Browsing by Subject "work"

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  • Piirtola, Maarit; Kaprio, Jaakko; Svedberg, Pia; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina (2020)
  • Kainu, Annette; Rouhos, Annamari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lindqvist, Ari; Sarna, Seppo; Lundback, Bo (2013)
  • Honkanen, Tuomas; Mäntysaari, M.; Leino, Tuomo; Avela, J.; Kerttula, L.; Haapamäki, V.; Kyröläinen, Heikki (2019)
    Background: A small cross sectional area (CSA) of the paraspinal muscles may be related to low back pain among military aviators but previous studies have mainly concentrated on spinal disc degeneration. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to investigate the changes in muscle CSA and composition of the psoas and paraspinal muscles during a 5-year follow up among Finnish Air Force (FINAF) fighter pilots. Methods: Study population consisted of 26 volunteered FINAF male fighter pilots (age: 20.6 (±0.6) at the baseline). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were collected at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. CSA and composition of the paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the levels of 3-4 and 4-5 lumbar spine. Maximal isometric strength tests were only performed on one occasion at baseline. Results: The follow-up comparisons indicated that the mean CSA of the paraspinal muscles increased (p <0.01) by 8% at L3-4 level and 7% at L4-5 level during the 5-year period. There was no change in muscle composition during the follow-up period. The paraspinal and psoas muscles' CSA was positively related to overall maximal isometric strength at the baseline. However, there was no association between LBP and muscle composition or CSA. Conclusions: The paraspinal muscles' CSA increased among FINAF fighter pilots during the first 5 years of service. This might be explained by physically demanding work and regular physical activity. However, no associations between muscle composition or CSA and low back pain (LBP) experienced were observed after the five-year follow-up. © 2019 The Author(s).
  • Kärkkäinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne Mikael; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia; Huunan-Seppälä, Antti; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku; Alexanderson, Kristina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ropponen, Mari Annina (2013)
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of work-related risk factors for future disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses and for a subgroup of these, namely, DP due to osteoarthritis. METHODS: For this prospective study of 16 028 Finnish twins born in 1911-1957 and employed at baseline, a postal questionnaire collected information in 1975 on work-related factors; follow-up data on DP was gathered through register linkages up to 2004. A series of proportional hazards (Cox) regression models were used to analyze the associations between work-related factors and the incidence of DP. RESULTS: During the 30-year follow-up, 1297 participants (8%) were granted DP due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, 376 of which were due to osteoarthritis. High stress of daily activities, monotonous work, physical workload (namely work including lifting and carrying or physically heavy work), several workplace changes, and unemployment displayed a strong association with DP due to musculoskeletal diagnoses that was not affected by familial factors, including genetics and shared environment. Additionally, standing work increased the risk for DP due to osteoarthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Uninfluenced by family background or other confounding factors, several work-related factors were identified as being strong and direct risk factors for DP due to musculoskeletal diagnoses.
  • Kosola, Silja; McCarthy, Maria C.; McNeil, Robyn; Orme, Lisa M.; Drew, Sarah; Sawyer, Susan M. (2018)
    Purpose: This study describes the early educational and vocational outcomes of Australian adolescents and young adults (AYAs) after cancer diagnosis and examines factors associated with these outcomes. Methods: Within this cross-sectional national Australian study, 196 AYAs aged 15-25 years at cancer diagnosis and within 6-24 months of diagnosis were recruited from 18 sites. Participants completed a survey that included questions about school and work outcomes, support received regarding necessary changes to education and vocation, and validated measures of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Results: Almost half of the sample (43%) was not fully "back on track" with their previous educational and vocational plans. Post-traumatic stress and emotional symptoms were associated with poorer school/work functioning (beta = -0.95, p = 0.009 and beta = -1.27, p = 0.001, respectively). Higher PedsQL school/work functioning was associated with a slightly greater likelihood of being "back on track" with education and work plans (OR 1.03, p = 0.001). AYAs who felt well supported regarding changes to education and work plans more frequently reported receiving support from formal sources and from more sources than those who felt less supported. Unmet need of accessing an educational or vocational advisor was significantly more frequent in adult than in pediatric settings (42% vs. 17%; p = 0.024). Parents were the most common source of educational or vocational support for AYAs rather than professionals. Conclusion: This study highlights the connection between school and work participation and mental health in a national sample of AYAs with cancer. It suggests distinct benefits of educational and vocational support.
