Browsing by Subject "women"

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  • Sipilä, Pyry; Gulnara, Harrasova; Mustelin, Linda; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2017)
    Since medieval times, an association between religiosity and anorexia nervosa has been suggested, but few systematic studies exist. This study examines in a nationwide setting whether personal or family religiosity is associated with lifetime anorexia nervosa among women in adolescence and early adulthood. Women (N = 2,825) from the 1975 to 1979 birth cohorts of Finnish twins were screened for lifetime DSM-5 anorexia nervosa (N = 92). Parental religiosity was assessed by self-report when the women were aged 16 years. The women self-reported their religiosity at ages 16 and 22 to 27 years. Parental religiosity did not increase the risk of lifetime anorexia nervosa, and neither did religiosity of the women themselves in adolescence. In early adulthood, a J-shaped curve was compatible with the data, indicating increased risk both at low and high levels of religiosity, but this result was statistically non-significant. Religiosity was weakly negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction. There was some suggestive evidence for socioregional variation in the association of religiosity with lifetime anorexia nervosa. In this first population study to directly address religiosity and anorexia nervosa, no evidence was found for a significant association of religiosity with anorexia nervosa either at the personal or family level. Some regional differences are possible. A modest protective association of religiosity with body dissatisfaction is also possible. Despite compelling case descriptions of holy anorexia, religiosity does not appear to be a central factor in the development of anorexia nervosa in Finland, a highly secularized Christian country.
  • Juva, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The concern of healthiness reflects the Western idea of food and today's eating habits. Especially women have shown to be the pioneers of a healthy diet. The ideals of eating properly are also gendered. Women are assumed to eat less than men. In Finland, the nutritional recommendations for how to eat properly have excisted for many decades. However, recommendations for a healthy diet are not always followed. Food is not only a daily necessity but it is also a source of pleasure. People enjoy food and they want to bring joy to themselves and to their close ones with it. On weekends there is often more time to cook and enjoy food. The aim of this study is to find out which factors affect women's pleasure eating and how women take and describe this kind of eating. Furthermore, this study aims to find out what kinds of delicacies women enjoy during their Friday nights. The data for this study is from the Finnish Literature Society's Folklore archives Ruokapäiväkirjakeruu Mitä söin tänään? 12 April 2013. The method of this study is qualitative, and the method of analysis is data-driven content analysis. The basis for this study is oral history, and the texts written by women represent narrative style. 42 women from the data form the research group for this study. (n=42) The study showed that the women's perceptions of pleasure eating were contradictory. Pleasure eating was seen as the counterbalance of normal food and it was generally considered unhealthy. Pleasure eating was perceived more positively when the person's diet in general was healthy. On Fridays pleasure eating was more allowed than on other weekdays. Out of all the delicacies the women were eating, chocolate and cheeses were the most popular. Overall the women tried to follow a healthy diet despite the pleasure eating.
  • Virkkunen, Matleena (2008)
    This research paper examines the subject positions of the Nicaraguan peasant women who participated in development projects. The women are a part of the target group of the projects. The concept of subject position refers in this research to the women's socially constructed position in the development projects. I also analyse the discourses of development and poverty that the Nicaraguan women produce. The discourses of the women are compared to the so called hegemonic discourses of development. The hegemonic discourses and their critique are introduced during the research. The theoretical framework of the research is constructed by social constructionism and critical discourse analysis. I have approached the subject positions of the Nicaraguan women with the help of textual analysis and narratology. This research can be conceptualised as a part of the ethnographic development research. I have investigated two development projects funded by foreign donors. The research material consists of the private and group interviews of the Nicaraguan women. In the women's narratives, four different subject positions were found. One of them represents active participation in the development project. The rest of the subject positions represent passive positions. The fatalistic subject position was especially strong. The poverty discourses of the women emphasized the lack of education (or knowledge) and the condition of a house and clothes. Poverty was also seen for instance as social inequality and as happiness. The strongest development discourse the women emphasized was education, work and a good salary. On the other hand, development was seen as the social services produced by the state. Research shows that the discourses produced by the Nicaraguan women are many times in conflict with the discourses that emphasize the economical well-being in development. On the other hand, the results of this research are similar with those of so called participatory poverty research. The research also shows the conflict between the hegemonic development discourses and the positioning of the development project's target group. The main argument of the research is that the target group's passive (or even fatalistic) subject position may threat the aims of a development project. On the other hand, becoming aware of the target group's subject positions may help the project to achieve its aims.
