Browsing by Subject "wheat"

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  • Laurila, Heikki Arvid; Karjalainen, Mika; Kleemola, Jouko; Hyyppa, Juha (2010)
  • Michel, Matthieu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Hybrid wheat has been the focus of much research for its potential high yield, high protein content and better resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Nowadays, only CHA (Chemical Hybridizing Agent) method is used to induce male sterility at a commercial scale. However, this technique is hard to implement on a large production scale and other methods have been investigated for several years. CMS (Cytoplasmic Male Sterility) has been shown to be a promising way to develop hybrid wheat. However, one downside of the technique is the challenging breeding stage step and the associated conversion and restoration process. To fully express the potential gain in yield, the restoration of the cytoplasmic sterility must be complete for the F1 to be fully fertile. In this study, we investigated different methods to assess fertility restoration in nursery and compared the results with the trial notations. The collected data were also used to feed a genomic selection model to predict the behavior of untested hybrids. The results showed a high experimental error of the bagging method originated mostly from human manipulation. The visual scoring showed higher repeatability but was poorly correlated with trial score. A deeper study of the trial scoring revealed an interesting effect coming from the female and an expression of sterility for commercial lines and CHA hybrid checks. Good prediction accuracies were found for genomic selection on both methods, however deeper studies and cross prediction are needed. The multilocation trials remained the best option to score fertility restoration
  • Hosid, Elena; Brodsky, Leonid; Kalendar, Ruslan; Raskina, Olga; Belyayev, Alexander (2012)
    Background: The environment can have a decisive influence on the structure of the genome, changing it in a certain direction. Therefore, the genomic distribution of environmentally sensitive transposable elements may vary measurably across a species area. In the present research, we aimed to detect and evaluate the level of LTR retrotransposon intraspecific variability in Aegilops speltoides (2n=2x=14), a wild cross-pollinated relative of cultivated wheat. Results: The inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) protocol was applied to detect and evaluate the level of LTR retrotransposon intraspecific variability in Ae. speltoides and closely related species of sect. Sitopsis. IRAP analysis revealed significant diversity in TE distribution. Various genotypes from the same population significantly differ with respect to the patterns of the four explored LTR retrotransposons (WIS2, Wilma, Daniela, and Fatima). This diversity points to a constant ongoing process of LTR retrotransposon fraction restructuring in populations of Ae. speltoides throughout the species’ range and within single populations in time. Maximum changes were recorded in genotypes from small stressed populations. Principal component analysis showed that the dynamics of the Fatima element in populations of Ae. speltoides significantly differ from those of WIS2, Wilma, and Daniela. In terms of relationships between Sitopsis species, IRAP analysis of WIS2, Wilma, and Daniela elements revealed a grouping similar to groupings determined by other methods, with Ae. sharonensis and Ae. longissima forming a separate unit, Ae. speltoides appearing as a dispersed group, and Ae. bicornis being in an intermediate position. Conclusions: IRAP display data revealed dynamic changes in LTR retrotransposon fractions in the genome of Ae. speltoides. The process is permanent and population-specific, ultimately leading to the separation of small stressed populations from the main bunch.
  • Shewry, P. R.; Hassall, K.L.; Grausgruber, H.; Andersson, A.A.M.; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Piironen, Vieno; Rakszegi, Marianne; Ward, Jane L; Lovegrove, L. (2020)
    Wheat is the major staple food in Western Europe and an important source of energy, protein, dietary fibre, minerals, B vitamins and phytochemicals. Plant breeders have been immensely successful in increasing yields to feed the growing global population. However, concerns have been expressed that the focus on increasing yield and processing quality has resulted in reduced contents of components that contribute to human health and increases in adverse reactions. We review the evidence for this, based largely on studies in our own laboratories of sets of wheats bred and grown between the 18(th)century and modern times. With the exception of decreased contents of mineral micronutrients, there is no clear evidence that intensive breeding has resulted in decreases in beneficial components or increases in proteins which trigger adverse responses. In fact, a recent study of historic and modern wheats from the UK showed increases in the contents of dietary fibre components and a decreased content of asparagine in white flour, indicating increased benefits for health.
