Browsing by Subject "work stress"

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  • Hintsanen, Mirka; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsa, Taina; Theorell, T.; Elovainio, Marko; Raitakari, O. T.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2010)
  • Juyani, Anne; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2018)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between co-occurring work stressors and risk of disability pension. Methods The work stressors job strain, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), and organizational injustice were measured by a survey in 2008 of 41 862 employees linked to national records of all-cause and cause-specific disability pensions until 2011. Co-occurring work stressors were examined as risk factors of work disability using Cox regression marginal models. Results Work stressors were clustered: 50.8% had no work stressors [observed-to-expected ratio (O/E)=1.2], 27.4% were exposed to one stressor (O/E=0.61-0.81), 17.7% to two stressors (O/E=0.91-1.73) and 6.4% to all three stressors (O/E=2.59). During a mean follow-up of 3.1 years, 976 disability pensions were granted. Compared to employees with no work stressors, those with (i) co-occurring strain and ERI or (ii) strain, ERI and injustice had a 1.9-2.1-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.6] increased risk of disability retirement. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.2 and 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-1.8) for strain and ERI alone. Risk of disability pension from depressive disorders was 4.4-4.7-fold (95% CI 2.4-8.0) for combinations of strain+ERI and strain+ERI+injustice, and 1.9-2.5-fold (95% CI 1.1-4.0) for strain and ERI alone. For musculoskeletal disorders, disability risk was 1.6-1.9-fold (95% CI 1.3-2.3) for strain+ERI and ERI+injustice combinations, and 1.3-fold (95% CI 1.0-1.7) for strain alone. Supplementary analyses with work stressors determined using work-unit aggregates supported these findings. Conclusions Work stressors tend to cluster in the same individuals. The highest risk of disability pension was observed among those with work stressor combinations strain+ERI or strain+ERI+injustice, rather than for those with single stressors.
  • Fransson, Eleonor I.; Nyberg, Solja T.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Batty, G David; Bonenfant, Sebastian; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; Goldberg, Marcel; Kittel, France; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Nordin, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Kivimäki, Mika (2012)
    BACKGROUND: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. METHODS: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). RESULTS: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was >0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.
  • Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2019)
    Study Objectives: Relief from work stress has been hypothesized to explain improvements in sleep duration and quality following retirement, but this has not been confirmed with longitudinal studies. By using repeat sleep data, we examined the role of removal of work-related stressors in changes in sleep at retirement. Methods: The study population consisted of 2,053 participants from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study. Participants' sleep duration, sleep difficulties (difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep), daytime tiredness, and sleep loss due to worry were assessed using surveys conducted once a year before and after retirement (average number of repeat surveys 3.5 [range 2-5] per participant). We used Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations to examine the associations between work-related stressors (job strain, low work time control, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) and changes in sleep at retirement. Results: An increase in sleep duration and decrease in waking up too early in the morning, nonrestorative sleep, daytime tiredness, and sleep loss due to worry were observed shortly after retirement. No systematic associations across the work-related stressors and changes in sleep characteristics were observed. Higher number of work-related stressors before retirement was not associated with a greater magnitude of favorable changes in any of the postretirement sleep characteristics investigated. Conclusions: This longitudinal study suggests that perceived sleep improves shortly after retirement and that these changes are mainly driven by factors other than relief from work stress.
  • Heikkila, K.; Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Fransson, E. I.; Westerlund, H.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Virtanen, M.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Theorell, T.; Suominen, S. B.; Shipley, M. J.; Salo, P.; Rugulies, R.; Pentti, J.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Oksanen, T.; Nordin, M.; Nielsen, M. L.; Kouvonen, A.; Koskinen, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Knutsson, A.; Ferrie, J. E.; Dragano, N.; Burr, H.; Borritz, M.; Bjorner, J. B.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD Work Consortium (2014)
  • Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Hanson, L. L. Magnusson; Ferrie, J. E.; Ahola, K.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Chastang, J. -F.; de Graaf, R.; Dragano, N.; Hamer, M.; Jokela, M.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Koskinen, A.; Leineweber, C.; Niedhammer, I.; Nielsen, M. L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Pentti, J.; Plaisier, I.; Salo, P.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Suominen, S.; ten Have, M.; Theorell, T.; Toppinen-Tanner, S.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Westerlund, H.; Fransson, E. I.; Heikkila, K.; Virtanen, M.; Rugulies, R.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD Work Consortium (2017)
    Background. Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression. Method. We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol. Results. We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94-1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.32). Conclusions. Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
  • Rugulies, Reiner; Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Kivimäki, Mika; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in Denmark, while accounting for changes of job strain. Methods We included all employees residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years with no prevalent CHD (N=1660 150). We determined exposure to job strain from 1996-2009 using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates. Follow-up for incident CHD was from 2001-2010 via linkage to health records. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and incident CHD. Results During 16.1 million person-years, we identified 24 159 incident CHD cases (15.0 per 10 000 person-years). After adjustment for covariates, job strain in 2000 predicted onset of CHD during a mean follow-up of 9.71 years (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.13). When analyzing changes in job strain from one year to the next and CHD in the subsequent year, persistent job strain (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), onset of job strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) and removal of strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28) were associated with higher CHD incidence compared to persistent no job strain. Associations were similar among men and women. Conclusions Job strain is associated with a higher risk of incident CHD in Denmark. As we used a JEM, we can rule out reporting bias. However, under- or overestimation of associations is possible due to non-differential misclassification of job strain and residual confounding by socioeconomic position.