Browsing by Subject "yhdyssanat"

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  • Virkkunen, Päivi (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Goals: The aim of this study was to examine the speech production of Finnish compound words. Finnish prosody and the effect of contrastive focus has been studied widely, but there is no research about the prosody of compound production. This study compared the differences in prosodic features of compound words and phrases and examined the effect of sentence stress to the production of compound words. Methods and materials: This quantitative research consisted of a speech production test and statistical analysis. In the speech production test, sentences with the compound words and phrases made of the same words (e.g. kissankello 'harebell' and kissan kello 'cat's bell') were repeated in three focus conditions. These were broad focus, narrow focus on the first word and narrow focus on the second word. 20 subjects (14 female, 6 male) read 1200 sentences in total, which were segmented and annotated. Fundamental frequency, intensity and syllable lengths were measured and compared between compound words and phrases. The relationships between the word types and acoustic features were studied using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results and conclusions: This research revealed new information about the production of compound words in different focus conditions. Results showed that in the broad focus condition compound words and phrases were produced differently from each other. Word type had a statistically significant effect (p < 0,001) on the acoustical measurements: speakers treated compound words as one word with one primary stress in the first syllable while phrases were treated as two words with individual primary stresses. Contrastive focus strongly affected to the acoustic parameters, and those changes masked the word type differences that were found in the broad focus condition. Context has a significant effect on how a listener interprets the message, but there are also acoustical ways to distinguish compound words from phrases in speech. These findings give a strong foundation to future research, however there are limitations. It is important to increase the amount of male speakers in this study and the research could be expanded to different dialects of Finnish and the speech of non-native speakers. The results can also be used in the development of speech synthesis, e.g. text-to-speech synthesis.
  • Purma, Jukka (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    The thesis aims to link the biolinguistic research program and the results of studies in comceptual combination from cognitive psychology. The thesis derives a theory of syntactic structure of noun and adjectival compounds from the Empty Lexicon Hypothesis. Two compound-forming operations are described: root-compounding and word-compounding. The aptness of theory is tested with finnish and greek compounds. From the syntactic theory semantic requirements for conceptual system are derived, especially requirements for handling morphosyntactic features. These requirements are compared to three formidable theories of conceptual combination: relation theory CARIN, Dual-Process theory and C3-theory. The claims of explanatory power of relational distributions of modifier in CARIN-theory are discarded, as the method for sampling and building relational distributions is not reliable and the algorithmic instantiation of theory does not compute what it claims to compute. From relational theory there still remains results supporting existence of 'easy' relations for certain concepts. Dual-Process theory is found to provide results that cannot in theory be affected by linguistic system, but the basic idea of property compounds is kept. C3-theory is found to be not computationally realistic, but the basic results of diagnosticity and local properties (domains) of conceptual system are solid. The three conceptual combination models are rethought as a problem of finding the shortest route between the two concepts. The new basis for modeling is suggested to be bare conceptual landscape with morphosyntactiic or semantic features working as guidance and structural features of landscape basically unknown, but such as they react to features from linguistic system. Minimalistic principles to conceptual modeling are suggested.
  • Pulkkinen, Liisa (1982)
  • Koivusaari, Anneli (2004)