Browsing by Subject "welfare policy"

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  • Nordberg, Camilla Christina (2015)
    In a time of welfare state restructuring, migrant background ‘stay-at-home’ mothers have become a politicised social category, constructed as unproductive and socially disengaged. The article examines the ways newly arrived women, who take care of children at home, enact and negotiate their own and their families’ early citizenisation process, with a particular focus on institutional encounters. Drawing on two case stories from the capital region of Finland, I discuss the dynamics of mothers’ claims-making for a transitionary citizenship, from the sphere of the home via social rights based public daycare to language training and education. I conclude that the constrained agency migrant mothers are subjected to, risks shaping a new gendered and racialised order of parenthood and ultimately of citizenship in the transforming welfare states.
  • Hellevig, Dag (2000)
    Broadly speaking the research topic is about the relationship between church and the society. During the socio-economical situation caused by the depression in Finnish economics in 1990-1994 the bishops of the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church have made many speeches in the field of social-ethics and welfare politics. This study aims at discovering whether this speeches, other elements in lutheran thought and the tradition of the lutheran church mediate a welfare political doctrine of the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church, that can be used as a mean of influence inside the church and in the relationship between the church and the society. The aim of the study is to find out whether it is possible to construct such a welfare political doctrine of the evangelical-lutheran church. The task is to find out of which elements such doctrine consists of and how it appears in comparison to the doctrines of Finnish society, the Catholic and the Orthodox Church. Method used is a qualitative interpretation of literary material. The operations of the interpretation are ordinary combinations of reading, thinking and writing. All these operations are aimed to be critically used. Maybe the most surprising result of the study is the discovering of the fact in what extent the welfare political thinking of the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church is based upon old thinking of the times of the Reformation. According to that view the reality reflects the character of God, a love that donates itself. The 'natural' state of man however is exactly in opposite to the order of love. Man is selfish and seeks in everything his own good. According to the same view God masks himself behind the needs of the neighbour and proclaims His will by bringing the needs of the neighbour in to the daylight, which needs may be physical or mental. Consequently the lutheran thought and practice place the needs of the neighbour here and now as the goal of social-political activity. There is a clear contradiction between the above described 'natural' state of man and the need of taken into consideration the neighbours needs. How is it possible that man seeking only his own good can take care of the neighbours needs? The lutheran answer to this is a 'compulsory' neighbour-charity put into practice by the authorities. This thought is included already in the doctrine of the earthly regime from the time of the Reformation. Instead of waiting that the good will sometimes produces results which are considered as fully insufficient laws are to be prescribed and when required the coercive means of the authorities are to be used in order to lead man in another direction as he by nature is inclined to. From this basis it's logical that the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church supports structural welfare arrangements, the nordic welfare state, as opposed to the Catholic Church which regards the family, the voluntary organizations and the church as the main welfare agents. In the study it has been observed that the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church is one of the strongest supporters of the idea of the welfare state and in so doing is also prepared to criticize the decision-makers and to oppose the expansion of the market mechanism. The main sources The socio-ethical speeches of the bishops of the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church in the 1990's Raunio, Antti 1997: Luterilainen ja katolinen käsitys sosiaalisesta vastuusta. (The Lutheran and Catholic view of social responsibility)
  • Etheridge, James (2008)
    This study challenges the perceived wisdom that economic globalisation has rendered social democracy a historically exhausted project. Utilising data gathered from election manifestos, the paper presents evidence to show that social democratic parties have continued to fashion a multitude of responses to globalisation and have not revised their ideological stances in ways that are consistent with the globalisation orthodoxy. In seeking to explain continued social democratic party diversity, the study draws on the fundamental insights of new-institutionalist theory. This approach examines the linkages between party positions and political institutions and shows how institutional configurations refract the pressures of globalisation and elicit a multitude of social democratic policy stances. The analysis focuses on the manifesto positions of social democratic parties on welfare policy from the 1970s to the late 1990s. Data on social democratic parties in more than 20 OECD democracies are obtained from a dataset produced by the Comparative Manifestos Project and examined longitudinally. The data are measures of the priority social democratic parties attach to welfare state expansion, welfare state limitation and social justice. The results show that party positions oscillated substantially between the 1970s and 1990s. There are no clearly visible patterns in the data and, importantly, no directional trends. In seeking to explain why social democratic parties continue to pursue a multitude of different policy paths, the paper draw on the insights of new-institutionalist theory. The approach is defined broadly, with the study utilising four strands of new-institutionalism. The bulk of the paper was given over to empirical institutionalism, the primary analytical tool deployed to uncover the influence of institutional variables on social democratic choices. The theoretical arguments of empirical institutionalist theory are operationalised into quantitative measures and a range of statistical methods are used to demonstrate the influence of institutional variables on party welfare-ideological profiles during the three-decade period. The explanatory power of new-institutionalism is further explored in a case study of the German Social Democratic Party and Agenda 2010, a radical package of welfare reforms the party launched in 2003. Three alternative new-institutionalist approaches are employed to illustrate how the role of institutions in influencing social democratic choices can be understood and explained in different ways.