  • Engberg, Elina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Huvinen, Emilia; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2020)
    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. However, bone health of women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) has received little attention. This cross-sectional study compares bone health between premenopausal women with and without a history of GDM, and examines factors associated with bone health in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Material and methods We measured areal bone mineral density for total hip, lumbar spine and whole body, and total body fat percentage (fat%) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 224 women. In addition, we measured bone characteristics of radius and tibia with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Results When compared with women without a history of GDM (mean age 39 years [SD 5], body mass index [BMI] 35 kg/m(2) [SD 6], fat% 48 [SD 7]), women with a history of GDM (age 41 years [SD 4], BMI 31 kg/m(2) [SD 7], fat% 43 [SD 10]) had lower hip and whole body bone mineral densities, and inferior tibia outcomes. However, the differences in bone characteristics disappeared after controlling for age, height, BMI and fat%. After controlling for age, height, BMI and smoking, physical activity and healthier diet were positively associated with bone outcomes, whereas fat%, HbA(1c) and screen time were negatively associated with bone outcomes. Particularly, fat% showed independent negative associations with whole body bone mineral density and several tibia and radius characteristics. Conclusions Fat% is associated with adverse bone health, independently of BMI, in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Promoting healthy lifestyle and reducing fat% in high-risk women could improve bone health and prevent future fractures.
  • Kitaba, Yuri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Female migration has been widely studied in Europe. Previous studies had found that migration is gendered, thus, the experience of migrants differs depending on issues such as gender, class and ethnicity along with career and familial relations. The position of the migrants in the post-migration time period is influenced by the recognition of their skills and the assessment of human capital they possess in the host society, which has a considerable effect on the position of immigrant women. Thus, I employ a feminist extension of Bourdieu’s forms of capital in migration studies as a theoretical framework to examine the position of immigrant women and to better understand their experience in a host society. In addition, I utilize the ideas of emotional capital to discuss the importance of studying caring practice, including everyday activities and the caring work done for other family members, and its interactions with the outside of the household, the local community and, possibly, with integration. My focus is on the position of immigrant woman in Finland, a country where the Nordic welfare regime, which is built on egalitarian practices, creates a paradox for immigrant integration, as national belonging is built on labour market participation and the idea of gender equality. I pay specific attention to the Cash for Care scheme in relation to high female labour participation and the choices of childcare provision. Thus, my intention is to explore immigrant women’s decision making on childcare, what kind of activities the women engage in while taking care of their child, and their progress in integration. My research questions are: 1) do immigrant women utilize caring practice in capital accumulation; and if so, how? and 2) how do they generate various forms of capital and transform them into other types of capital and, ultimately, into economic capital? The sub-questions include: how does the notion of national belonging related to labour market participation and gender equality in Finnish society intertwine with individuals’ decision making with regards to the process of capital accumulation and transformation? I employed a feminist standpoint to conduct 6 in-depth interviews using a narrative approach. The interviewees are all from outside of the European Union, are highly skilled, have at least one child whose age is under three years old, have experienced staying at home with a child and currently live in the Helsinki metropolitan area. I utilized thematic analysis to explore the experiences of the immigrant women. The results show the potential for immigrant women to be subjects of capital accumulation, as well as objects where their capital is utilized in supporting and enhancing the lives of other family members. First, the results establish the importance of a local and neighbouring context in capital accumulation in relation to how caring for a child goes beyond the household, and is linked to the generation of social and cultural capital. The choice on the length of stay with one’s child at home intertwines with the social and economic statuses of the interviewees, but remains primarily a matter of individual preference. Second, two of the cases demonstrate the transformation of accumulated capital into economic capital through caring for other members of the family, which works as a resource of emotional capital. At the same time, the position of these women is constrained by social and cultural barriers, as they lack appreciated capital, the most important of them being a sufficient knowledge of Finnish language and culture along with relevant social networks. The position of immigrant mothers can also be observed from an objective viewpoint: there are limitations on the women’s ability to accumulate capital for themselves due to them taking care of the child. However, at the same time, the women can engage in transmission of capital and enhancing their children’s capital development. This thesis shows that the caring work of mothers goes beyond the household, contributing to the generation of capital in their integration process as well as for their children. Caring practice in research demands further investigation to better understand the paths of immigrant women and, possibly, the involvement of their spouses in this practice, in order to improve the women’s social and economic positioning in Finnish society.