  • Kuusisto, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the ensilability of field pea and faba bean bi-crop with spring wheat when ensiled as whole-crop with different additives. In this study we attempted to clarify use of pea – wheat and faba bean – wheat bi-crop in organic farming. Forages was sown at 4th to 7th of June in Luonnonvarakeskus (Luke) Ruukki and forages were ensiled in laboratory silos at 26th of August 2013. Silages were ensiled without additive (PR), with formic acid (MH) and with two different heterofermentative inoculants (B1 and B2) as additive. Each treatment were made three replicants. Silos were opened after 106 ensiling days at 9th of December in Luke Jokioinen. Chemical and microbiological compositions were determined from samples of herbage. From silage samples were analysed fermentation quality, microbiological composition and aerobic stability. All samples were wet. Faba bean – wheat bi-crop was a little wetter than field pea – wheat bi-crop. Field pea – wheat forage contained more crude protein, water-soluble carbohydrates, starch and had stronger buffering capacity than faba bean – wheat. Faba bean – wheat bi-crop contained more neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) and had also lower digestibility. Both of crops were easy to ensile and growth stage were different between crops. All samples included lot of micro-organism especially yeast, moulds and epiphytic lactic acid bacteria. Field pea – wheat silage contained more fermentation products than faba bean – wheat silage. MH- treated silages had better fermentation quality than other silages although there were higher pH values in MH silages. MH silages contained less lactic and acetic acids and ammonium nitro-gen. Inoculant treated silages mostly did not differ from PR treatment in fermentation parameters. That is probably due to high epiphytic lactic acid bacteria account in herbage. Silages contained only a little butyric acid. Microbiological quality of silages predisposed them to aerobic deteriora-tion because there were considerable high amounts of yeasts and moulds. Field pea –wheat silages were more aerobically stable than faba bean - wheat. This is probably due to higher concentration of fermentation acids in field pea-wheat silages. MH treatment was the most aerobically stable of field pea – wheat silages. B2 treatment was the most stable of field pea – wheat silages. Mixed ration of these silages were more prone to aerobically deterioration than silages.
  • Baarman, Axel (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Nitrogen leaching is the main cause of nitrogen loss from Finnish agricultural soils. Nitrogen leaching can exceed 20 kg/ha/year. The Finnish waters and the Baltic Sea are affected by nitrogen leaching due to that nitrogen increases algae blooming. Studies have shown that the loss of nitrogen can be decreased by cultivating catch crops. Nitrogen leaching can in some cases be decreased by up to 90 %. In Finland catch crops are seldom grown. Catch crops are thought to be too costly and time consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate how efficiently winter wheat, rye and winter turnip rape function as catch crops and what effect the preceding crops of fallow, barley and peas have on autumn sown crops, with regard to nitrogen levels. A three year-long field experiment was established in 2010 at Viikki research farm in Helsinki. Winter wheat, rye and winter turnip rape were cultivated as catch crops; the preceding crops were fallow in 2010-2011 and barley and pea in 2011-2012. In 2012 winter wheat, rye and winter turnip rape were cultivated with fallow, peas and barley as preceding crops. In this study the soil’s mineral nitrogen content was measured before sowing in autumn and in spring. In 2010-2011 the soil’s mineral nitrogen content was also measured after harvest. The nitrogen content of the plants was measured in autumn. The seed quality and the seed yield were also measured. In autumn 2011 the mineral nitrogen content of the soil was higher after barley than after peas. However, there was more mineral nitrogen after cultivating fallow, compared to peas and barley in autumn 2012. The loss of mineral nitrogen between autumn 2010 and spring 2011 was slight. The nitrogen loss was greatest where winter turnip rape was cultivated, due to the plant’s high nitrogen assimilation. Winter turnip rape accumulated much more nitrogen than rye and winter wheat, whereas rye accumulated more nitrogen than winter wheat in 2010 and 2011. Mineral nitrogen loss between autumn 2011 and spring 2012 was high, over 80 % of the nitrogen was lost due to heavy rainfall and a mild winter.
  • Puranen, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base which disrupts the seed coat by partial hydrolysis of hemicellulose and lignin in the rumen. NaOH can substitute for mechanical processing of cereal grains. Using total mixed ration including NaOH –treated grains, is an opportunity to avoid the metabolic problems caused by high dietary starch content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of NaOH –treated wheat grains in ad libitum total mixed ration diet on feed intake and production of dairy cows. Commonly used oats-barley diet was a control. This study was conducted at the experimental farm of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden from September to November 2010. There were 17 multiparous and 6 primiparous cows in the study (Swedish red breed). The cows were kept in a warm loose house barn and intake of total mixed ration was measured by using scale cups. Experimental treatments were ground barley and ground oats in the ratio of 1:1, ground wheat in the ratio of 1:0, ground wheat and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:1 and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:0. All the diets were formulated to have a dry matter content of 370 g/kg and crude protein content of 180 g/kg dry matter. Apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Utilization of nitrogen was evaluated using calculated nitrogen balance. The experiment was conducted according to the 4x4 Latin square designs and the statistical differences between the treatments were detected by contrasts. Intakes of dry matter (PQ=0.02) and organic matter (PQ=0.02) increased in pursuance of their improved digestibility as half of the dried wheat was supplemented for NaOH –treated wheat. There was no significant difference between treatments in milk yield or energy corrected milk yield. Milk fat yield (PQ=0.04) and concentration of milk fat increased clearly (PQ=0.004) as half of the dry wheat was substituted for NaOH –treated wheat. By substituting all dry wheat for NaOH -treated wheat, milk protein concentration decreased (PL<0.001). The same occurred for milk urea concentration (PL=0.002). The NaOH –treatment did not result in any economic improvement in this study because concentration of milk protein decreased and intake increased, while milk production remained the same. The best production response was achieved by the mix diet of dried wheat and NaOH –treated wheat.
