Browsing by Subject "work disability"

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  • Hiilamo, Aapo; Huttu, Anna; Overland, Simon; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea (2021)
    This study investigates to what extent pain in multiple sites and common risk factors related to work environment, occupational class and health behaviours are associated with cause-specific work disability (WD) development clusters. The study population was derived from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 2878). Sequence analysis created clusters of similar subsequent cause-specific WD development in an eight-year follow-up period. Cross-tabulations and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the extent to which baseline factors, including pain in multiple sites, were associated with the subsequent WD clusters. A solution with five distinct WD clusters was chosen: absence of any WD (40%), low and temporary WD due to various causes (46%), WD due to mental disorders (3%), WD due to musculoskeletal (8%) and WD due to other causes (4%). Half of the employees in the musculoskeletal WD cluster had pain in multiple locations. In the adjusted model the number of pain sites, low occupational class and physical working conditions were linked to the musculoskeletal WD. The identified characteristics of the different WD clusters may help target tailored work disability prevention measures for those at risk.
  • Airaksinen, Jaakko; Jokela, Markus; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskenvuo, Markku; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2018)
    Objectives This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model for long-term sickness absence. Methods Survey responses on work-and lifestyle-related questions from 65 775 public-sector employees were linked to sickness absence records to develop a prediction score for medically-certified sickness absence lasting > 9 days and >= 90 days. The score was externally validated using data from an independent population-based cohort of 13 527 employees. For both sickness absence outcomes, a full model including 46 candidate predictors was reduced to a parsimonious model using least-absolute-shrinkage-and-selection-operator (LASSO) regression. Predictive performance of the model was evaluated using C-index and calibration plots. Results Variance explained in >= 90-day sickness absence by the full model was 12.5%. In the parsimonious model, the predictors included self-rated health (linear and quadratic term), depression, sex, age (linear and quadratic), socioeconomic position, previous sickness absences, number of chronic diseases, smoking, shift work, working night shift, and quadratic terms for body mass index and Jenkins sleep scale. The discriminative ability of the score was good (C-index 0.74 in internal and 0.73 in external validation). Calibration plots confirmed high correspondence between the predicted and observed risk. In > 9-day sickness absence, the full model explained 15.2% of the variance explained, but the C-index of the parsimonious model was poor ( Conclusions Individuals' risk of a long-term sickness absence that lasts >= 90 days can be estimated using a brief risk score. The predictive performance of this score is comparable to those for established multifactorial risk algorithms for cardiovascular disease, such as the Framingham risk score.
  • Pihlajamäki, Minna; Uitti, J.; Arola, H.; Ollikainen, J.; Korhonen, M.; Nummi, T.; Taimela, S. (2019)
    Objectives To study whether self-reported health problems predict sickness absence (SA) from work in employees from different industries. Methods The results of a health risk appraisal (HRA) were combined with archival data of SA of 21 608 employees (59% female, 56% clerical). Exposure variables were self-reported health problems, labelled as ' work disability (WD) risk factors' in the HRA, presence of problems with occupational well-being and obesity. Age, socioeconomic grading and the number of SA days 12 months before the survey were treated as confounders. The outcome measure was accumulated SA days during 12-month follow-up. Data were analysed separately for males and females. A Hurdle model with negative binomial response was used to analyse zero-inflated count data of SA. Results The HRA results predicted the number of accumulated SA days during the 12-month follow-up, regardless of occupational group and gender. The ratio of means of SA days varied between 2.7 and 4.0 among those with ' WD risk factors' and the reference category with no findings, depending on gender and occupational group. The lower limit of the 95% CI was at the lowest 2.0. In the Hurdle model, ' WD risk factors', SA days prior to the HRA and obesity were additive predictors for SA and/or the accumulated SA days in all occupational groups. Conclusion Self-reported health problems and obesity predict a higher total count of SA days in an additive fashion. These findings have implications for both management and the healthcare system in the prevention of WD. