Browsing by Subject "wood"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 35
  • Viholainen, Noora; Kylkilahti, Eliisa; Autio, Minna; Toppinen, Anne (2020)
    Having a home is a central part of the everyday consumer experience. In our study, we focus on Finnish homeowners who have recently bought an apartment in a multi-family timber-framed building. With its merits in sustainability, the number of timber buildings in less-traditional urban applications is increasing, yet, research on living in a wooden home is scarce. To fill this gap, the study analyses how homeowners perceive the wooden material before and after living in a wooden home for one year. Thus, besides the acquisition of a home, the study examines the consumers' appropriation processes and aims to gain insight into the cultural sense-making behind the appreciation of wooden homes. The results of this qualitative study indicate that traditions and memories related to wood affect consumers' appreciations, for example, regarding the cosiness of a wooden home. The consumers discussed the weaknesses assigned to wood, such as fire and moisture susceptibility, yet, they considered them to concern all construction materials, not only wood. After habitation for one year, the usability of the home becomes particularly relevant, including the ease with which shelves can be mounted onto the walls, enjoying the echoless soundscape, and living with clicking sounds and vibrating floors. The study suggests that the meanings of consumers' daily experiences concerning the usability of wooden buildings are under negotiation and cannot be reduced simply into positive or negative but carry elements of both.
  • Amiri, Ali; Ottelin, Juudit; Sorvari, Jaana; Junnila, Seppo (IOP Publishing, 2020)
    Environmental Research Letters 15 (2020) 094076
    Although buildings produce a third of greenhouse gas emissions, it has been suggested that they might be one of the most cost-effective climate change mitigation solutions. Among building materials, wood not only produces fewer emissions according to life-cycle assessment but can also store carbon. This study aims to estimate the carbon storage potential of new European buildings between 2020 and 2040. While studies on this issue exist, they mainly present rough estimations or are based on a small number of case studies. To ensure a reliable estimation, 50 different case buildings were selected and reviewed. The carbon storage per m2 of each case building was calculated and three types of wooden buildings were identified based on their carbon storage capacity. Finally, four European construction scenarios were generated based on the percentage of buildings constructed from wood and the type of wooden buildings. The annual captured CO2 varied between 1 and 55 Mt, which is equivalent to between 1% and 47% of CO2 emissions from the cement industry in Europe. This study finds that the carbon storage capacity of buildings is not significantly influenced by the type of building, the type of wood or the size of the building but rather by the number and the volume of wooden elements used in the structural and non-structural components of the building. It is recommended that policymakers aiming for carbon-neutral construction focus on the number of wooden elements in buildings rather than more general indicators, such as the amount of wood construction, or even detailed indirect indicators, such as building type, wood type or building size. A practical scenario is proposed for use by European decision-makers, and the role of wood in green building certification is discussed.
  • Vehola, Anni; Hurmekoski, Elias; Lähtinen, Katja; Ruokamo, Enni; Roos, Anders; Toivonen, Ritva; Toppinen, Anne (Canadian Science Publishing, 2022)
    Canadian Journal of Forest Research
    Climate change places great pressure on the construction sector to decrease its greenhouse gas emissions and to create solutions that perform well in changing weather conditions. Our study explores citizen perceptions on wood usage as a building material under expected mitigation and adaptation measures aimed at a changing climate and extreme weather events. The data are founded on an internet-based survey material collected from a consumer panel from Finland and Sweden during May–June 2021, with a total of 2015 responses. By employing exploratory factor analysis, we identified similar belief structures for the two countries, consisting of both positive and negative views on wood construction. In linear regression models for predicting these beliefs, the perceived seriousness of climate change was found to increase positive views on wood construction but was insignificant for negative views. Both in Finland and Sweden, higher familiarity with wooden multistory construction was found to connect with more positive views on the potential of wood in building, e.g., due to carbon storage and material properties. Our findings underline the potential of wood material use as one avenue of climate change adaptation in the built environment. Future research should study how citizens’ concerns for extreme weather events affect their future material preferences in their everyday living environments, also beyond the Nordic region.
  • Vehola, Anni; Hurmekoski, Elias; Lähtinen, Katja; Enni, Ruokamo; Roos, Anders; Toivonen, Ritva; Toppinen, Anne (2022)
    Climate change places great pressure on the construction sector to decrease its greenhouse gas emissions and to create solutions that perform well in changing weather conditions. Our study explores citizen perceptions on wood usage as a building material under expected mitigation and adaptation measures aimed at a changing climate and extreme weather events. The data are founded on an internet-based survey material collected from a consumer panel from Finland and Sweden during May-June 2021, with a total of 2015 responses. By employing exploratory factor analysis, we identified similar belief structures for the two countries, consisting of both positive and negative views on wood construction. In linear regression models for predicting these beliefs, the perceived seriousness of climate change was found to increase positive views on wood construction but was insignificant for negative views. Both in Finland and Sweden, higher familiarity with wooden multistory construction was found to connect with more positive views on the potential of wood in building, e.g., due to carbon storage and material properties. Our findings underline the potential of wood material use as one avenue of climate change adaptation in the built environment. Future research should study how citizens' concerns for extreme weather events affect their future material preferences in their everyday living environments, also beyond the Nordic region.