  • Heim, Anita; Pyhälä, Aili (2020)
    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and conceptualize the present drivers of food choices and preferences of the Khwe San indigenous peoples by considering influences of their historical and cultural contexts. Data were collected in Eastern Bwabwata National Park in Namibia using a range of qualitative methods: semi-structured and structured interviews and free listing. The various drivers of food choices have been clustered into four levels of the ecological conceptual framework. Key factors, found to be driving participants' food choices, were the following: taste, hunger, health, familiarity and body satisfaction at the individual level; culture and food taboos at the social level; access to food and food storage at the physical level, and; cost and seasonality at the macro level. Many of these factors are directly related to food insecurity and previous experiences of hunger. Current preferences towards traditional foods existed but were not prevailing among all the participants. Interviews with the elderly revealed the historical context of the increasing exposure to modern foods and a contested access to traditional foods and traditional knowledge transmission. Our findings exposed some substantial gaps in the nutritional knowledge of the Khwe that need consideration by future health promotion strategies along with the current perceptions of local food choices. Ensuring access and promoting sustainable management of traditional foods would not only contribute to the health of the Khwe people but also help to maintain a nutritional safety net in their current situation of extreme poverty.
  • Pavlyshche, Tereza (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Fashion blogs are invention of the new millennia. Starting with something as simple as commenting on the outfit or a fashion event using this online medium, modern bloggers transformed it now into a successful business venture and a massive network for sharing ideas, tips and personal struggles with their followers. Thus, nowadays, a successful fashion blogger can be anything from a minor celebrity in the blogosphere, to a major international influencer in the fashion industry. Being personally fascinated by the way modern fashion bloggers run their blogs and manage to create a personal brand, I have decided to focus my research on creation of an online identity fashion bloggers go through whilst managing their personal blogs. Intentionally, or unintentionally personal fashion bloggers develop a certain type of writing and content creation that allows them to connect to many people. Fashion bloggers try to produce an idea that will guarantee them professional success. However, their personal background partially already set them up to be more connected to a certain group of people rather than the other. It is visible in their looks, ethnicity, lifestyle, personal interests and in opinions what type of people would be the majority of their followers. As a results, the network of followers that will be build by the blogger will determine what type of content she will be producing to attract even more readers. This is what will be discussed in this thesis: how fashion bloggers behave and what they primarily focus on in their blogs to keep up the online persona they are constructing.