  • Vanhala, Anna (2007)
    This licentiate thesis studies Finnish police chiefs' career biographies. Through career biographies it explores various issues concerning work and the police organization, such as professional identity, turning points of career, leadership, supervisor position, and hierarchy in the organization. How does one tell one's career, and how do different experiences construct and shape the professional identity of the Finnish police chiefs? The study approaches the police organization through decades' experience: police chiefs who were interviewed had all worked within the organization for many years, even decades. Thus it enables reader to get into a world that might not be reached otherwise. Police chiefs' career biographies offer an interesting viewpoint to the Finnish police organization. The study reveals, among other things, competitive nature and contradictory expectations concerning one's career moves. It also contributes to studies among civil servants' careers, well-being and motivation at work. In addition, it strengthens understanding about biographies as a relevant way of reflecting one's career. The study implies that police chiefs' work and professional identity are strongly shaped by ambivalent publicity - hierarchy and competition within the police organization, and professional narrative that praises vertical mobility and career moves. The study leans on the theories of narrative identity. The empirical data included 15 biographical interviews, and the analysis of the data was conducted using the expectancy analysis. Analysis is presented in two separate chapters and was motivated by two research questions. Firstly, which issues and experiences strongest construct and shape the professional identity of the Finnish police chiefs? Themes that are studied here are: career choice, supervisor position, different types of publicity, and social relations among those involved with the profession. Secondly, how do the police chiefs tell their careers: how are their work biographies told and emplotted? This section concentrates on the biographers' attitudes towards their (work) history. Four types of career biographies are presented: a battle-oriented romance, a progressive development narrative, a hope-lost career tragedy, and a more lightly oriented comedy narrative. Police chiefs work biographies can be seen as bureaucratic interpretive models. Turning points in the career concerned moves in a structural path of the organization, and different positions were hierarchically connected to each other. Beginnings of the police chiefs' careers were often told with enthusiasm and satisfaction. Career moves took place regularly, one after another. These experiences form a striking point of comparison to the current situation, which instead could be characterized as a time of very few career moves.
  • Ollinaho, Ossi; Arponen, V. P. J. (2020)
    Drawing on Alfred Schütz’s thought, as well as on a number of modern pragmatists and practice theorists, we theorize incomegetting—referring to practices of getting income, typically salaried work—as the paramount structurer of everyday life and, therefore, also the chief mediator of the human–nature metabolism. Even though the pragmatics of everyday life as an aggregate underlie the bulk of environmental impacts, these insidious impacts impose little immediate influence on everyday life, in particular in the urban Global North. In other words, the pragmatic dimension of everyday activities—principally, work—that takes place within a vastly complex and globally interlinked productive world system, has most often no immediate connection to the “natural” environment. While parts of the populations are directly dependent in terms of livelihoods on the “natural” environment, these populations are typically pushed to the margins of the global productive system. The understanding formulated in this essay suggests that in environmental social sciences there is a reason to shift the epicenter of the analysis from consumption to everyday life, to the varied practices of incomegetting. Against the backdrop of this paper, universal basic income schemes ought to have radical impacts on the way we relate also to the “natural” environment and such schemes necessitate understanding the essence of money in our contemporary realities.
