Browsing by Subject "women's health"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Paju, Susanna; Oittinen, Juha; Haapala, Henna; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2017)
    In this observational and prospective study, we investigated if microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis associated with conception in 256 non-pregnant women (Mage = 29.2 years; range 19-42 years). Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed, major periodontal pathogens in the saliva were detected, and serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens were analyzed. The follow-up period for becoming pregnant was 12 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly (p = 0.032) more frequently detected in the saliva among those who did not become pregnant (8.3%) than among those who became pregnant (2.1%). The median levels of salivary P. gingivalis immunoglobulin A (IgA; p = 0.006) and IgG (p = 0.007) antibodies were higher among those who did not become pregnant compared to those who became pregnant. Hazard ratios (HR) for not becoming pregnant were HR = 3.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-13.9; p = 0.048) if the subject was polymerase chain reaction-positive for P. gingivalis with high salivary antibodies against it, and HR = 1.62 (95% CI 1.03-2.54; p = 0.035) if she had high levels of serum P. gingivalis IgA and signs of periodontal infection. P. gingivalis associated with no success in getting pregnant.
  • Heikinheimo, Oskari; Bitzer, Johannes; Garcia Rodriguez, Luis (2017)
    Objectives: In the context of women's health, we examine (1) the role that observational (real-world') studies have in overcoming limitations of randomised clinical trials, (2) the relative advantages and disadvantages of different study designs, (3) the importance of outcome data from observational studies when making health-economic or clinical decisions, and (4) provide insights into changing perceptions of observational clinical data. Methods: PubMed and internet searches were used to identify (i) guidance and expert commentary on designing, conducting, analysing, and reporting clinical trials or observational studies, (ii) supporting evidence of the rapid growth of observational (real world') studies and publications since the turn of millennium in the fields of contraception, reproductive health, obstetrics or gynaecology. Results: The rapidly growing use and validation of large, computerised medical records and related databases (e.g., health insurance or national registries) have played a major part in changing perceptions of observational data among researchers and clinicians. In the past 10 years, a distinct increase in the number of observational studies published tends to confirm their growing acceptance, appreciation and use. Conclusions: Observational studies can provide information that is impossible or infeasible to obtain otherwise (e.g., impractical, very expensive, or ethically unacceptable). Greater understanding, dissemination, uptake and use of observational data might be expected to drive ongoing evolution of research, data collection, analysis, and validation, in turn improving quality and therefore credibility, utility, and further application by clinicians.
  • Brunham, Robert C.; Paavonen, Jorma (2020)
    Gynecological and obstetrical infectious diseases are an important component of women's health. A system approach to gynecological and obstetrical infection helps unify and classify microbial etiology and pathogenesis within a clinical anatomical framework of lower and upper genital tract syndromes. The reproductive system of women includes the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. During pregnancy, additional tissues include the chorioamnion and placenta together with the fetus and amniotic fluid. We review in two parts reproductive system infection syndromes in women using selected research results to illustrate the clinical utility of the system approach in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prevention. We conclude that a reproductive system perspective will lead to improvements in understanding, management and prevention of these diseases.
  • Brunham, Robert C.; Paavonen, Jorma (2020)
    Lower genital tract infection and bloodborne spread of infection are the two principal modes for infection of the upper genital tract or for infection of the fetus, neonate or infant. Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most common bloodborne pathogens that infect the fetus, neonate or infant. Most infections of the upper genital tract, however, spread along epithelial surfaces from the vagina or cervix to the upper genital tract or chorioamnion, fetus, neonate or infant. These infections are caused by either pathogens associated with a dysbiotic vaginal microbiome or those that are sexually transmitted. The clinical syndromes that these pathogens produce in the lower genital tract were discussed in part one of this review. We now discuss the syndromes and pathogens that affect the upper genital tract of both non-pregnant and pregnant women as well as fetus, neonate and infant.