, and mains-water supply and use. Separate accounts for cooling water are presented. The paper covers flow accounts from the environment to the economy and within the economy excluding all return flows. Data coverage issues and potential sources of error are reported in detail and discussed together with the applicability of the procedure in other countries. Implications for the System of Economic-Environmental Accounting for Water (SEEA-Water) framework are assessed.
  • Orsi, Francesco; Ciolli, Marvo; Primmer, Eeva; Varumo, Liisa; Geneletti, Davide (Butterworth Scientific, 2020)
    Land Use Policy 99 : 104840
    Forests cover about 40 % of the European Union (EU), providing a wide spectrum of invaluable ecosystem services to more than half a billion people. In order to protect and harness this crucial asset, EU policies are advancing multifunctional management. This study lays a basis for such an effort by mapping the supply of key forest ecosystem services (FES) across the entire EU: wood, water supply, erosion control, pollination, habitat protection, soil formation, climate regulation and recreation. To further support the operationalization of multifunctionality and targeting of policies, our analysis delineates hotspots, assesses synergies and tradeoffs, and identifies spatial bundles. We generated maps at 1-km resolution starting from existing datasets through simple modelling (Tier 1). Out of these maps, we denoted the highest supplying pixels (i.e. top 20 %) as hotspots, and performed correlation analysis to detect synergies and tradeoffs. Finally, we used cluster analysis to identify FES bundles. Our analysis shows that hotspots of single FES are spread across the entire EU and that forests of mountain regions and Central Europe (particularly France, Germany, Slovakia) supply significant amounts of multiple FES. The cluster analysis resulted in four bundles: “balanced” in the northeast, “wood & water” in the center, “soil carbon” in the north and “rural-recreational” in the south. While a purely quantitative analysis of the produced maps may be misleading because of the strong links between FES supply and climatic and socio-economic conditions, overlaying hotspots and bundles with administrative layers can be a first step to inform about the role of different countries and regions in securing the sustainable supply of European FES.