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • Airaksinen, Jaakko; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Background: Smoking increases disability risk, but the extent to which smoking cessation reduces the risk of work disability is unclear. We used non-randomized nested pseudo-trials to estimate the benefits of smoking cessation for preventing work disability. Methods: We analysed longitudinal data on smoking status and work disability [long-term sickness absence (>= 90 days) or disability pension] from two independent prospective cohort studies-the Finnish Public Sector study (FPS) (n = 7393) and the Health and Social Support study (HeSSup) (n = 2701)-as 'nested pseudo-trials'. All the 10094 participants were smokers at Time 1 and free of long-term work disability at Time 2. We compared the work disability risk after Time 2 of the participants who smoked at Time 1 and Time 2 with that of those who quit smoking between these times. Results: Of the participants in pseudo-trials, 2964 quit smoking between Times 1 and 2. During the mean follow-up of 4.8 to 8.6 years after Time 2, there were 2197 incident cases of work disability across the trials. Quitting smoking was associated with a reduced risk of any work disability [summary hazard ratio = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.98]. The hazard ratio for the association between quitting smoking and permanent disability pension (928 cases) was of similar magnitude, but less precisely estimated (0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.02). Among the participants with high scores on the work disability risk score (top third), smoking cessation reduced the risk of disability pension by three percentage points. Among those with a low risk score (bottom third), smoking cessation reduced the risk by half a percentage point. Conclusions: Our results suggest an approximately 10% hazard reduction of work disability as a result of quitting smoking.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Ervasti, Jenni; Lundström, Erik; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Friberg, Emilie; Virtanen, Marianna; Alexanderson, Kristina (2018)
    Background-Although a stroke event often leads to work disability, diagnoses behind work disability before and after stroke are largely unknown. We examined the pre-event and postevent trends in diagnosis-specific work disability among patients of working age. Methods and Results-We included all new nonfatal stroke events in 2006-2008 from population-based hospital registers in Sweden among women and men aged 25 to 60 years (n=12 972). Annual days of diagnosis-specific work disability were followed for 4 years before and after stroke. Repeated measures negative binomial regression models using the generalized estimating equations method were fitted to examine trends in diagnosis-specific work disability before and after the event. Already during the 4 pre-event years, work disability attributed to circulatory diseases increased among women (rate ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.36) and men (rate ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-2.57). Increasing trends before stroke were also found for work disability attributed to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, neoplasms, diseases of the nervous, respiratory, and digestive systems, injuries, and diabetes mellitus. As expected, a sharp increase in work disability days attributed to circulatory diseases was found during the first year after the event among both sexes. Overall, during 4 years after the stroke, there was a decreasing trend for circulatory diseases and injuries, whereas the trend was increasing for nervous diseases and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions-Work disability attributed to several mental and somatic diagnoses is higher already before a stroke event.
  • Lallukka, Tea; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Mänty, Minna; Koskinen, Seppo; Haukka, Eija; Kausto, Johanna; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Kaikkonen, Risto; Halonen, Jaana I.; Shiri, Rahman (2019)
    The contribution of physically demanding work to the developmental trajectories of sickness absence (SA) has seldom been examined. We analyzed the associations of 12 physical work exposures, individually and in combination, with SA trajectories among the occupationally active in the Finnish nationally representative Health 2000 survey. We included 3814 participants aged 30-59 years at baseline, when exposure history to work-related factors was reported. The survey and interview responses were linked with the annual number of medically confirmed SA spells through 2002-2008 from national registries. Trajectory analyses identified three SA subgroups: 1 = low (54.6%), 2 = slowly increasing (33.7%), and 3 = high (11.7%). After adjustments, sitting or use of keyboard >1 year was inversely associated with the high SA trajectory (odds ratio, OR, 0.57; 95% 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.43-0.77). The odds of belonging to the trajectory of high SA increased with an increasing number of risk factors, and was highest for those with >= 4 physical workload factors (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.99-3.69). In conclusion, these findings highlight the need to find ways to better maintain the work ability of those in physically loading work, particularly when there occurs exposure to several workload factors.