  • Nataraj, Shalini (2010)
    Abstract: This study aims to understand the identity behind Finnish female leaders. Women in socio-democratic nations tend to enjoy high gender equality, but there are still gender related problems in the labour force. Vertical and some horizontal sex-segregation is a prevalent feature of the Nordic States, a trend which segregates women into the lower and middle ranks of the public sector. Compared to their northern neighbours, more Finnish women tend to enjoy higher ranked jobs but still mainly in the public sphere. Within this context, this study is an aim to understand how and why these Finnish women are so successful. What is leadership and what does a leader require for success? Some feminist literature suggests that gender is an identity created from social norms, but like most political minorities, tend to hold on to the pain of oppression, consequently, recreating their positions in society. Wendy Brown refers to it as wounded attachments, or a continual re-creation of pain. An example of this pain is the imagery of a glass ceiling. The continual struggle for gender equality can be said to create cycles of victimization. Can this be said of women leaders? What is the identity behind a Finnish woman in a professional position of seniority and executive management or directorship? Six Finnish women are interviewed about their status, job satisfaction, work history and ideas behind their leadership. The research design incorporates a textual analysis and a brief questionnaire collected from 14 international students. These data sets are used to understand the identity and discourse of the leaders. Findings indicate that female leadership seems to be a hybrid identity, which has been developed parallel to the gradual shatter of the glass ceiling. Women do not seem to identify with the glass ceiling in the majority of professional situations, but work-life balance still seems to be a problem for some. Research suggests that the ‘think manager, think male’ phenomenon is gradually changing to include female leadership as a norm. Although there are still gender stereotypes when understanding leadership, the six women seem to have a will to be leaders, something that is quite opposite to bearing wounded attachments. This research suggests that leaders do not embody negative attachments, and although they identify themselves as women, they do not identify their paths with glass ceilings or other wounds.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Kovalainen, Anne; Tallberg, Teemu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    Research Reports
    The expansion of transnational corporations is a fundamental part of contemporary globalising processes. Through their activities, transnational corporations also have impacts on national and cultural gender relations, thus highlighting that gender relations are indeed amenable, to some extent, to social change. Accordingly, large transnational corporations have many effects and implications for gender relations in society, as well as having their own gender relations within them, characteristically in the form of men’s far greater presence in management than women’s. A key aspect in the functioning of transnational corporations is thus the way they organise and restructure gender relations within their own activities. The research presented here on gender divisions and gender policies in largest Finnish multinational and national corporations is part of a longer-term examination of the relations of gender relations in transnational corporations. It sets out the results of a survey of the largest 100 Finnish corporations with regard to the following main kinds of question: · general information on the corporation’s size, sector and economic activities; · the gender composition of their employment, middle management, top management, and board; · their gender equality plans and related policies. The human resources manager or their equivalent or delegate of 62 corporations responded to the survey. The general analysis of the data obtained from the survey is presented in this research report. Special attention is given to relations between the gender divisions and the gender policies of corporations. Interpretations of the data and more general theoretical implications are discussed in the report, with special attention to theoretical ways forward.
  • Veromaa, Veera; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saxen, Ulla; Malmberg-Ceder, Kirsi; Bergman, Elina; Korhonen, Paeivi E. (2017)
    Aims: Ideal cardiovascular health has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and the presence of seven key health factors and behaviours. However, little is known about the mental aspects associated with ideal cardiovascular health metrics. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between psychosocial risk factors and ideal cardiovascular health metrics among Finnish women at municipal work units. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Finland among 732 female employees (mean +/- SD age 48 +/- 10 years) from ten work units in 2014. Ideal cardiovascular health metrics were evaluated with a physical examination, laboratory tests, medical history and self-administrated questionnaires. Psychosocial risk factors (social isolation, stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, hostility and type D personality) were assessed with core questions as suggested by the European Society of Cardiology. Results: The prevalence of having 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was 183 (25.0%), of whom 54.1% had at least one psychosocial risk factor. Anxiety (31.3%), work stress (30.7%) and type D personality (26.1%) were the most prevalent of the psychosocial risk factors. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (p
  • Asikainen, Susanna (Brill, 2018)
    In Jesus and Other Men, Susanna Asikainen explores the masculinities of Jesus and other male characters as well as the ideal femininities in the Synoptic Gospels. She studies the masculinity of Jesus vis-à-vis his opponents, disciples, and women. She also considers the impact of Jesus’ emotions and suffering on his masculinity. Arguing that there were several competing ideals of masculinity, she sets out to trace what strategies the early Christian masculinities used in relation to the hegemonic masculinities of the ancient Greco-Roman world. She shows that the Gospel of Luke is close to the ancient Greco-Roman ideal of self-controlled masculinity while the Gospels of Mark and Matthew portray Jesus and the disciples as examples of voluntarily marginalized masculinity.
