Browsing by Subject "womanhood"

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  • Alafuzoff, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tutkielma käsittelee kuubalaisen runoilijan Carilda Oliver Labran valikoiduissa runoissa esiintyvää seksuaalisuutta, erotiikkaa sekä intohimon ja rakkauden diskurssia kuubalaisen kulttuurin näkökulmasta. Carilda Oliver Labra on 1920-luvulla Kuubassa syntynyt naisrunoilija, joka on tullut tunnetuksi ennen kaikkea eroottisista runoistaan. Ensimmäiset runonsa hän julkaisi 1940-luvulla, jolloin ne aiheuttivat paheksuntaa. Tutkielman tavoitteena on luoda yleiskäsitys kuubalaisesta rakkauden kokemuksesta sekä naisen seksuaalisesta heräämisestä 1940-luvun Kuubassa aina 1980-luvulle asti. Tutkimukseen on valittu seitsemän runoa 1940-luvulta aina 1980-luvun alkuun asti. Runot edustavat Labran eroottista tuotantoa ja luovat yleiskatsauksen hänen tyyliinsä kirjoittaa eroottista runoutta. Runot myös kertovat Labran omaa elämäntarinaa, sijoittuen mm. hänen avioliittojensa ajalle, sekä toisen avioimiehen menetykseen, joka vaikutti tuntuvasti Labran tekemiin runoihin. Teoriataustana tutkimuksessa käytetään Luce Irigarayn sekä Hélène Cixousn ajatuksia rakkaudesta, parisuhteista sekä naisten kirjoittamisesta. Teorioiden tukena toimii ymmärrys naiseuden ja rakkauden käsityksestä yleisellä tasolla sekä Kuuban sisäisesti. Tämän lisäksi tulkinta sijoitetaan Kuuban historiaan. Tutkimusmenetelmänä toimii runoanalyysi sekä diskurssianalyysi. Carilda Oliver Labran runous heijastelee kuubalaista käsitystä rakkaudesta, mutta myös osoittaa uuden tavan luoda naisen seksuaalisuutta ja kirjoittaa erotiikkaa naisen näkökulmasta Kuubassa 1940-luvulta aina 1980-luvulle. Carilda toimi vastoin yleisiä odotuksia ja stereotypioita ja osoitti, että myös naisella on oikeus eroottisiin ajatuksiin ja seksuaalisuutensa ilmaisuun.
  • Venäläinen, Satu Maarit (2017)
    Widely circulated cultural conceptions about women who have committed violence recurrently place them in positions of otherness in relation to what is considered as being normal, valuable womanhood. This article explores ways in which Finnish women imprisoned for violent crimes grapple with this troubled relation between womanhood and violence in their enactments of gendered identities. The analysis is based on a novel, discursive-affective approach to positioning that can accommodate complexity and context-specific variability in enactments of identities. Four different, recurring modes of positioning are discussed in the analysis: aligning with forcefulness, aligning with vulnerability, (dis)-aligning with demonization and aligning with motherhood. By shedding light not only on the complexity and fluidity of these gendered identity enactments but also on their affectively ambivalent dimensions, the analysis contributes to attempts at countering reductionist views about women who have committed violence and the gendered dichotomizations that they work to reproduce.
  • Jyrkiäinen, Senni (2010)
    This is an ethnographic study of the mobility of women in Upper Egypt. It is based on two months of fieldwork conducted in the governorate of Sohag. A central argument of this study is that the critical re-evaluation of spatial divisions is needed to come to grips with the complexity of ways in which space is actually understood. Upper Egypt or the Sa’id is a culturally specific region that is labelled as traditionalist, family-centred and patriarchal. Sa'idi women negotiate mobility in public space within the community with regard to such principles as the avoidance of shame and respect towards familial authorities. Despite the small size of the governorate the ideas and practices related to mobility are diverse. The aim of this study is to ethnographically illustrate the heterogeneity that is linked with spatial constructions. Using the theory of practice, I show that women, as active mobile agents, construct, negotiate, regulate, and finally give social meanings to space. By means of participant observation and interviews I study two socially distinguishable groups. I concentrate on highly-educated middle class women living in urban surroundings. As a reference point, I have a group of rural non-educated women. With regard to the two mentioned groups the following themes are studied: how women, as active agents, negotiate their mobility in public space, how the question of women’s mobility is related to the morals of the patriarchally arranged community and how the different social classes regard spatial organisation. Mobility is an embodied activity that is founded on the inseparable relationship between body and space. In feminist anthropology, the theoretical division between male-oriented public and female-oriented private space has evoked a lot of discussion. This study reveals that, not so much the concepts of public and private, but the spatial division between familiar and unfamiliar helps to understand on what basis the mobility of women is regulated and negotiated. Moreover, it is shown that the urban middle class and the rural lower class have very different kinds of spatial practices. The data displays that the ability to regulate privacy and to make spatial divisions requires resources. Finally, the results suggest that there is no single Egyptian understanding of space. Spatial categorisations are renegotiated all the time, as is gender. As commonly shared ideas of womanhood change, spatial practices find new forms. This study is an attempt to understand contemporary spatial practices in the relatively little studied Sa’idi region and to provide a reconsideration of spatial divisions in the light of the ethnographic data.
  • Heinonen, Piia (2007)
    This case study analyses the economic operations of a group of Lusaka-based businesswomen in the formal economy. In the study, these businesswomen are considered 'new' since through their entrepreneurship they have actively adapted to the 1990s liberalisation of Zambian economy. There are signs indicating that the Zambian entrepreneurial development does not follow the modern trajectories, which makes entrepreneurship an interesting research topic. The concepts of economic citizenship and strategy are launched to understand individual operations in the context of state regulation and social setting. On one hand, I will examine the Zambian neoliberal tax policy and its impact on the economic operations and decision-making of the new businesswomen, such as tax registration. On the other hand, the empirical data from the interviews with businesswomen and from the Zambian literature and magazines are examined to grasp together a full picture of the social elements that influence businesswomen's economic operations. The study reveals that the economic citizenship of the new Lusaka businesswomen builds on a complex set of norms and responsibilities and is more likely based on the duties than on the rights of a citizen. The economic strategies of the businesswomen do not solely reflect the market rationalities, but also responsibilities towards the nation, employees and the extended family. The traditional connotations of female decency influence new businesswomen's operations as well.