  • Bhat, K. M.; Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Mäkelä, Annikki; Kellomäki, Seppo; Hari, Pertti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Seppälä, Jyri; Heinonen, Tero; Pukkala, Timo; Kilpeläinen, Antti; Mattila, Tuomas; Myllyviita, Tanja; Asikainen, Antti; Peltola, Heli (Elsevier, 2019)
    Journal of Environmental Management 247 (2019), 580-587
    A displacement factor (DF) may be used to describe the efficiency of using wood-based products or fuels instead of fossil-based ones to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the DFs of individual products and their production volumes could not be used alone to evaluate the climate impacts of forest utilization. For this reason, in this study we have developed a methodology to assess a required displacement factor (RDF) for all wood products and bioenergy manufactured and harvested in a certain country in order to achieve zero CO2 equivalent emissions from increased forest utilization over time in comparison with a selected baseline harvesting scenario. Input data for calculations were produced with the simulation model, Monsu, capable of predicting the carbon stocks of forests and wood-based products. We tested the calculations in Finnish conditions in a 100-year time horizon and estimated the current average DF of manufactured wood-based products and fuels in Finland for the interpretation of RDF results. The results showed that if domestic wood harvesting will be increased by 17–33% compared to the basic scenario, the RDF will be 2.0 to 2.4 tC tC−1 for increased wood use in 2017–2116. However, the estimated average DF of manufactured wood-based products and fuels currently in Finland was less than 1.1 tC tC−1. The results indicate strongly that the increased harvesting intensity from the current situation would represent a challenge for the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy from the viewpoint of climate change mitigation. For this reason, there is an immediate need to improve reliability and applicability of the RDF approach by repeating corresponding calculations in different circumstances and by improving estimations of DFs on country levels.
  • Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1984)
  • Järveläinen, Veli-Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
    XVIII IUFRO World Congress, Ljubljana 1986.
  • Löfgren, Karl Gustaf (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Brooks, David J. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari; Uusvaara, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Garemark, Jonas; Perea-Buceta, Jesus Enrique; Rico del Cerro, Daniel; Hall, Stephen; Berke, Barbara; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Berglund, Lars; Li, Yuanyuan (2022)
    Eco-friendly materials with superior thermal insulation and mechanical properties are desirable for improved energy- and space-efficiency in buildings. Cellulose aerogels with structural anisotropy could fulfill these requirements, but complex processing and high energy demand are challenges for scaling up. Here we propose a scalable, nonadditive, top-down fabrication of strong anisotropic aerogels directly from wood with excellent, near isotropic thermal insulation functions. The aerogel was obtained through cell wall dissolution and controlled precipitation in lumen, using an ionic liquid (IL) mixture comprising DMSO and a guanidinium phosphorus-based IL [MTBD][MMP]. The wood aerogel shows a unique structure with lumen filled with nanofibrils network. In situ formation of a cellulosic nanofibril network in the lumen results in specific surface areas up to 280 m2/g and high yield strengths >1.2 MPa. The highly mesoporous structure (average pore diameter ∼20 nm) of freeze-dried wood aerogels leads to low thermal conductivities in both the radial (0.037 W/mK) and axial (0.057 W/mK) directions, showing great potential as scalable thermal insulators. This synthesis route is energy efficient with high nanostructural controllability. The unique nanostructure and rare combination of strength and thermal properties set the material apart from comparable bottom-up aerogels. This nonadditive synthesis approach is believed to contribute significantly toward large-scale design and structure control of biobased aerogels.
  • Kellomäki, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Bhat, K. M.; Ferm, Ari; Kärkkäinen, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1981)
  • Soimakallio, Sampo; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Salminen, Olli (Springer, 2021)
    Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change 26: 4
    Forest biomass can be used in two different ways to limit the growth of the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations: (1) to provide negative emissions through sequestration of carbon into forests and harvested wood products or (2) to avoid GHG emissions through substitution of non-renewable raw materials with wood. We study the trade-offs and synergies between these strategies using three different Finnish national-level forest scenarios between 2015 and 2044 as examples. We demonstrate how GHG emissions change when wood harvest rates are increased. We take into account CO2 and other greenhouse gas flows in the forest, the decay rate of harvested wood products and fossil-based CO2 emissions that can be avoided by substituting alternative materials with wood derived from increased harvests. We considered uncertainties of key parameters by using stochastic simulation. According to our results, an increase in harvest rates in Finland increased the total net GHG flow to the atmosphere virtually certainly or very likely, given the uncertainties and time frame considered. This was because the increased biomass-based CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere together with decreased carbon sequestration into the forest were very likely higher than the avoided fossil-based CO2 emissions. The reverse of this conclusion would require that compared to what was studied in this paper, the share of long-living wood products in the product mix would be higher, carbon dioxide from bioenergy production would be captured and stored, and reduction in forest carbon equivalent net sink due to wood harvesting would be minimized.
  • Bhat, K. M. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1980)
  • Risbrudt, Christopher D. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Vanhatalo, Anni; Aalto, Juho; Chan, Tommy; Hölttä, Teemu; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Kabiri, Kourosh; Hellén, Heidi; Bäck, Jaana (2020)
    The volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes of living plant compartments other than foliage are poorly known. In this paper we describe for the first time the methanol and monoterpene fluxes from living Scots pine stems in situ, over 4 years at the SMEAR II station in southern Finland. The VOC fluxes from stems were measured online with an automated chamber measurement system. Both methanol and monoterpene emissions showed strong diurnal and seasonal cycles. Methanol emission rates were highest in mid-summer, and coincided with the most intensive period of stem radial growth. Methanol emission rates correlated moderately with the xylem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate, which suggests that many simultaneous and overlapping processes are related to methanol transport and production in trees. Monoterpene emissions from stems were highest on the hottest summer days, but also substantial in winter during times when the temperature was above zero °C for several days. Overall, the emissions from stems constitute about 2% of the whole stand monoterpene emissions under normal, non-stressed conditions. This can be used in stand monoterpene emission models as the rough estimate of woody compartment contribution.