  • Nogalska, Anna; Chen, Lin; Sienkiewicz, Stanislaw; Nogalski, Zenon (2014)
  • Ketonen, Krista (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Variation of the protein and amino acid content of barley, wheat and oats were studied. Diets based on grain samples of different protein content were optimized for pigs and poultry.The study went on to optimize diets for pigs and poultry with grains of different protein contents. The amino acid and raw protein analysis was undertaken on 38 grain samples. Correlations were calculated between different variables in grain samples and linear regression analysis was conducted between the protein and amino acid composition. The best estimate for amino acid concentrations of cereals was the protein content. The relative content of amino acids decreases as protein content increases and especially so in barley and wheat. Most reliable regression equations between amino acid and protein content were made for barley and wheat samples. For oat reliable regression equations could not be made. Oats also differed by other features from barley and wheat as it correlated with different variables compared to barley and wheat. Amount of needed protein concentrate levels decreased when barley and wheat protein and amino acid contents were considered in optimization. Protein concentrate levels did not decrease when used oat sample with highest protein content.
  • Rasimus-Sahari, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo Olavi; Andersson, Aino Maria Alice; Jestoi, Marika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja Sinikka (2015)
    Reasons for mammalian cell toxicity observed in barley and spring wheat grains were sought. Streptomyces sp. isolates from wheat and barley produced heat-stable methanol-soluble substances which inhibited the motility of exposed porcine spermatozoa used as a toxicity indicator. Several barley isolates produced antimycin A (2 to 5 ng/mg wet wt of biomass), a macrolide antibiotic known to block oxygen utilization in mitochondria. The antimycinproducing isolates were members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus group. In in vitro assays with porcine kidney tubular epithelial cells, the specific toxicity of antimycin A towards mitochondria was higher than that of the mycotoxin enniatin B but lower than that of the mitochondriotoxins cereulide and paenilide, produced by food-related Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus tundrae, respectively. The toxic wheat isolates, related to Streptomyces sedi, did not produce antimycin A and or any other known toxin. Our results suggest that the presence of toxin-producing streptomycetes in stored cereal grains may pose a thus far unrecognized threat for food and feed safety.
  • Koivunen, Erja; Talvio, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Tupasela, Tuomo; Tuunainen, Petra; Valaja, Jarmo (2016)
    The aim was to study the effects of dietary pea inclusion and the addition of Avizyme 1200 -enzyme cocktail on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity and organoleptic quality of meat. The experimental design was a 4 x 2 factorial, the factors being dietary pea inclusion (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) in the diets fed from day 9 to day 38 and the addition of Avizyme 1200 enzyme cocktail including amylase, protease and xylanase during the entire experiment. The growth of birds improved (p 0.05). In conclusion, 450 g kg(-1) peas can be used in the broiler grower diets without negative effects on the bird performance. The use of enzyme cocktail improves bird performance.
  • Geisslitz, Sabrina; Shewry, Peter; Brouns, Fred; America, Antoine H. P.; Caio, Giacomo Pietro Ismaele; Daly, Matthew; D'Amico, Stefano; De Giorgio, Roberto; Gilissen, Luud; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Huang, Xin; Jonkers, Daisy; Keszthelyi, Daniel; Larre, Colette; Masci, Stefania; Mills, Clare; Moller, Marie Sofie; Sorrells, Mark E.; Svensson, Birte; Zevallos, Victor F.; Weegels, Peter Louis (2021)
    Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) comprise about 2-4% of the total wheat grain proteins and may contribute to natural defense against pests and pathogens. However, they are currently among the most widely studied wheat components because of their proposed role in adverse reactions to wheat consumption in humans. ATIs have long been known to contribute to IgE-mediated allergy (notably Bakers' asthma), but interest has increased since 2012 when they were shown to be able to trigger the innate immune system, with attention focused on their role in coeliac disease which affects about 1% of the population and, more recently, in non-coeliac wheat sensitivity which may affect up to 10% of the population. This has led to studies of their structure, inhibitory properties, genetics, control of expression, behavior during processing, effects on human adverse reactions to wheat and, most recently, strategies to modify their expression in the plant using gene editing. We therefore present an integrated account of this range of research, identifying inconsistencies, and gaps in our knowledge and identifying future research needs. Note This paper is the outcome of an invited international ATI expert meeting held in Amsterdam, February 3-5 2020
  • Piekkari, Nelli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Wheat is the most common crop of the world and there are many plant pathogens that are causing diseases in wheat. In Finland leaf spot diseases cause crop losses every year and typical diseases are for example tan spot and stagonospora nodorum spot. It is possible to use different kind of forecasting models to estimate the risk of the plant disease epidemic and need for controlling. Forecasting models make possible to focus the controlling actions to the right place and time. The aim of this study was clear up how reliably the WisuEnnuste forecasting model can forecast amount of tan spot and stagonospora nodorum spot of wheat. It was estimated how good correlation there is between the risk value of the forecasting model and amount of the disease observed from wheat samples. In addition it was evaluated how well tan spot and stagonospora nodorum spot are recognized visually from the plant samples. The correlation between risk value and real amount of the disease was weak for both diseases. When cumulating risk values were divided into three different classes there were statistically significant differences between classes. It is possible to use boundary values between classes when it is defined what risk values cause warning about the disease. The amount of the data was too small to evaluate how individual factors affect to the risk value. The visual identifying of the diseases was difficult and there happened many mistakes.