  • Turusenaho, Päivi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Changing work as well as changing expertise requirements are an often discussed topic in our current public discussion. In this study, the main interests were the conceptions of expertise and experiences of changing work and expertise requirements. The participants of the study (n=12) were a group of professionals working in a company providing language services. The aim of the study was to analyse how the participants understand expertise and what kind of changes and new expertise requirements they have experienced at their work. The main analytical concept of the study is expertise, and the theoretical framework consists of research literature on expertise on individual and collective dimensions which were compared to the conceptions of expertise among the sample group. The changes the research subjects have experienced at work were thematically analyzed by mirroring their views against some viewpoints on changing work and the historical work types. The study is based on a qualitative research strategy and the material was analysed by applying phenomenographic content analysis. The material was collected through one-to-one interviews. The work related expertise as described by the participants is presented through examples, whereas the phenomenographic analysis focuses on the participants' conceptions of expertise and on experiences of changes of work. To conclude, the results of the study were collected to categories of description. The results clearly showed that the contextual dimension of expertise as experience in the professional field was considered as one of the most important element of expertise. In addition to knowledge, skills, self-awareness and education, expertise was also related to learning new things as a prerequisite for expertise development. Also, knowing the customer was seen as expertise. In addition, respect from others was also seen as part of being an expert. In this material, expertise was portrayed more as an individual rather than a collective quality, even though the work was considered a team effort. The changes at work were related to increasing customer demands, changing technology and financial pressures. Despite these changes, the underlying nature of work was seen as unchanged and overall, the changes were not considered to lead to any completely new expertise requirements.
  • Niemi, Hertta (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Economics and Society
    Parliaments are political institutions, but they are also places where people work; the MPs and the people who are employed there work, albeit in rather different ways. In this research the focus is on those in a Parliament who work there as employees and managers, and thereby, in some senses, run the organisation. Accordingly, this involves seeing the Parliament as a working environment, for MPs and employees, for men and women. The institution of Parliament is thus here examined by looking at it from a different and new angle. Instead of the usual focus on politicians the focus is on the administration of this institution. The aim is, amongst other things, to increase knowledge and offer different perspectives on democracy and democratic institutions. Unpacking the nearly mythical institution into smaller, more digestible, graspable realities should at the very least help to remind the wider society that although nations, to a certain extent, do need national institutions they should not become mystified or seen as larger than life. Institutions should work on behalf of people and thus be accountable to these same people. The main contribution of this work is to explore and problematise how managing and working is done inside an institution that both largely fulfils the characteristics of a bureaucracy and yet also has added special features that seem to be rather far removed from clear bureaucratic structures. This research offers a new kind of information on working life inside this elite institution. The joys and the struggles of working and managing in this particular public sector organisation are illustrated here and offer a view, a glimpse, into the experiences of managing and working in this House.
  • Shin, Young Kyu; Ylä-Anttila, Matti Tuomas (2018)
    The literature on new social risk (NSR) groups, such as single parents and temporary workers, has argued that they are less likely to join trade unions than other employees. It has been suggested that this is due to the unions’ incapacity or unwillingness to promote policies that mediate NSRs. We argue that there are differences in unionization between different NSR groups, and that country-level institutional structures, operationalized here as industrial relations (IR) regimes, have effects on how likely NSR groups are to unionize. Our multilevel logistic models using European Social Survey (ESS) data produce three main results: (1) family policy-related NSR groups (single parents, female employees with children and female caregivers) are more – not less – unionized than the average worker; (2) precarious workers (low-skilled service employees, temporary employees and part-timers) are, indeed, less unionized than average but (3) this result concerns mostly the liberal and transitional IR regimes.
