Browsing by Subject "weight gain"

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  • Salmela, Jatta; Lallukka, Tea; Mauramo, Elina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kanerva, Noora (2020)
    Economic disadvantage is related to a higher risk of adulthood obesity, but few studies have considered whether changes in economic circumstances depend on a person’s body mass index (BMI) trajectory. We identified latent BMI trajectories among midlife and ageing Finns and captured individual-level changes in economic circumstances within the BMI trajectories utilizing sequence analysis. We used the Helsinki Health Study cohort data of initially 40–60-year-old Finnish municipal employees, with four survey questionnaire phases (2000–2017). Each survey included identical questions on height and weight, and on economic circumstances incorporating household income and current economic difficulties. Based on computed BMI, we identified participants’ (n = 7105; 82% women) BMI trajectories over the follow-up using group-based trajectory modeling. Four BMI trajectories were identified: stable healthy weight (34% of the participants), stable overweight (42%), overweight to class I obesity (20%), and stable class II obesity (5%). Lower household income level and having economic difficulties became more common and persistent when moving from lower- to higher-level BMI trajectories. Differences in household income widened over the follow-up between the trajectory groups, whereas economic difficulties decreased equally in all trajectory groups over time. Our study provides novel information on the dynamic interplay between long-term BMI changes and economic circumstances.
  • Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana (2012)
  • Santos, S.; Voerman, E.; Amiano, P.; Barros, H.; Beilin, L. J.; Bergstrom, A.; Charles, M-A; Chatzi, L.; Chevrier, C.; Chrousos, G. P.; Corpeleijn, E.; Costa, O.; Costet, N.; Crozier, S.; Devereux, G.; Doyon, M.; Eggesbo, M.; Fantini, M. P.; Farchi, S.; Forastiere, F.; Georgiu, V.; Godfrey, K. M.; Gori, D.; Grote, V.; Hanke, W.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Heude, B.; Hivert, M-F; Hryhorczuk, D.; Huang, R-C; Inskip, H.; Karvonen, A. M.; Kenny, L. C.; Koletzko, B.; Kupers, L. K.; Lagström, H.; Lehmann, I.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Mäkelä, J.; Manios, Y.; McAuliffe, F. M.; McDonald, S. W.; Mehegan, J.; Melen, E.; Mommers, M.; Morgen, C. S.; Moschonis, G.; Murray, D.; Ni Chaoimh, C.; Nohr, E. A.; Andersen, A-M Nybo; Oken, E.; Oostvogels, A. J. J. M.; Pac, A.; Papadopoulou, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Pizzi, C.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Rifas-Shiman, S. L.; Roeleveld, N.; Ronfani, L.; Santos, A. C.; Standl, M.; Stigum, H.; Stoltenberg, C.; Thiering, E.; Thijs, C.; Torrent, M.; Tough, S. C.; Trnovec, T.; Turner, S.; van Gelder, M. M. H. J.; van Rossem, L.; von Berg, A.; Vrijheid, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; West, J.; Wijga, A. H.; Wright, J.; Zvinchuk, O.; Sorensen, T. I. A.; Lawlor, D. A.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V. W. V. (2019)
    Objective To assess the separate and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with the risks of pregnancy complications and their population impact. Design Individual participant data meta-analysis of 39 cohorts. Setting Europe, North America, and Oceania. Population 265 270 births. Methods Information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy complications was obtained. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were used. Main outcome measures Gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, small and large for gestational age at birth. Results Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were, across their full ranges, associated with higher risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, and large for gestational age at birth. Preterm birth risk was higher at lower and higher BMI and weight gain. Compared with normal weight mothers with medium gestational weight gain, obese mothers with high gestational weight gain had the highest risk of any pregnancy complication (odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 2.31- 2.74). We estimated that 23.9% of any pregnancy complication was attributable to maternal overweight/obesity and 31.6% of large for gestational age infants was attributable to excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are, across their full ranges, associated with risks of pregnancy complications. Obese mothers with high gestational weight gain are at the highest risk of pregnancy complications. Promoting a healthy pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain may reduce the burden of pregnancy complications and ultimately the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity.
  • Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Waller, Katja; Heikkila, Kauko; Koskenvuo, Markku; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Kujala, Urho M.; Ropponen, Annina (2017)
    Background: We investigated the stability and change of leisure-time physical inactivity in adult men and women during a 35-year follow-up. We also analysed the impact of long-term physical inactivity on the development of body mass index (BMI). Methods: In this population-based cohort study, 5254 Finnish twin individuals (59% women) participated in four surveys in 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2011. Mean age at baseline was 23.9 years. Individual long-term leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was categorized into seven classes varying from 'persistently inactive' to 'persistently active'. We used the multivariate multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model and paired-sample t-test in the analyses. Co-twin control design was used for examining within-pair associations. Results: Of men 11%, and of women 8%, were persistently inactive. Among both sexes, the mean BMI slope trajectories were steeper among the persistently inactive and those who became inactive than among those who were persistently active. Overall, the inactive participants gained 1.4 kg/m(2) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 1.7] more in weight than did the active participants from 1975 to 2011. Among twin pairs discordant for LTPA, the corresponding difference was 1.4 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.83 to 2.0) in dizygotic pairs and 0.68 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.05 to1.3) in monozygotic pairs. Conclusions: Over a 35-year time span from young adulthood, persistently inactive participants and those who had become inactive had greater weight increases than those who were persistently active. This association was also found in twin-pair analyses, although attenuated in monozygotic pairs. This may support the importance of LTPA in weight management, although further causal inference is required.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Tatsuse, Takashi; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Sekine, Michikazu; Lallukka, Tea (2013)
    Background: Occupational class differences in body mass index (BMI) have been systematically reported in developed countries, but the studies have mainly focused on white populations consuming a Westernized diet. We compared occupational class differences in BMI and BMI change in Japan and Finland.Methods: The baseline surveys were conducted during 1998-1999 among Japanese (n = 4080) and during 2000-2002 among Finnish (n = 8685) public-sector employees. Follow-up surveys were conducted among those still employed, in 2003 (n = 3213) and 2007 (n = 7086), respectively. Occupational class and various explanatory factors were surveyed in the baseline questionnaires. Linear regression models were used for data analysis.Results: BMI was higher at baseline and BMI gain was more rapid in Finland than in Japan. In Finland, baseline BMI was lowest among men and women in the highest occupational class and progressively increased to the lowest occupational class; no gradient was found in Japan (country interaction effect, P = 0.020 for men and P < 0.0001 for women). Adjustment for confounding factors reflecting work conditions and health behavior increased the occupational class gradient among Finnish men and women, whereas factors related to social life had no effect. No statistically significant difference in BMI gain was found between occupational classes.Conclusions: The occupational class gradient in BMI was strong among Finnish employees but absent among Japanese employees. This suggests that occupational class inequalities in obesity are not inevitable, even in high-income societies.
  • Kaartinen, Mari T.; Arora, Mansi; Heinonen, Sini; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2020)
    Transglutaminases TG2 and FXIII-A have recently been linked to adipose tissue biology and obesity, however, human studies for TG family members in adipocytes have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated the association of TGM family members to acquired weight gain in a rare set of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for body weight, i.e., heavy-lean twin pairs. We report that F13A1 is the only TGM family member showing significantly altered, higher expression in adipose tissue of the heavier twin. Our previous work linked adipocyte F13A1 to increased weight, body fat mass, adipocyte size, and pro-inflammatory pathways. Here, we explored further the link of F13A1 to adipocyte size in the MZ twins via a previously conducted TWA study that was further mined for genes that specifically associate to hypertrophic adipocytes. We report that differential expression of F13A1 (Delta Heavy-Lean) associated with 47 genes which were linked via gene enrichment analysis to immune response, leucocyte and neutrophil activation, as well as cytokine response and signaling. Our work brings further support to the role of F13A1 in the human adipose tissue pathology, suggesting a role in the cascade that links hypertrophic adipocytes with inflammation.