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Research Reports
    Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and women’s situations, experiences and voices in leadership; organisational culture; communication; divisions of labour, hierarchy, power and authority; imagery and symbolism; information technology; sexuality, harassment, bullying and violence in organisations; home-work relations; men and masculinities in leadership; globalisation, transnationalism, intersectionality and post¬¬colonialism – amongst other issues. Having said that, the vast majority of mainstream work on leadership retains little or no gender analysis. In most business schools and other universities the position of gender-explicit work on leadership is still not well established. Leadership through the Gender Lens brings together critical analyses and debates on gender, leadership and management with contributions from 13 countries and five continents. How leadership and management are gendered can mean more gender equal or more gender unequal conditions for women and men. This includes how education and training can contribute to gendered leadership and management. The volume is organised in three main sections, on: careers and leadership; management, hierarchy and leadership: and interventions in leadership.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Piekkari, Rebecca; Jyrkinen, Marjut (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Research Reports
    Mainstream research on management generally continues to ignore gender relations. Even so, over recent years there has been a major growth of international research on gender relations in organizations. Yet, most of this has focused on gender relations in lower or middle levels rather than at the apex of the organization. This book draws on research on gender policies, structures and practices of management in large Finnish corporations. It builds on earlier survey work of gender policies in the 100 largest corporations in Finland, to examine, through qualitative interviews, more detailed gendered processes in seven selected corporations. These represent corporations that are ‘relatively active’, ‘moderately active’, and ‘not active’ in relation to gender equality. Key issues include contrasts between formal policies and organizational practices; different corporate contexts and individual managers’ views; definition and scope of gender policy; and the relation of gender policies and diversity policy. This focus on gender policies is understood and located within organizational structures, most obviously gendered corporate hierarchies. Important structures include national context in relation to transnationalization, relations of headquarters and subsidiaries, and interrelations of management, policy development and policy implementation. Gender relations in practice and gender practices are considered in more detail. These women and men managers operate at the intersections of gendered transnational managerial work, careers and family-type relations, including marriage and children, or lack thereof. Women and men managers may be part of the same management levels or management teams, but have totally different family-type situations and gendered experiences. Interconnections of management, domestic life and transnationalizations are intensely gendered matters. The debate on the public/private continues to be important for both gender relations and organizational relations, but complicated through transnationalizations. The modern transnational corporation is considered in terms of gender divisions and gender power, with particular reference to top management. The concluding discussion notes implications for research and policy.
  • Högbacka, Riitta (2003)
    This study concentrates on the everyday life of women living in Finnish rural areas undergoing rapid changes. Who are the women living there, how are they coping and in which direction is their situation changing? Women's lives are analysed with the help of Thomas Höjrup's mode of life approach. The study looks at women's practises and attitudes concerning work, home, women's position and the countryside. Both qualitative and quantitative data are used, the emphasis being on women's thematic interviews from different rural areas. The importance of waged work has grown during the past ten years. Women are also more mobile. A large part of them have actually moved to rural areas from elsewhere. The importance of the traditional agrarian modes of life is thus diminishing, and their place is increasingly taken by newer life-modes in which the educational and occupational backgrounds of the women vary. In addition to farmwomen, rural areas now have women working off-farm, career women and in-migrants from urban areas. Different life-modes have different resources, needs, hopes and problems. The meaning of work, home, femininity and the rural, for instance, vary according to life-mode. The spheres of work and home, or public and private domains, which where intertwined in the life-modes of farmwomen and wage-working ex-farmwomen, are completely separate in life-modes with no agricultural roots. In such cases there is also growing dissatisfaction with the traditional domestic division of work. Career women's problems have to to do with the combining of motherhood and career. Urban in-migrants have new ways of viewing femininity and work. They have often had difficulties in settling in small rural communities. The emotional and active approach to the rural environment of the agrarian life-modes is also changing. Home no longer includes the larger natural surroundings. Mobility and the separation of place and social networks are typical for career women and in-migrants. Farmwomen and ex-farmwomen are tied to local social relations.