  • Ihantila, Kimmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This thesis examine young college student's consumption resources and consumption. I study how consumption resources are related to college student's consumption. The research has been carried out qualitative, phenomenography research method, where object of examination are student's views of consumption, use of time, student loan use and themes between essential and luxurious consumption. I used interviews as a method of collecting data, which suits for a phenomenography research. The empirical material consist of 13 student's interviews. I analysed material by using content analysis and typecasting. Available resources, such as income, are important for consumers. Students who took part research have low income level compared to the rest population. Financial aid to students consist of student grant, housing benefit and student loan. Majority of interviewees drew student loan in addition to student grant. Nearly all interviewees received financial support from their parents. Housing cost took the majority of interviewees money. The students lived mainly in apartment building. Time is addition to money other household's central resources, because it analyse household daily action. When examine meaning of time in young college students' consumption appear that many students have four sector in regard to the use of time. This sectors are work, study, housework and free time. As a result of study student's temporal resources are scanty, because working is secondary. Due to small incomes and temporal resources young college student's consumption is emphasized to essential consumption as food, housing costs and bills. Young's weak economic situation cause that young use consumption credit or loan to essential consumption or luxurious consumption. This may lead to get into debt if the use of money not control. Students spend money on luxurious consumption, as bars, restaurants and student parties. They also spend their money on hobbies, different events and journeys too. Students draw student loan in order to achieve better standard of living.
  • McKie, Linda; Hearn, Jeff; Bowlby, Sophie; Smith, Andrew; Hogg, Gill (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Working Papers
    This working paper develops an approach to the analysis of care as it is evident in the policies and practices of employing organisations. We identify how notions of care are incorporated in myriad and multi-faceted ways that may support, survey and control workers, as well as having implications for employers, managers, employees and workers. Aspects of care can be found in a range of statutory duties, policies and related activities, including: health and safety, equality and diversity, parental leave, religious observance, bullying and harassment, personal development, voluntary redundancy, early retirement, employer pension schemes, grievance procedures, and dismissal. The conceptual framework of organisation carescapes is offered as an aid to the analysis of employee policies and services. These policies and services are transformed by shifts in supranational and national policies such as European Union (EU) economic strategies and national legislation on disability rights legislation, age discrimination and flexible working, and changes in labour market competitiveness. In conclusion, we consider how the framework of organisation carescapes is informing research design in our and our colleagues’ ongoing programme of research.
  • Kouvonen, Anne (2002)
    The purpose of the present research is to increase our knowledge about adolescent part-time work during the school year, and to examine the association between work and deviant behaviour among Finnish lower-level secondary school students. Three data (Finnish Self-Report Delinquency Studies 1998 and 2001, and School Health Promotion Survey 2000) were analysed in four separate articles. In addition, the study includes the summary article. In two of the original papers the relationship between adolescent part-time work and delinquency was studied, one article explored the association between work and heavy drinking while the remaining one examined the relationship between work and drug use. There is a sound basis for a generalisation of the results for 14 to 16 year-olds. The study shows that there is a significant association between intensive (more than 10 hrs per week) adolescent part-time work and an increased likelihood of delinquency, heavy drinking and drug use. Intensive work and 'adult-like' jobs do not keep adolescents 'off the streets' or 'out of trouble'. Part-time work cannot therefore be used as a strategy for preventing deviant behaviour. However, intensive work was not among the factors most strongly associated with an increased likelihood of deviant behaviour. Common criminological variables, such as parental control and peer-related variables, as well as other relevant variables, such as gender and disposable allowances, were more strongly associated with various types of delinquency. Similarly, low parental control was more strongly associated with an increased likelihood of heavy drinking and the use of drugs. Even so, after controlling several relevant variables, there still remained a significant association between intensive work and an increased likelihood of all deviant behaviours examined. In contrast, moderate work was mostly not associated with deviant behaviour. This research does not claim that adolescent work causes delinquency or substance use, or that work is always bad for adolescents. The study indicates that under certain conditions, working during the school year may be potentially harmful. Work as such is neither good nor bad. It is the characteristics of the job that is essential, among which the number of hours worked, is the most important.
  • Tapper, Janne (2018)
    My article, "Performance-in-Business: Armi Ratia's Marimekko", examines what happens to artistic performance in the concept of arts-in-business. In theatre and artistic performance, artistic thinking has traditionally been considered primary over economic thinking, but in arts-in-business the goal has been economic. The concept of arts-in-business, created in the 2000s, involves the strategic use of artistic elements in business in order to develop the creativity, problem-solving abilities, and innovativeness of employees as well as the brand of the business company. I will analyze the use of theatre as part of two historical forms of arts-in-business, the Bauhaus movement in Germany from 1919 to 1933, and the 2000s concept of arts-in-business. Regarding the latter, I will draw meanings from Lotte Darso's (2004), Giovanni Schiuma's (2011), and Jon McKenzie's (2001) research on performance in business. After initiating a dialogue between these two approaches, I will provide a new theory for arts-in-business and apply it to Marimekko's business practice. McKenzie (2001), as well as other studies of arts-in-business in the 2000s, does not emphasize the role of the manager-as-an-artist. In this article, I claim that only if the manager initiates artistic practice and the arts are interrelated to the product, can the arts penetrate the whole enterprise because of the role of managers in making constitutive decisions for the business. I will argue that some managers are able to do this. Ratia's Marimekko is my exemplary case. As the key concept of my new theory of performance-in-business I employ performance scholar Josette Feral's (2002) cognitively-oriented theory of theatricality based on the concept of a cleft and its variants in other theories. In the last section of this article, I will examine the Finnish fashion design company, Marimekko, under the management of Armi Ratia, as a business that employs the theatricality of clefts.
  • Valles Moreno, Iliana (2005)
    The following analysis focuses in discourses about ‘working life" and ‘the political" in eight popular ‘lifestyle" magazines, symmetrically targeted to male and female readerships, including one men"s gay title. An important ingredient of this study, however, insists on exceeding the traditional gender-based grasp of the magazines present in academic discussions. Thus an attempt to reconcile the magazines in their common thematic eclecticism and commercial culture is made; as the latter does not automatically deny them of subjectivity and cultural significance. Suceeding some methodological considerations and information on the study of magazines, the first chapter, ‘working life", will gravitate around the aesthetical (hierarchical and horizontal) descriptions of certain occupational categories; the working ethics and techniques explicitly or implicitly promoted in the contents and, three ‘imaginary" discursive constructions linked to the everydayness of working life: ‘the city", ‘the office" and ‘the evil boss". The second chapter will address constructions of ‘the political": the discussion of will firstly concentrate in describing the gendered narratives employed to introduce and/or approach ‘politics"; but will also tackle it as a strategy to manage and problematize certain issues, and mobilize efforts. Narrative ‘identities" in relationship (or conflict?) to the political (i.e., ‘us", ‘them" and the ‘other"), plus five discussion arenas assembled from the texts, will also be open.
  • Ala-Poikela, Päivi (Helsingfors universitet, 1999)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin teemahaastatteluiden avulla Suomen Matemaatikko- ja Fyysikkoliiton (SMFL) jäsenten käsityksiä työstä ja heidän työssä tarvitsemista kvalifikaatioista. Kvalifikaatiolla tai pätevyydellä tarkoitettiin työssä tarvittavia tietoja ja taitoja. Työllä tarkoitettiin asiantuntijoiden työtehtäviä, jonka lisäksi työtä tarkasteltiin toimintajärjestelmän käsitteen avulla huomioiden työvälineet, työn kohde sekä työhön liittyvä yhteistyö ja työnjako. Lisäksi kartoitettiin käsityksiä työssä tapahtuvista muutoksista sekä niistä seuraavista kvalifikaatiovaatimuksista. Tutkimuksen näkökulmana oli kontekstuaalisuus, mikä ilmeni tutkimuksessa mm. siten, että kvalifikaatioita ja kvalifikaatiovaatimuksia tarkasteltiin suhteessa laajempaan yhteyteen. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin vastaamaan seuraaviin tutkimusongelmiin: 1. Mikä on jäsenten käsitys nykyisestä työstään? 1.1. Mitkä ovat jäsenten päätehtävät työssään? 1.2. Millaisia kvalifikaatioita työtehtävissä tarvitaan? 2. Millainen käsitys jäsenillä on työn muutoksesta? 2.1. Millaisia muutoksia työssä tapahtuu tulevaisuudessa? 