  • Andreassen, Trude; Hansen, Bo T.; Engesaeter, Birgit; Hashim, Dana; Stoer, Nathalie C.; Trope, Ameli; Moen, Kare; Ursin, Giske; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2019)
    From 2015, Norway has implemented high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing in primary screening for cervical cancer. Women aged 34-69 years, living in four counties, have been pseudo-randomly assigned (1:1 randomization) to either hrHPV testing every 5 years (followed by cytology if hrHPV is positive), or cytology testing every 3 years (followed by hrHPV testing if low-grade cytology is detected). We compared anxiety and depression scores among participants by screening arm and results. In total, 1,008 women answered a structured questionnaire that included the validated Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4). The Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) of mild vs. normal anxiety and depression scores, and moderate/severe vs. normal anxiety and depression scores, were estimated by multinomial logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Compared to women who were screened with cytology, women randomized to hrHPV testing were not more likely to have mild anxiety and depression scores (RRR 0.96, CI 0.70-1.31) nor more likely to have moderate/severe anxiety and depression scores (RRR 1.14, CI 0.65-2.02). Women with five different combinations of abnormal screening test results were not more likely to have mild or moderate/severe vs. normal anxiety and depression scores than women with normal screening results. The likelihood of having abnormal long-term (4-24 months after the screening) anxiety or depression scores among women 34 years and older was not affected by screening method or screening results. The results of our study suggest that a change to hrHPV testing in primary screening would not increase psychological distress among participants.
  • Sinokki, M (Kela, 2011)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 115
    Masennus, ahdistuneisuus, alkoholiriippuvuus ja alkoholin väärinkäyttö sekä unihäiriöt ovat yleisiä ongelmia työssä käyvän väestön keskuudessa. Nämä sairaudet ja oireet aiheuttavat huomattavia kuluja myös yhteiskunnalle. Sosiaalisen tuen ja työilmapiirin yhteyttä työssä käyvien (n = 3 347–3 430) terveyteen tutkittiin Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitoksen Terveys 2000 -aineistossa. Sosiaalista tukea työssä mitattiin JCQ-kyselyllä (Job Content Questionnaire) ja yksityiselämän sosiaalista tukea SSQ-kyselyllä (Social Support Questionnaire). Työilmapiiriä mitattiin kyselyllä, joka on osa Terve työyhteisö -kyselyä. Mielenterveyshäiriöiden diagnoosit perustuivat CIDI-haastatteluun (Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Tiedot lääkärin määräämistä masennus- ja unilääkkeistä poimittiin Kelan lääkerekisteristä ja tiedot työkyvyttömyyseläkkeistä Eläketurvakeskuksen ja Kelan rekistereistä. Ilmapiirin kokemisessa ei ollut merkitsevää eroa sukupuolten välillä. Sen sijaan naiset kokivat saavansa sosiaalista tukea enemmän sekä työssä että yksityiselämässä. Vähäinen sosiaalinen tuki sekä työssä että yksityiselämässä oli yhteydessä masennukseen, ahdistuneisuushäiriöihin ja moniin uniongelmiin. Huono työilmapiiri oli yhteydessä sekä masennukseen että ahdistuneisuushäiriöihin. Vähäinen tuki sekä esimiehiltä että työtovereilta oli yhteydessä myöhempään masennuslääkkeiden käyttöön. Huono työilmapiiri ennusti myös masennuslääkkeiden käyttöä. Vähäinen sosiaalinen tuki esimieheltä näytti lisäävän työkyvyttömyyseläkkeen todennäköisyyttä. Työhyvinvointiin täytyy kiinnittää huomiota, koska vähäinen sosiaalinen tuki ja huono työilmapiiri ovat yhteydessä mielenterveysongelmiin ja lisäävät työkyvyn menettämisen riskiä. – Englanninkielinen julkaisu. Suomenkielinen yhteenveto s. 89–90.
  • Myllys, Riikka (2020)
    This article investigates how spirituality relates to craft-making. Spirituality is understood to have both religious and nonreligious content depending on the person. The data was collected in a one-year period of observation and interviews. The results show that spirituality related to craft-making may be both religious and nonreligious. It is noteworthy, however, that religious and nonreligious spirituality are related to different aspects of craft-making: the social and prosocial aspects of craft-making are mostly religiously spiritual, whereas individually centred aspects are not. Altogether, the spirituality of craft-making is largely immanent and wellbeing-oriented. As such, its focus is on getting along in everyday life.
  • Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana (2016)
    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45-64years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001-2004 (n=42807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered 80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events may be due to the healthy-adherer effect.
  • Venäläinen, Satu; Virkki, Tuija (2019)
    The article examines online discussions in Finland that focus on violence committed by Finnish women, on one hand, and non-white migrant men, on the other. Drawing on the perspective of sociology of value, the article illustrates how these discussions function as sites of struggles over moral worth in a contemporary context characterised by crises of both male and white hegemony. The authors suggest that, through the discussions, these current crises are projected on migrant men and certain groups of women, who thereby become construed as morally reprehensible. The analysis sheds light on processes of (re-)legitimating the moral virtue historically attached to both masculinity and whiteness, and thereby shows how gendered and racialised hierarchies are reproduced in the context of meaning-making around the issue of violence. Also discussed is how these dynamics and the process of reproduction via discourse draw upon historically recurring meanings and evaluations while simultaneously tailored to contemporary circumstances. The tailoring is performed via explicit reference to the value of gender equality, which serves a dual function: re-inscribing moral value in white masculinity while excluding from the circuits of value both racialised masculinities and Finnish women portrayed as doing gender and whiteness in the 'wrong' way. These processes give the discussants room for justifying hate and violent exclusion of such women and migrant men while also muting any dissenting voices attempting to resist circulation of the derogatory meanings.
  • Tuunanen, Mervi; Aalto, Mauri; Levola, Jonna; Seppa, Kaija (2019)
    Objective: There is a need for brief methods to screen for at-risk drinking. The FAST is a two-stepped structured questionnaire. In the FAST-1, one question categorizes into three groups: low-risk drinking, potential at-risk drinking or at-risk drinking. In the FAST-2, those with potential at-risk drinking are asked three additional questions. The aim was to study its effectiveness in screening for at-risk drinking among women and to define an optimal cut-off score. Method: The FAST was validated against the Timeline Followback (TLFB) utilizing data from a health check of a group of 40-year old women (response rate 69.2%; n = 907/1311). The TLFB-based definition of at-risk drinking was consuming >= 140 grams of alcohol weekly (6.1% reported at-risk drinking). Results and conclusions: Of all women, 54.5% could be correctly classified either as having low-risk or at-risk drinking with the FAST-1. The optimal cut-off score was >= 2 (sensitivity 0.82, specificity 0.86) which is lower than has previously been reported. Only those with a FAST-1 score of one needed further evaluation with the FAST-2. A FAST-2 score of >= 1 resulted in a positive screen for at-risk drinking. The FAST seems to be a valid and feasible method in screening for at-risk drinking among middle-aged women.