2.2. Miten muutokset heijastuvat jäsenten kvalifikaatiovaatimuksiin? Tutkimuksessa haastateltiin 12 SMFL:n jäsentä. Tutkimusmenetelmänä oli sisällönerittely. Haastateltujen käsitykset työtehtävistään jaoteltiin kuuteen ryhmään. Työtehtävissä korostuivat mm. ennakointi, tutkimus- ja kehitystyö, atk-suunnittelu sekä esimies- ja koulutustehtävät. Haastateltujen työssä tarvitsemat kvalifikaatiot liittyivät tekniikkaan ja työvälineisiin sekä asiakkaiden ja työtovereiden kanssa toimimiseen. Lisäksi he tarvitsivat työssään ongelmanratkaisutaitoja, loogista ajattelukykyä ja tietojen soveltamistaitoa. Jäsenten käsityksissä työstä ja kvalifikaatioista heijastui asiantuntijuuden arvostaminen sekä halu toimia haastavissa ja vaihtelevissa tehtävissä. Työssä tapahtuvia muutoksia on paljon, joista selkeimmät liittyivät tekniseen muutokseen. Kaikki muutokset eivät kuitenkaan vaikuta työhön tai siinä tarvittaviin tietoihin ja taitoihin. Kvalifikaatiovaatimuksiin liittyen korostettiin erityisesti osaamisten monipuolistamista ja laajentamista ja toisaalta tietojen erikoistamista. Tiedot ja taidot vanhenevat nopeasti, minkä vuoksi jatkuva ja elinikäinen opiskelu on tärkeää.
  • Tallberg, Teemu; Hearn, Jeff; Niemistö, Charlotta; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; McKie, Linda (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    Working Paper - 558
    This working paper reports the ongoing research conducted in the research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, under the auspices of Academy of Finland research programme, The Future of Work and Well-being. The research project examines the contradictory pressures for policies and practices towards both the inhibition and the enhancement of work-related well-being that are likely in growth industries. The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies in four selected growth industries. These – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of EU and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in standard and non-standard employment. In this paper we aim to review the survey that constitutes the second main phase of this research.
  • Niemistö, Charlotta; Hearn, Jeff; Tallberg, Teemu; Niemi, Hertta; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; McKie, Linda (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    This working paper reports the ongoing research conducted in the research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, under the auspices of Academy of Finland research programme, The Future of Work and Well-being. The research project examines the contradictory pressures for policies and practices towards both the inhibition and the enhancement of work-related well-being that are likely in growth industries. The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies and practices in four selected growth industries. These – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of EU and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in standard and non-standard employment. Following an earlier survey of 127 employing organisations on questions of growth and well-being, in this working paper we present the initial results of the qualitative phase of the project. This phase comprised ‘portraits of practice’ in nine case companies, selected on the basis of some of the quantitative analysis of the survey, with interviews, ‘mini-ethnographies’, and other data and documents received from the organisations. The working paper concludes with discussion of methodological issues across the quantitative and qualitative phases of the project.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Tallberg, Teemu; McKie, Linda; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Niemistö, Charlotta (Hanken School of Economics, 2009)
    Working Papers
    This Working Paper reports the background to the first stage of the ongoing research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, conducted under the auspices of the Academy of Finland research programme The Future of Work and Well-being (2008-2011). This collaborative project provides national and transnational data, analysis and outputs. The study is being conducted in the Department of Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Finland, in collaboration with Glasgow Caledonian University, University of East London, Heriot-Watt University and Reading University, UK. The project examines policies and practices towards the enhancement of work-related well-being in growth industries, and contradictory pressures and tensions posed in this situation. The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies in four selected growth industries. These sectors – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of European Union and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in employment. In this working paper we outline the background to the research study, the initial research plan, and how the survey of employers has been constructed. The working paper concludes with a brief discussion of general ongoing research issues arising in the project.